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at the moment, every reason to believe, had the power of carrying into execution that there was an end to all the operations this measure within the territories under of the war; and not a shot has been fired his own government; but it required the in Europe from that time to this, upon any assent of Her Majesty in order that those occasion referable to the operations of who received this mark of honour from the that war. It was natural that the Go-noble Lord the Governor General of India vernment of this country should be de. should be enabled to wear this decorasirous of testifying their approbation of tion in this country; and Her Majesty the conduct of the army on that occasion; was pleased to express her approbation and it is true that the late Sovereign and of the measure which had been adopted his Government did order that medals by the noble Ear). This is the history of should be struck to commemorate that this medal. There is no doubt that the great battle, which should be distributed army retrieved the misfortune which had to every officer and soldier, and should previously occurred, and the good conduct be worn under His Majesty's directions of the troops regained the character of My Lords, until lately this distinction was the army, and restored confidence to the confined exclusively to that one affair, public, and peace to ludia. There was afterand was not conferred on any other army. wards another instance with regard to such Until events occurred recently in the East, medals, with respect to wbich, I think, this honour was not extended to any other from what I shall state, it will be exceedarmy. I am not at all desirous of advert- ingly clear that they were given on such ing particularly to the events which, a distinct and exclusive grounds that they short time ago, bappened in that quarter will form an exception 10 the general rule, of the globe ; but undoubtedly it is an and I think that I shall, in a few words, historical fact that the greatest disaster show your Lordships a full justification for which has happened in that part of the the distinction that was made-I mean the world for more than sixty years, occurred a medals given in the case of China. I few years ago in the north-eastern part of have before had occasion to draw your India. It was of the utmost importance Lordships' attention to the extraordinary to our tenure of the possessions which we operations performed in that war. My had acquired---nay, to the very existence Lords, we had fleets and armies there carof the British name-in India, as well as rying on joint operations on a hostile coast, 10 the maintenance of the spirit of the carrying on operations against fortified army, that their reputation should be re- harbours and rivers, agaiosi fortresses and vived by success; and my noble Friend, fortified coasts, and maneuvring against the noble Earl who was Governor General the enemy exactly as if they had been a of India, and under whose auspices the body of troops with their cannon in the operations were carried on in all direc- field, and carrying everything before them. tions, which restored to the army the My Lords, you must all recollect the anxcredit, reputation, and honour in which iety with which those of us who knew it was always held up to that moment, anything of the nature of warlike operaand which tended so much to the advan- tions, regarded the risks and dangers of lage and honour of the country—the no- that war in China, My Lords, the Brible Earl thought it proper to follow the tish troops overcame all their difficulties ; example of the case of the battle of Wa- and I must add that there was this pecuterloo, and ordered medals to be struck, liar circumstance attending these operaand distributed to every individual of the tions, namely, that they were carried on army that fought in the north-east of by the native troops, who, as was known India. The noble Lord judged most cor- to all Governors of India, had notorious rectly that it was important to give some prejudices against embarkation, and whom mark of the approbation of the Govern- it was difficult to prevail on to embark. ment at the conduct of the army; to take They did, however, give their services in a step promptly to make the men sensible aid of Her Majesty's troops, enduring all of the estimation in which their conduct the hardships, and not being backward in was held ; and that it should do so their services, or in their efforts to get the promptly, to revive the spirit which better of the enemy. My Lords, after an had existed before, and that confidence extraordinary short period of time, the in their own exertions which was so im- operations of that war were eminently sucportant to re-establish discipline, subor- cessful; they were successful at every dination, and good order. The noble Lord point; and ihey terminated in a peace

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satisfactory to all parties, and which I, body who ever served during the whole bope, will be the permanent bond of peace war, as well of the French Revolution as between this country and that great em- in the Peninsula, pire. Her Majesty's Government thought The Marquess of Londonderry, after proper to reward the services rendered by the speech of the noble Duke, in which ihe army and the fleet concerned in those he fully concurred, thought it superfluous great operations, and ordered that medals to add anything; but he must say a few should be struck, to be given to each in- words on ihe one point mentioned by the dividual who had been concerned in car- noble Duke on the cross benches, when rying on those operations; and this, I he alluded to the services of those distinsay, is another singular case, which forms guished officers in the Peninsula who were an exception to all general rule, and which not so fortunate as to obtain decorative cannot be quoted as a precedent for any honours. He would not yield to the noother case. My Lords, I have already ble Duke in his high value of those offistated to your Lordships, that the army cers engaged in those services ; but he which served in the Peninsula is by no regretted that the noble Duke had come means an army that was not favoured ; I forward to present this petition, and that have stated that it has been highly distin- the language of British officers should be guished and rewarded; and hose services such as to seek a decoration or a reward are considered on every occasion in which by a petition to Parliament; it was unit is possible to regard them, with a view worthy of British officers to demand any to promotion. But I would beg your decorations or rewards for any services Lordships 10 recollect that this is not the they might be called upon to perform. only successful army which has served The right of giving rewards was vested this country; your Lordships must not exclusively in the Sovereign, and it could forget the army of Egypt, you must not not be exercised with impartiality if the forget the army that fought in Calabria. subject could be referred to thai or the And when you recollect these services, I other House of Parliament. The noble would beg your Lordships also not to for. Duke might have taken warning by what get the fleeis. Did anybody ever hear of had taken place in the other House of a general medal for a fleet? And yet Parliament, when Colonel Hay presented there have been great naval victories ac- a similar petition. That Gentleman was quired, such as the battle of the 1st of answered by the then Secretary at War, June, the battle of Cape St. Vincent, and who was now Governor General of India ; the battle of the Nile. Did anybody ever and so incapable was the case of counter hear of a general medal worn by every- argument, that the petition was rejected body for those services ? Surely, if the unanimously, and, he believed, without a Peninsular army is to have a grant of division. And they had the other day the this description, and an address is pre- opinion of another individual, who had sented by your Lordships for that object, also filled the office of Secretary at War, it is impossible that your Lordships should and he was a civilian, who deprecated the not notice these other occasions. Then interference of Parliament with the rethere is another circumstance which I beg wards conferred. What did these petiyou to recollect in favour of the navy: I tioners say? They set out by saying that mean those Jong winter campaigns, if I the language of supplication would ill bemay so venture to call them, in the block- come British soldiers, and yet they proade of the coast of France, and in the Bay ceeded to ask a boon which they said ihey of Biscay. Month after month, week after would have received voluntarily from the week, and night after night, that blockade justice of the country; and they conwas persevered in through the skill of the cluded by calling upon their Lordships to officers and seamen in the ships of war interfere in their behalf. Besides this, the of the Sovereign of this country. Are lapse of time had been so great that he these services not to be rewarded equally defied the noble Duke to point out any with continued campaigus on shore for six mode by which the just claims of these years in winter and summer? Certainly officers could be established; the only ihey must be. If you take the step now thing that could be done would be by proposed, you must take others ; and it giving a general measure, and his noble would be impossible that you should not Friend the noble Duke had given substancarry the measure to the full extent of tial reasons why this should not be done, giving a general brevet, in fact, to every.and why, instead of an honourable distinc


tion, it would, owing to the misapplication, , him to show any mode by which these rights be entirely valueless. A soldier could look should be ascertained; but the roll-call of upon a decoration as valuable only when every regiment that served in the Peninsula jt came from the direct recommendation was preserved in the Secretary's Office. of the commander under whom he served, What he complained of was, that the geneor by the order of the Sovereign of his ral officers, the commanding officers, and country. It was said, that the officers those on the staff who had not brevet serving in India and in China had receiv- rank, did receive rewards; and he asked, ed medals, and therefore, that the Penin- why the captains, the lieutenants, the sular officers ought to have them ; but subalteros, the non-commissioned officers, supposing the officers in India and China and the soldiers, were not allowed to wear had not been decorated, did they suppose some mark of distinction, to show that that the Indian and Chinese army would they had served? And the noble Marhave come to their Lordships' House, and quess asked whether the officers of the have asked for a boon, like those officers army lowered themselves by coming here who had petitioned for this boon for their and asking for a boon? He (the Duke services ?' He was surprised that the no- of Richmond) thought not at all. It was ble Duke should have been the person to very well for those who were covered with countenance a petition which was totally decorations to say, "Don't give medals unworthy of British officers, because the to captains and subaltern officers

, and supplication for compensation and reward non-commissioned officers and privates." was the last thing which they should make He should like to know whether, without to that or the other House of Parliament. these officers and men, they would have That House had not the power to grant got their honours themselves. With rethe prayer,

and it would be unconstitu- gard to the Waterloo honours, it was very tional if it did ; and he was certain that well known that one corps which received afterwards, when sitting by their own them did not know of the action till tiresides, these very officers would think some days after it was fought. Yet the a medal so obtained totally without officers who had gone through all the value.

hard service of the Peninsular war, were The Duke of Richmond replied. The allowed no testimonial. All must admit

, noble Marquess had taken upon himself that it was a laudable ambition in these to give him a lecture because he had officers to be able to transmit to their thought it his duty to present a petition posterity some memorial of their own which he thought respectfully and pro- merits--of their country's gratitude. He perly worded, and the noble Marquess had was sure that not one of the petitioners wondered that he had not taken warning would object to similar rewards being by what had occurred in the other House. conferred on the troops who had served Now, he was not in the habit of giving up bravely in Egypt or elsewhere. They his opinions in consequence of anything were willing to share the honour with all that took place in the other House; and who deserved it; but they had a right to he conceived that he was doing his duty expect (at least he thought so) that they to those who had fought and bled in their should have something to show that they country's cause, and who, as he thought, had gone through the campaign in the had been neglected by their country. The Peninsula, and had done their duty. noble Marquess said it was unconstitu- Peninsular officers, who had gone to retional, forsooth, that this House should side with their families upon the Contigive rewards to the army and navy. Did nent, if they went to a review, going he not think that it was a reward for the themselves without decorations, found army and navy to receive the thanks of officers there with decorations who had of Parliament? The army and navy had never been in action. His noble Friend ever been proud to receive the Thanks of the Duke of Wellington) said he apeither House of Parliament, and there was proved of medals being given in India, no reason why such a petition as he had because it was necessary to revive the received should not be presented to their spirit of the troops, which had had the Lordsbips. All that these undecorated shadow of a shade cast upon their repo, officers asked was some memorial to show tation. He (the Duke of Richmond) did that they were the individuals to whom for not think it was very expedient to tell these sixteen actions the House had given the army, “Only suffer a disaster; its thanks. The noble Marquess defied rally and distinguish yourselves again, and



you will receive decorations to revive your and this is the class which your Lordships spirits." His case was this—that when are now called on to legislate for.

Your the thanks of Parliament were given to Lordships cannot fail to recollect, that the army, the commissioned and non- from the circumstances of the country, commissioned officers and private soldiers many (I will not say most) of the large should have some record that they had landed proprietors of Ireland, men there. been in the engagement and done their fore of the most powerful and beneficial duty there.

influence, do not exercise the influence Petition read, and ordered to lie on they have upon the society of Ireland, the Table.

being habitually residents in other coun

tries. I say not this in condemnation of COLLEGES (IRELAND) Bill.] Order those individuals; it is one of the unforof the Day for the Second Reading tunate consequences of the peculiar situread.

ation in which Ireland is placed. But Lord Stanley said: In moving your the effect is to give a much larger influLordships to agree to the second reading ence over society to the class immediately of the Bill to enable Her Majesty to en- below the highest—the inferior gentry dow certain Colleges in Ireland, it is and tradesmen, than is properly their due. hardly necessary to remind your Lord- Your Lordships will also bear in mind ships of the gracious speech delivered by that by the extraordinary munificence of Her Majesty from the Throne, in which Parliament the lower orders are at this She recommended to Parliament to pro- moment to a great extent in the receipt vide for the improvement and extension of a liberal and extensive education; I of academical education in Ireland. In hope it will become a religious and moral obedience to that recommendation, Her education, but it is certainly an intelMajesty's Government submitted to Par-lectual education; and, in this state of liament a Bill for that object, which has things, whilst the lowest classes are havundergone very minute and lengthened ing their intellects sharpened, their pow. consideration in the other House of Par- ers cultivated, and their minds refined, it liament, and it passed all its stages there, is most material the class immediately though not with unanimity, undoubtedly above them should have provision made with very large majorities. My Lords, í for their improvement, since the provision should only waste time if I were to go in for the education of that class is more to any argument to prove the advantage deficient in Ireland than elsewhere. How of extending to all classes in Ireland the stands the case ? Ireland does not stand benefits of the best education, and of the on the same footing in respect to educaduty of Government to advance the pub- tion with any other part of the Einpire. lic interest by lending its aid to promote In this country, besides our ancient Unisuch education throughout the realm. versities, many of the great towns, by But in the expenditure which has been their own exertions, had established colmade by Parliament and the country for legiate institutions. What is the case in the purposes of education, and amidst the Ireland ? With the exception of the Incommendable anxiety which has been stitution at Belfast, you have one College, generally evinced of late on the subject, I and only one, the single establishment of cannot but think that there has been one Trinity College, Dublin. Now, Trinity great omission. Whilst liberal provision College, Dublin, is open not only to the has been made for the education of the highest classes of the community, but also higher orders, and while the Legislature 10 those who do not belong to that class; has shown its wisdom and liberality in and the system of education in Trinity encouraging the education of the lower College is, in respect to religious distincorders, while these two extremes have tions, of a very liberal character; I believe absorbed attention, the middle classes there about 100 Roman Catholics receivhave been neglected in the great scheme ing education within its walls. Not only of mental improvement; whereas, if there Roman Catholics, but Dissenters from the is one class which, more than any other, Established Church, are admitted into should obtain the advantage of a liberal Trinity College, Dublin, and receive the and sound education, it is the middle class benefits of education ihere; they may

- and by" middle class,” I mean the class compete, too, for honours ; but when you below the highest and above the lowest ; I come to the emoluments, the Roman Ca


tholics and Dissenters, though admitted sion of any portion of the revenues of Trito the benefits of education, are excluded nity College, for the purpose of conferring from the emoluments. Is this the course scholarships or advantages of that descripthat should be pursued ? I have heard tion on persons not professing the religion the petition which has been presented to of the State. I think, my Lords, that such night by the noble Earl near me (the Earl an interference with Trinity College would of Eldon), not from the University of unnecessarily and dangerously excite the Oxford, but from certain Members of that Protestant feeling of the country, raise University; and if we were legislating for against you Protestant prejudices, and a country in which there were no religious create Protestant animosity, without at differences; if we were all members of the at the same time tending to the harmony same church, followers of the same creed, or advantage of the institution itself. and acknowledged the same spiritual head, What then? Will you establish in DubI can readily conceive the advantage of lin itself three or four rival colleges, each making science in all cases the handmaid dedicated to the support and maintenance of religion, and binding both together in of a particular creed, with professors beindissoluble bonds. But is it so in Ire- longing to that creed, endowed by the land? Recollect that we have to deal Staie? I think that such a proposition practically with the case of Ireland; a would not be likely even if the Protestant case where the established religion is the population of this country were willing to religion of a small minority; with the concede it, to tend to the harmony of the case of a country which is separated into city of Dublin. I think that the inevitable various religious creeds, and subdivisions consequence of having three or four such of those creeds. Then what are you to rival institutions within the precincts of do? Are you, for the purpose of extend the metropolis would be, that their rivalry ing the advantages of academical educa. would lead to controversial disputes and tion in Ireland, to cling to the system of discussions, which, in a short period, would Oxford and Cambridge, to require that generate bitter hostility. You have now tests shall be taken, if not by the students, to deal with a case in which it is necessary at least by all the professors? Are you, in to provide for the moral education of a establishing academical education for a large portion of people who differ from people mainly Roman Catholic, to insist you in their religious creed. ihat all the institutions shall be built upon would be most unfortunate that you should the basis of the Church of England ? deprive Trinity College, Dublin, itself, And if not, what will you do? Will of the advantages of educating within its you, if I may coin a word, unprotestantize walls a considerable number of Roman Trinity College, Dublin? Will you open Catholics. I think it is a matter of infinite the emoluments and the endowments importance that you should not diswill you deal with the revenues and the courage - I would say that you should statutes of that College, and throw it open rather endeavour, by all the means in your with, if you please, increased endowments power, 10 encourage the combined instructo all classes of the population, without tion, as far as it can be combined, of the religious distinction ? Her Majesty's Go. young men of Ireland of different religious vernment do not think it would be expe- persuasions. I am satisfied that the fact dient, wise, or just, to take such a course. of being educated in the same College, of They consider that Trinity College is, and being brought up under the same teachers, always has been, a Protestant establish- of being competitors for the same honours, ment endowed for Protestant purposes, of being admitted impartially to those supported by Protestant funds, and in honours, of mixing together in familiar tended as a nursery for the formation of society at a period of life when the affecclerical members of the Protestant Church tions are warm, and the heart open and as established in Ireland. And here I must ready to receive impressions, not only of be permitted to do justice to a Gentleman a lively, but permanent nature - 1 am from whom I widely differ on some points, satisfied that such a course tends more in admitting the liberality of a sentiment than any other that could be devised to which he expressed in giving his evidence soften those asperities which may arise before your Lordships in 1825. Mr. O'Con- in alter life, and lead both parties to judge nell, to whom I refer, deprecated on that more calmly, and inake greater allowances occasion, as an act of injustice, the diver- for their different religious feelings, bow.



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