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tiple which puts them in motion, I have already more particularly explained in treating of nervous Diseases.

If from fuch violent impreffions the most fatal changes are produced; it must then be allowed that the Regimen or government of the paffions is highly effential to health, and therefore properly becomes an object of medical attention.

The human mind is principally actuated by two different paffions; the one elevates, winds up the fpring of the nerves, and as it were lifts it above itfelf; fuch are the effects of Hope and immoderate Joy. The other, as Fear and Sorrow, fink it below its natural ftandard.

Most of the fubordinate Paffions appear to be compounded of those: Thus the paffion of Love is made up by a conflict of the whole, as Hope and Fear, Grief or Joy, alternately prevail; and Terror is only a species of fudden Fear impreffed with the extremeft violence.

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Those

Those malignant feelings, or Demons of the Mind, for they deferve not the name of Paffions, Envy, Hatred, and Revenge require no attention. They ought to carry with them their own punishment, and Scorpion-like, fting themselves to death.

We shall here take a contrafted view of the feveral diffimilar Paffions, in order to fhew their powerful influence on the bodily fyftem.

Hope, or expectation of approaching good, like a fovereign balm, diffuses gladnefs round the heart, and by acting gratefully on the Nerves increases their power on all the vital parts: It promotes a free circulation of blood, as well as the several secretions depending upon it; affifts appetite and digestion, gives strength and vigor to the limbs, renders the countenance chearful, and contributes univerfally to the prefervation of health.

Fear, or the dread of future ills, on the contrary, deadens the vital feeling of the

Nerves,

Nerves, retards the blood's motion and diminishes perspiration; it impairs appetite, depreffes the fpirits, and particularly disposes the body to receive infectious diseases.

Joy arifes from the idea of present happiness, or of having avoided fome impending evil. This paffion though nearly allied to hope, and when moderate, like it, contributes to health, has yet been found, when fudden and exceffive, to introduce a kind of torpor or palfy of the nerves; to fufpend the heart's motion, and deftroy the patient by a fainting or mortal fyncope. Livius the hiftorian informs us, when Hannibal overcame the Romans at the battle of Canna, where fifty thousand men were flain; that two women inftantly expired with excess of joy, on seeing their fons unexpectedly return, whom they had been inform'd were among the dead.

Sophocles being pronounced victor among the tragic, Grecian poets, was himself over

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come by a tumult of joy, and forfeited his life to glory. Such also was the fate of the Spartan Father who died embracing his fon when crowned with conquests at the olympic Games.

Sorrow implies fome prefent calamity op preffive to the Mind: It is attended with univerfal languor, lofs of appetite and fleep; giddiness of the head, effufion of tears, with faintings, and by weakening the fpring of the Nerves, it fufpends their natural fecretions. The pulfe lofes its ufual ftrength, and refpiration becomes fo difficult, that the patient frequently fighs to relieve himself of a load at the breast. Thus like a Vulture it inceffantly preys upon the heart, and if not relieved by the effect of time, wears out the body and brings it to decay.

Terror is a species of extreme and sudden fear, from the apprehenfion of inftant danger. It acts upon the nervous system with the velocity of electric fire, and so increases

their influence on the body, as fometimes to give it a degree of ftrength and agility almoft incredible; but when this momentary exertion is over, univerfal languor and faintnefs fucceed.

In the time of furprize, the vessels are ftrongly contracted, and their blood impelled with fuch violence, that recent wounds have been forced open and bled a-fresh, an inftance of which I have feen. I also knew a lady much irritated and afterwards fuddenly ftruck with Terror, from a piftol rafhly prefented to her breast, in whom the blood inftantly gushed from her nofe in great abundance.

So vaft is the concuffion given to the body, in fuch cafes, as to alter the dispo fition of its ftrainers, to destroy the balfamic quality of milk in nurses; and in others to turn the Hair grey; an instance of which happened not long ago at Hatfield Peveril in Effex, in a boy who narrowly ef caped being drowned.

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