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sheared, brushed, and pressed', and rolled up for market'. But mixed cloth is generally coloured in the wool'.


Single Proportion. It sometimes happens that the given terms in proportion, are of several names, or compound terms; as, pounds, shillings, pence, &c.; in which case, the 1st and 2d terms must both be reduced to their lowest, or some convenient and like name, and the 3d term, to its lowest or some convenient name.

Then the 4th term or answer, will appear in the same name and of the same kind with the 3d term. This, however, can be brought back, by reduction, to any required compound terms.

riote. Remember that to bring a high name to a low one, you must multiply the higher name by as many of the lower es equals one of the higher. And to bring a low name lo a high one, divide the low nawe by as many of itself as equals one of the high nume. These two directly opposite princi. ples, ccntioul every operation in the reduction of compound terms. If 2cwt. Iqr. of sugar bring £6 - 12, what will 12cwt. bring? 4







48qrs. 2 As 9 : 48 : 132 : 704. for, 133 X 48=6336;-9= 704s. :-20=£35 - 4.

Note. It master's not whether the 2d term be multiplied by the 311, or the 3d by the 20, only let one of them be multiplied by the cther, and ine product divided by the 1st; ihe quotient will be the answer.

Practical Exercises in Single Proportion., (1.) If 4 cords of wood cost 8 dollars, what will 16 cords cost?

1 2 3 As, 4:16 ::8: 32. For, 16X8=128-:-4=$32, Ans. As, 32 : 16 ::8:4. 16X8=128-:-32-4, proof.

Obs. 1. It may be observed, that of the four terms employcd in the proposition, two are referred to wood, and two to money. And that they are proportionate; that is, as wood as to wood, so is money to money; or, as wood is to money, so is wood to money.

OBs. 2. The principles upon which proportion is founded, inay

be thus illustrated. if four numbers are proportional, the product of the extremes, is equal to the product of the means. Therefore, a divişion, either of the product of the extremes, or of the product of the means, by the first extreme, will give the other extreme.


1st per.

Thus: as 4:8::16 : 32. And 32X4=198, the product of the extremes.

And 8X16=128, the product of the means.

Now the last product divided by the first extreme, (128--4 =32) gives the other extreme, and the first product divided by the first means, (128:3=16,) gives the other means: Hence the propriety of multiplying the 2d and 38 terms together, and dividing the product by the first term.

.--LESSON 20.
Potential Mood.Present Time.
Singular Number.

Plural Number.
I may or can love ap- We must love apples,

2d do You may or can love You can love apples,

apples, 3d do He may or can love They may love apples.


Imperfect Time. 1st per. I might love apples, We should love apples, 2d do You could love apples, You might love apples, 3d do She should love ap- They could love apples. ples.

Perfect Time. 1st per. I may have loved ap- We must have loved apples,

ples, 2d do You can have loved You may have loved apapples,

ples, 3d do It inust håve loved

ap- They can have loved apples.

ples. Pluperfect Time. 1st per. I might have loved ap- We might have loved apples.

ples, 2d do You could have loved You might have loved apapples,

ples, 3d do It must have loved ap- They must have loved apples.

ples, SPELLING.-LESSON 21. sod-er săd'dur

splin-ter splin'tūr sof-ten sof'tn

splut-ter splūt tūr soft-ly soft'lē

spon-dee spon'de soft-ness soft něs

spon-dyle spõn'dil sol-ace sollăs

spon-ger spun jur

sor-ry sörre

sol-emn sol'ěm

spon•gy spủn'jē sol-stice sõl'stis

spon-sor spon'sur some-thing súm'thing spot-less spot lěs some-time süm'tīme

spot-ly spotlē some-what súm'hwât

sprig-gy sprig'ge some-where súm'hware spring-le spring'gl son-ship sūn'ship

spring-y spring e song-ster sõng stur

sprin-kle springʻkl song-stress song'stres

spul-ter spăl'tur soph-ism sõf fizm

squib-bish skwib'bish soph-ist söf'fist

squib-ble skwib'bl sor-rel sõr'ril

squon-der skwon'dŭy sor-row sor'ro

squir-rel skwěr'ril

stag-ger stă g'gũr spang-le spăng'g!

stam-mer stă m'mūr span-iel spăn'yěl

stamp-er stămp úr spar-row spărro

stat-ick stăt'ik spat-ter spăt'tur

stat-ue stăt'tshū spe-cial spěsh’ăl

stat-ute stăt'tshūte speck-le spēk'kl

stead-fast stěd'fãst spec-tre spek'túr

stead-y stěd'ē spec-trum spektrùm

ster-il stěr'ril spick-nel spik'něl

stern-ly stěrn'lē spig-ot spigóút

stern-ness stěrn'nės spin-age spin'nidje

stick-le stik'kl spin-dle spin'd1

siick-y stik'e spin-ner spin'nur

stif-fen stif'fn spin-ster spin'stūr

stiff-ly stif'flē spit-tle spitti

stiff-ness stif'nės splash-y splăsh'e

still-ness stil'něs splen-dour splěn'dūr

still-y stille splen-ick splen'ik


Different countries. Mary. Ma', of all the countries you have mentioned', I think Asia tie most delightfal'; it is so warm', and produces so many good things'; though I am not much displeased with Spain'.

Jane. Now I like France' and Italy'; but above all, Switzerland'; she has such rich vallies', rugged mountains', and simple, honest people.

Ma. I can hardly help smiling', my daughters', to hear you express your admiration of countries which you have never seen'.

Jane, But', Ma', we have often read of them in our little story books', and you have explained to us the useful things which they produce

Ma. But then you did not read, probably,' of the violent storms,' the dreadful earth-quakes, and the burning volcanoes to which those countries are liable.' Nor have you been told of the vast avalanches, or masses of earth and snow, which sometimes fall from the mountains bordering on your beautiful Switzerland, and bury at once,' a whole smiling village, in one common grave.'

Jane. Oh, Ma!' that must be dreadful indeed! These are subjects to which my mind did not once revert while you were describing their delightful productions.

Ma. The terrific rivers of burning lava,' or glowing, liquid fire, which roll from the craters of Etna' and Vesuvius, spread over the plains,' and turn some of the loveliest portions of the country into barren deserts.' Whole cities, with their thousands of busy people, have been buried alive, deep below the molten tide thrown from the bowels of these noted mountains.

Mary. Oh! how terrible must such a calamity be'! I would not live there for the world!

Ma. None can describe the horror!. At the same time, the whole country is shaken with tremendous earthquakes', and the solid ground is rocked like a cradle'. Whole islands' and vast cities' are sunk in the depths of the sca'When this calamity has passed away', the scorching wind from the deserts of Africa', (the Sirocco,') rushes along the blooming fields', and drinks dry the crystal spring, the purling brook', and the juice of every bud and plant'.

Jane. Well, Ma', I will give up my partiality for those countries', and content myself with my own'.

ARITHMETIC.--LESSON 23. Practical Exercises in Single Proportion. 1. 81 cents will purchase 2 bushels of corn; what will $315, buy?

Ans. 777bụ 3p. 2. $40.96 purchased 72yds of broadcloth, what will gyds cost?

Ans. $5.12. 3. 50 cents will buy 7lbs of sugar, how many pounds will $6.38 buy?

Ans. 89lbs. 4. $9.76 will buy 12yds of cloth, how many yards will $150 buy?

Ans. 192yds.

5. £1 - S will buy 16 lbs of loaf sugar, what will 112lbs cost?

Ans. £9 - 16. 6. £9 - 16 will buy 112lbs loaf sugar, what will 28s buy?

Ans. 16lbs. 7. A, spends 7d a day for rum; what is that for 365 days or one year?

As 1 : 365 : : : 2555 Ans. £10 - 12 - 11. Obs. 1. In this question, the first term is one day; and as one will not divide, the operation is réesolved in simple multiplication; for, 365 X7=2555d--12 and 20= £10 · 12 · 11, Answer.

8. A spends £10 - 12 - 11, for rum, in 365 days; what is that for one day?

As 365 : 1 :: 10 12 11=2555 : 7 Ans. 7.

Obs. 2. Here the 2d tern is one, and the operation resolves itself into simple division; for 2555-365=7, the answer. Hence when the 1st term is one, the answer is obtained by inultiplying, and when the 2d term is one, the answer is obtained by division.

9. A's. yearly income is $300, what is that for one day? As 365 : 1 :: 300 : 81.

Answer 81 cents. 10. B sold his corn for 59cts a bushel, what does he get for 24 bushels? As 1 : 24 :: 59 : 14.16. Ans. $14.16

11. C bought cheese at 7 cts a pound, what did he give for 156lbs.

Ans. $11.70. GRAMMAR-LESSON 24.

Imperative Mood.-Present Time. 2d per. sing. No. love apples, or do you love apples, or love

you apples. 2 do plu. No. love apples, or love you apples, or do

you love apples.

Infinitive Mood.
Present time, To love apples,
Perfect ime, To have loved apples.

Present, loving apples,
Past, loved apples,
Compound, having loved apples.

stir-rup stūr'rup styp-tick stip'tik sun-rise sūn'rize
stock-dove stok'dŭy sub-tile sūb'til

sup-per sup'pūr stock-ing stöking subt-le sittl sup-ple sup'pl

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