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that year, which were, in most respects, identical with those of January 1, 1937.

For the censuses from 1860 to 1900, figures on country of birth are shown for the total foreign-born population. From 1910 to 1950, however, this item is presented for the foreign-born white only. Although the 1950 statistics on country of birth are presented only for the foreign-born white population in this report, subsequent reports will contain information on the country of birth of the non white population.

Quality of Data

For the vast majority of foreign-born white persons, the information on country of birth is consistent. On the basis of data from the Post-Enumeration Survey, it is estimated that the same country of birth was obtained in the census and the survey for approximately 90 percent of the foreign-born persons properly included in the 1950 Census.

Evidence on the quality of the data can also be derived from the examination of census-to-census variations in the classification by country of birth. An examination of these figures seems to indicate that a completely accurate count for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, whose boundaries were changed as the result of World War I, has never been achieved. In coding country of birth in the 1950 Census, persons for whom "Austria-Hungary" was reported were allocated on the basis of surname to the various countries created out of the territory of the old empire after World War I. Even with this procedure, however, there appears to be some indication that Austria and Hungary are overreported at the expense of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. In 1950 the situation was further complicated by the fact that, although there were extensive de facto boundary changes as a result of World War II, only a small number of these changes were officially recognized by the United States. In general, many foreign-born persons are likely to report in terms of the boundaries at the time of their birth or emigration or in accordance with national preferences rather than in accordance with 1950 boundaries.

In the 1950 Census an extreme case of the difficulty of classification by country of origin is represented by the figures for Northern Ireland. In previous censuses the schedule itself carried a statement over the country-of-birth column instructing the enumerator to distinguish between Ireland (Eire) and Northern Ireland. This statement was not carried on the 1950 schedule, however; and the name of the Irish Free State had been changed officially to Ireland. The net result of this situation was that, for the decade 1940 to 1950, the number of persons classified as having been born in Northern Ireland decreased by about 85 percent. Apparently many persons born in Northern Ireland were reported as having been born in Ireland. This reduction occurred in spite of the fact that explicit and detailed instructions for this classification sppeared in the Enumerators' Reference Manual. In summary, it appears that where there are elements of ambiguity in the definition of the country, classification may well be fairly inaccurate. However, in the case of countries which have maintained the same boundaries over a long period of time and the differentiations are clear cut, a much more adequate classification is made.



In the 1950 Census, data on marital status are based on the replies to the question, "Is he now married, widowed, divorced, separated, or [has he] never [been] married?" The classification refers to the status at the time of enumeration. Persons classified as married comprise, therefore, both those who have been married only once and those who remarried after having been widowed or divorced. Persons reported as separated or in common-law marriages are classified as married. Those reported as never married or with annulled marriages are classified as single. Since

married, or widowed, the census returns doubtless understate somewhat the actual number of divorced persons who have not remarried.

In some tables, the category "Married" is further divided into "married, spouse present," and "married, spouse absent." In the office processing, this classification was made for a 20-percent sample of the data collected. A person is classified as "married, spouse present" if the person's husband or wife was reported as a member of the household or quasi household in which the person was enumerated, even though he or she may have been temporarily absent on business or vacation, visiting, in a hospital, etc., at the time of the enumeration. The number of married men with wife present who are classified as heads of households is the same as the number of married couples "with own household," except for differences arising from processing errors. It is also the same as the number of wives of heads of households shown in the tables on relationship to head of household, except for differences arising from sampling variation or from processing errors. The number shown as not head of household is the same as the number of married couples without own household, again except for differences arising from processing errors.

Persons reported as separated are shown as one subdivision of the group designated as "married, spouse absent." Separated

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persons include those with legal separations, those living apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other married persons permanently or temporarily estranged from their spouse because of marital discord. The group "other married, spouse absent" includes married persons employed and living for several months at a considerable distance from their homes, those whose spouse was absent in the armed forces, in-migrants whose spouse remained in other areas, husbands or wives of inmates of institutions, and all other married persons (except those reported as separated) whose place of residence was not the same as that of their spouse. Differences between the number of married men and the number of married women are due partly to the absence of husbands or wives from the country at the time of enumeration. Examples are women whose husbands were in the armed forces overseas and immigrants whose husbands or wives were still abroad. Differences may also arise from spouses having their usual place of residence in different areas within the country, from variations in the completeness of enumeration of married men and women, and from response and processing errors.

The number of married men with wife present should obviously be the same as the number of married women with husband present, but the figure for the former is somewhat smaller than that for the latter. The difference may be attributed in part to small biases which arose when the enumerators failed to follow their sampling instructions exactly and in part to processing errors.


Earlier census data.-Inquiry regarding marital status was first made in the census of 1880, but the results were not tabulated; the earliest Federal census figures for marital status available and presented in this summary are therefore for 1890.

The category "Separated" was included in the question on mari

cluded the categories "Single," "Married," "Widowed," and "Divorced." This change may have made the number of persons reported as divorced somewhat smaller in 1950 than it would have been under the earlier procedure.

In 1950, as in previous censuses, marital status was not reported for a small number of persons. For such persons marital status was estimated in 1940 and 1950 on the basis of age and the presence of spouse or children. Because of the methods used in 1950, however, some persons who would have been classified as single under the 1940 procedure were classified as "married, spouse absent" or "widowed" in 1950.

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status distribution of the population 14 years old and over at those dates for this report, it has been necessary to assume that the small number of persons under 15 years of age classified as married, widowed, divorced, or with marital status not reported were 14 years old.

Current Population Survey.-Statistics on marital status for the United States as a whole are published annually from the Current Population Survey. In general, the results obtained from the Current Population Survey for March 1950 agree with those obtained from the 1950 Census with respect to the proportion of persons in each broad category of marital status. The most noteworthy difference occurred among widowed and divorced males (see table 0).



Statistics on the number of households, the number of inmates of institutions, and household relationship were obtained from information on relationship for all persons enumerated in the 1950 Census. The identification of families was made largely on the basis of the reports on name and relationship. Family data were coded and tabulated only for persons in the 20-percent sample, however.

Household. A household includes all the persons who occupy a house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a room that constitutes a dwelling unit. In general a group of rooms occupied as separate living quarters is a dwelling unit if it has separate cooking equipment or a separate entrance; a single room occupied as separate living quarters is a dwelling unit if it has separate cooking equipment or if it constitutes the only living quarters in the structure. A household includes the related family members and also the unrelated persons, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the dwelling unit. A person living alone in a dwelling unit, or a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling unit as partners, is also counted as a household. The count of households excludes groups of persons living as members of quasi households. (See definition of quasi household below.) The average population per household is obtained by dividing the population in households by the number of households. It excludes persons living in quasi households.

Head of household.-One person in each household is designated as the "head." The number of heads, therefore, is equal to the number of households. The head is usually the person regarded as the head by the members of the household. Married women are not classified as heads if their husbands are living with them at the time of the census.

Wife. The total number of females shown under the heading "wife" is ordinarily somewhat less than the total number of married women with husband present, since the category "Wife" in the relationship tables includes only wives of heads of households. As indicated in the section on "Martial status," the number of "wives" is directly comparable with data in the marital status tables on the number of married men with wife present who are beads of households. Either of these figures may be used to indicate the number of "husband-wife households."

Child. This category includes sons and daughters, stepchildren and adopted children of the head regardless of their age or marital status. It excludes all other children and also sons-in-law and daughters-in-law and, of course, any children of the head no longer Living in the household.

Grandchild. This category comprises all persons living in the bousehold who are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children of a child of the head.

Parent. This class comprises parents and parents-in-law of the Lead if living in the household.

Other relative. This group includes such relatives of the head as

parents, cousins, and great-grandchildren, if these are members of the household.

Lodger. All persons in households who are not related to the head, except resident employees and their families, are counted as lodgers. Among these persons are lodgers, roomers, and boarders, and their relatives residing in the same household. Also included here are the small number of partners, foster children, and wards,

Resident employee. This category consists of all employees of the head of the household who usually reside in the household with their employer, and their relatives residing in the same household. The main types of such employees are cooks, maids, nurses, and hired farm hands. In 1950, the small number of relatives of resident employees were included in the count of resident employees with whom they lived, whereas, in 1940, they were shown as lodgers.

Quasi household.-A quasi household is a group of persons living in quarters not classified as a dwelling unit, for example, in a house with at least five lodgers, or in a hotel, institution, labor camp, or military barracks.

Head of quasi household.-Heads of quasi households are usually managers or officers in institutions, hotels, lodginghouses, and similar establishments. If the landlady in a rooming house reported herself as the head but her husband was a member of the quasi household he was designated as head for consistency with the treatment of married heads and wives of heads of households. The number of heads of quasi households also represents the number of quasi households.

Family. A family, as defined in the 1950 Census, is a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and living together; all such persons are regarded as members of one family. A family may comprise persons in either a household or a quasi household. If the son of the head of the household and the son's wife are members of the household, they are treated as part of the head's family. A lodger and his wife who are not related to the head of the household, or a resident employee and his wife living in, are considered as a separate family, however. Thus, a household may contain more than one family. A household head living alone or with nonrelatives only is not regarded as a family. Some households therefore, do not contain a family.

The average population per family is obtained by dividing the population in families by the number of families. In this report the "population in families" includes, in addition to family members, about 171,000 unrelated individuals under 14 years old.

In tables 140 and 164, persons 14 years old and over are classified by family status, that is, in the categories head of family, wife or other relative of family head, unrelated individual, and inmate of institution. This classification differs from that in tables 107, 148, and 169, which pertains to relationship to household head.

Unrelated individual.-Unrelated individuals are those persons (other than inmates of institutions) who are not living with any relatives. In the office processing, this classification was made for a 20-percent sample of the data collected. Statistics on unrelated individuals in this report are limited to those 14 years old and over, An unrelated individual may be (a) a household head living alone or with nonrelatives only, (b) a lodger or resident employee with no relatives in the household, or (c) a member of a quasi household who has no relatives living with him. Thus, a widow who occupies her house alone or with one or more persons not related to her, a roomer not related to anyone else in the dwelling unit, a maid living as a member of her employer's household but with no relatives in the household, and a resident staff member in a hospital living apart from any relatives, are all examples of unrelated individuals.

Institutional population.-The institutional population includes those persons living as inmates in such places as homes for delinquent or dependent children, homes and schools for the mentally or physically handicapped, places providing specialized medical

their families are not included in the institutional population. The total count of inmates may be found in tables 47 and 69. The number of inmates 14 years old and over is given in certain of the employment status tables in Chapters B and C, and in table 90 on income in Chapter C.

Inmates of institutions are not counted as "unrelated individuals," largely because statistics on "unrelated individuals" are more useful to consumers of data on labor force, income, and housing if they exclude inmates.


Earlier census data.-Minor changes in the instructions for identifying dwelling units in 1950 as compared with 1940 may have affected to a slight extent the increase in households between the two dates. For example, in the 1940 Census, the occupants of a lodginghouse were regarded as constituting a quasi household if the place included 11 or more lodgers; in the 1950 Census the criterion was reduced to 5 or more lodgers. In general, however, the number of households and the number of occupied dwelling units in the 1950 Census may be regarded as comparable with the number of "families," "private households," and occupied dwelling units as shown in the census reports for 1930 and 1940.

In the 1950 Census, the number of households and the number of occupied dwelling units were identical by definition; small differences between these numbers appear in the published reports, however, because the data for the Population and the Housing reports were processed independently.

The term "family" as used in the 1950 Census is not comparable with that used by the Bureau of the Census before 1947. The new definition excludes the large number of household heads with no relatives in the household who would have been classified as families under the old definition. On the other hand, the new definition includes the small number of groups of mutually related lodgers or employees in households and of mutually related persons in quasi households who would not have been classified as families under the old definition. The net effect has been to decrease the number of families.

In certain Population and Housing reports of the 1940 Census, the average population per household included the relatively small number of persons living in quasi households. Such persons were excluded in calculating the average population per household shown in the present volume.

The coverage of the institutional population in the 1950 Census is somewhat more inclusive than that in the 1940 Census. For example, patients in tuberculosis sanitaria were counted as inmates in 1950 but not in 1940. Furthermore, the identification of certain other types of institutions, such as nursing, convalescent, and rest homes, was probably improved in 1950 by the use of lists of such places compiled from welfare agencies.

Quality of Data

The identification of separate dwelling units or households presents no problems in most instances; but, when living arrangements are unusual, two enumerators may classify the situation differently. For example, estimates of the number of households and the number of families for the United States as a whole from the Current Population Survey for March 1950 were higher than the corresponding figures from the census. For households, the census count was 42,857,335 (table 47) and the survey estimate, 43,468,000. For families, the census figure, based on a 20-percent sample, was 38,310,980 (table 47), whereas the survey estimate was 39,193,000. In both cases, the differences are too great to be attributed to sampling variability alone. Such factors as the methods used in weighting the survey estimates and the differences between the training and experience of the interviewers used in the survey and in the census may also account for the lack of agreement in the two sets of data.

These factors also affect the comparability of the figures on the

and from the Current Population Survey. The census figure for those 14 years old and over was 11,051,050 (table 47), and the survey estimate for March 1950 was 8,834,000. In this case, however, the difference is in part a reflection of the fact that, unlike the census, the survey excluded from its coverage all members of the armed forces except those living off post or with their families on post. Moreover, college students were generally enumerated at their own homes in the Current Population Survey and classified as family members but were enumerated at their college residence in the 1950 Census, usually as unrelated individuals. The differences in coverage of the armed forces and college students may account for about 1,250,000 of the total difference.

Data available currently from a sample of persons included in the 1950 Census of Population and also included in the Current Population Survey for April 1950 indicate that the survey enumerators classified as heads of households a considerable number of persons whom census enumerators classified as other types of household members, generally as lodgers. This fact suggests that, when complex living arrangements were encountered, survey enumerators more often than census enumerators identified as a separate household a person or group of mutually related persons occupying only a part of the living quarters in a house or apartment.

The Post-Enumeration Survey also provides some measures of the accuracy of the 1950 Census data on number of households and on relationship to household head. Data on marital status, however, were not checked. The Post-Enumeration Survey results indicate a net undercount of about a million households, or 2.5 percent, in the 1950 Census. In many cases this undercount reflects errors of classifying an enumerated group of persons as a single household instead of as two or more. Besides the difficulty in identifying the proper household relationship where living arrangements are complex, other factors affecting the count of households include failure to enumerate buildings where people live and errors in the classification of dwelling units as occupied by residents, occupied by nonresidents, or vacant.

Post-Enumeration Survey data on relationship to household head indicate that census enumerators had a tendency to miss household members in the categories "Lodger" and "Resident employee" relatively more often than those members who are household heads or relatives of heads.



The data on school enrollment were derived from answers to the question, "Has he attended school at any time since February 1?" This question was asked of a 20-percent sample of persons under 30 years of age.

"Regular" schools.—In the instructions to the enumerators, enrollment was defined as enrollment in "regular" schools only. Such schools are public, private, or parochial schools, colleges, universities, or professional schools, either day or night—that is, those schools where enrollment may lead to an elementary or high school diploma, or to a college, university, or professional school degree. Enrollment may be full time or part time.

If a person was enrolled in such a school subsequent to February 1, 1950, he was classified as enrolled even if he had not actually attended school since that date. For example, he may not have attended because of illness.

If a person was receiving regular instruction at home from a tutor and if the instruction was considered comparable to that of a regular school or college, the person was counted as enrolled. Enrollment in a correspondence course was counted only if the course was given by a regular school, such as a university, and the person received credit thereby in the regular school system.

Kindergarten.-Children enrolled in kindergarten were reported separately in 1950 and were not counted as enrolled in school.

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In 1950, as in prior censuses, persons for whom there was no report as to school enrollment are not shown separately. In both 1940 and 1950, the editing rules were determined largely on the basis of information on ages of compulsory attendance as compiled by the United States Office of Education. Additional information used included other items on the schedule and results of Current Population Surveys showing the enrollment rates for various age groups. In general, for persons not reporting on school enrollment, those 5 through 17 years of age were treated as enrolled, whereas those 18 through 29 years old were considered not enrolled. Although it was realized that a considerable number of children 5 years old and some 6 years old were not enrolled in school, the treatment of those with no report on school enrollment as enrolled for the entire group 5 to 17 years was made uniform in order to simplify the mechanical editing procedure.


Earlier census data.-The corresponding question in the Censuses of 1910, 1920, and 1930 applied to a somewhat longer period, the period since the preceding September 1. The census dates were April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920, and April 1 in 1930. Furthermore, in these censuses the question was not restricted as to the kind of school the person was attending.

In 1940, the question referred to the period from March 1 to the date of the enumeration, which began on April 1. There are indications that in some areas the schools closed early (i. e., before March 1) for such reasons as floods, lack of funds, or crop sowing. For such areas the enrollment rates, therefore, were relatively low. In order to insure more complete comparability among areas in 1950, it was considered advisable to increase the reference period to that between February 1 and the time of enumeration.

In 1950, for the first time in a decennial census, kindergarten

specific instructions were given about kindergarten, and, therefore, enrollment figures for children 5 and 6 years old undoubtedly included some children enrolled in kindergarten.

As mentioned in the section on "Usual place of residence," college students were enumerated in 1950 at their college residence whereas in previous years they were generally enumerated at their parental home. This change in procedure should not have affected the comparability of 1950 and 1940 national totals on school enrollment, but it might have affected the comparability of 1950 and 1940 figures on school enrollment at college age for some States and local areas.

Current Population Survey.-In each year starting with 1945, the Bureau of the Census has collected statistics on school enrollment for the United States as part of the Current Population Survey for October. The basic definitions used in these surveys are the same as those of the 1950 Census. The figures are not strictly comparable, however, because the survey is taken in October rather than in April and relates to enrollment in the fall term. Although the April 1950 Census figures and the October 1949 survey figures on enrollment both pertain to the same school year, 1949-1950, the April 1950 figures may be properly compared with those for October 1949 only if some allowance is made (a) for those persons who left school between October 1949 and February 1950, either by dropping out or by graduation; and (b) for those persons who entered school after October.

For younger children, particularly those 5 and 6 years old, a comparison of October and April enrollments is misleading. Many school systems operate under the policy of permitting children to start the first grade only if they have attained a certain age by the beginning of the school year. This requirement maximizes enrollments for these ages in the fall, whereas by April many children have attained the given age but are not yet enrolled. Data from school systems.-Data on school enrollment are also collected and published by State and local governmental agencies and by the United States Office of Education. These data are obtained from reports of school systems and institutions of higher learning and are only roughly comparable with the enrollment data collected by the Bureau of the Census by household interviews. For comparable grades, the census enrollment figures tend to be lower, largely because they refer to shorter time periods; moreover, they count a person only once, although he may have attended more than one school during the reporting period.




The data on year of school in which enrolled were derived from the answers to the first of the following two questions, and those on years of school completed from the combination of answers to both questions: (a) "What is the highest grade of school that he has attended?" and (b) "Did he finish this grade?" These questions were asked of a 20-percent sample of persons of all ages. In Chapter B, data on years of school completed are shown only for the population 25 years old and over, practically all of whom had completed their formal education. In Chapter C, data on year in which enrolled are shown for persons 5 to 29 years old and data on years of school completed are shown for persons 5 years old and over.

The questions on educational attainment applied only to progress in "regular" schools, as defined in the section on "School enrollment."

Highest grade of school attended.-The question called for the highest grade attended, regardless of "skipped" or "repeated" grades, rather than the number of full school years which the person had spent in school.

In some areas in the United States, the school system has, or

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