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system without having such an officer as, which would be of essential service to them chaplain. He believed that the money when removed to the Colonies; while for this purpose was most properly and others, who had been guilty of the most beneficially laid out,

serious crimes, the commission of which Mr. Wakley said, that the system of was formerly attended with capital punishadministration in that gaol could not be ment, were selected to be sent to Norfolk tried without a large expenditure of Island. On the arrival of the former class pounds, shillings, and pence. He had at Van Diemen's Land, after having been often been in this prison, and he believed taught a trade, there was a further gradathat nothing could be better than the sys- tion. Some of them received a conditem existing there. In the first instance, tional pardon, while others received ticket he had viewed the foundation of the of leave, which was a gradation something establishment with feelings of horror, and short of pardon. With respect to every as being merely an instrument of torture; convict, there was a special report made but the results had been most astonishing, to him, and on such report he, on his reand most gratifying. He had examined sponsibility, provided accordingly. the prisoners themselves closely, and he need not allude to the high character of had watched the proceedings, and he those three gentlemen, as they were well firmly believed that not one in fifty of the known. Their respective salaries, as inunfortunate inmates of the prison, when spectors of prisons, was only £800 a year; liberated, would again violate the laws of and as these additional duties had been the country

imposed upon them, it was only conVote agreed to.

sidered proper that they should have an On the Vote that 28,1181. be granted increase of £200 a year, making altogether to defray the expenses of the Millbank £1000 a year. Prison for the year 1845-46, being put,

Vote agreed to. Mr. W. Williams said, that he observed On the vote of 250,0001. to defray the that in this Estimate, there was a charge charges of Convict Expenditure in New of £200 a year each for three inspectors of South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, the prison. This appeared to be a new Mr. Ewart took occasion to object to species of appointment; he, therefore, the whole system of transportation at wished to know what was the object of present adopted. The stated that the free it?

settlers in Van Diemen's Land were exSir J. Graham observed, that this tremely indignant at the letting loose charge certainly appeared for the first time amongst them of the most depraved charin the Estimates, but it was necessary, in acters. He understood that morality consequence of new arrangements with was no longer safe in that Colony, and that respect to this prison. Complaints were the free settlers were about petitioning formerly repeatedly inade by several hon. Parliament against what the noble Lord Gentlemen as to the system of prison dis- the Secretary for the Colonies termed cipline carried on in this prison. He had the probationary system.” considered it expedient to alter the whole of opinion that much more good might be system in this prison. By this new ar- effected than at present by substituting rangement, every male and female convict, the Pentonville system for that of transsentenced to transportation, was, as soon portation, whilst he believed that the exas possible, conveyed to Millbank, and pense would not be so great. thore they remained for three months un- Sir J. Graham could not deny that der the close inspection of these three there were many serious moral objecofficers. The persons appointed to these tions to transporting felons into a Colony; offices, were the three inspectors of pris-but, taking the balance of good and ons. One or other of these inspected the evil, he thought it was far better that they convicts in Millbank prison constantly, should be transported, than be retained in indeed almost daily. At the end of three the mother country. On the average, the months the inspectors, in their report to number of prisoners convicted of felony in him, recommended the course which Great Britain, amounted annually to some should be adopted as to the future desti- 5,000. Penton ville would not contain nation of each convict. They selected a above 600; besides, he could not think of certain number for the Pentonville prison, recommending that the Pentonville syswhere they would be taught a useful trade, tem should be applied to the whole of

He was


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These 5,000; he doubted, in fact, whe- 1 view to providing beller means of instructher it could be properly applied to more

tion in the science. than the present number out of the ave- Sir R. Peel said, he had had an inter. rage number annually convicted.

view with Professor Liebig on this subject, Mr. Würley trusted that some means but he was not quite convinced of the of is proving the minds and morals of policy of direct Government interference priconcrs would be adopted in the gaols in such a matter. He was by no means of this country. He hoped that the right satisfied that an institution for the express bon. baronet would propose some mea- purpose of teaching chemistry would be sure with reference to prison discipline so successful and efficient in this country generally, founded on the system pursued as similar institutions had been abroad; at Pezionville.

but he thought, considering the splendid Vote agreed to.

educational establishments wbich existed On the Vote of 2,0061., for defraying the in this country and in Scotland, that it salaries of certain professors at Oxford and was the duty of those by whom such inCambridge,

stitutions were conducted, to make proper Mr. Wakley complained that a salary provision for the cultivation of that imof only 1001. was appropriated from this portant science. Vote to the professors of Chemistry. He Vote agreed to. thought, considering the importance of House adjourned at a quarter to three that science in connexion with medicine, o'clock. manufactures, and the arts, that all possible facilities should be afforded for its HOUSE OF LORDS, study.

Monday, July 21, 1845. Vote agreed to.


Public.-1". Merchant Seamen ;

Drainage (Ireland); Rothwell Prison ; Land Revenue The next Vote was for 4,5401. to defray Act Amendinent; Fisheries (Ireland); Masters and the expenses of the University of London. Workmen; Grand Jury Presentments (Dublin); Joint Mr. Ewart said, with reference to the

Stock Companies; Spirits (Ireland); Excise Duties on

Spirits (Channel Islands); Drainage of Lands; Poor Law observations of the hon. Member for Fids

Amendment (Scotland). bury, that he considered it most desirable 24. Colleges (Ireland); Art Unions ; Unlawful Oaths (Ire

land); Turnpike Acts Continuance; Militia Ballots Susfor the interests of the country that the ut

pension. most encouragement should be given to Reported.--Apprehension of Offenders ; Loan Societies; the cultivation of the science of chemistry.

Turnpike Trusts (South Wales); Highway Rates.

Received the Royal Assent.Sir Henry Pottinger's AnMr. Warburton said, that during ten

nuity; Assessed Taxes Composition ; Timber Ships ; months in the year very good laboratory Oaths Dispensation (No. 2); West India Islands Relief ; instruction in chemistry could be obtained

Seal Office Abolition; Museums of Art; Public Mu

seums, etc.; Canal Companies Carriers; Dog Stealing; in London. The laboratory in University Railway Clauses Consolidation (Scotland) (No.2); InCollege had recently been enlarged, and feftments (Scotland); Banking (Scotland); Statuto Lathat institution could now receive thirty

bour (Scotland); Arrestment of Wages (Scotland);

Schoolmasters (Scotland); Banking (Ireland); Constables, laboratory pupils. Hon. Gentlemen must Public Works (Ireland). not suppose that many of these laboratory

Private.-14. Epping Railway.

qa. Bristol Parochial Rates ; Monmouth and Hereford pupils came from the agricultural dis

Railway; South Wales Railway. tricts; they came almost exclusively from Reported. - Sheffield Waterworks; Newcastle and Berthe manufacturing districts.

wick Railway: Edinburgh and Hawick Railway; Aber

deen Railway; Dundee and Perth Railway; Lutwidge's Mr. Wakley expressed his desire that a

(or Fletcher's) Estate ; Tacumshin Lake Embankment ; national institution for affording instruc- Bermondsey Improvement; Edinburgh and Northern tion in chemistry should be established. Railway; London and South Western Metropolitan Ex

tension Railway; South Eastern Railway (Tunbridge to He believed that during a recent visit of Tunbridge Wells); Birmingham and Gloucester ExtenProfessor Liebig to this country, the right sion Railway (Stoke Branch); Scottish Central Railway; hon. Baronet (Sir R. Peel) had had an

Scottish Midland Railway; Caledonian Railway: Clydes

dale Junction Railway. interview with him, and that the professor ga. and passed :-Marquess of Donegal's Estate ; Marsh's had made some most startling statements

(or Coxhead's) Estate; Bowes' Estate ; Westininster Im

provement; West London Railway Extension and Lease; with reference to this subject. Professor

Newport and Pontypool Railway; Falmouth HarLiebig had told him that it was frightful 10 see the waste of capital in connexion


Received the Royal Assens.-London and Greenwich Rail

way: Belfast and Ballymena Railway: North British with manufactures in this country, in con- Railway; Lancaster and Carlisle Railway; York and sequence of our ignorance of chemistry. North Midland Railway (Harrogate Branch); North He hoped the right hon. Baronet would

Woolwich Railway; Guildford Junction Railway : Wa

terford and Kllkenny Railway; Exeter and Crediton turn his attention to the matter, with a Railway; Bridgewater Navigation and Railway; Shef


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field and Rotherham Railway; Edinburgh and Glasgow / portion of it in the House. The noble Railway; Newcastle and Darlington (Brandling Junc

Duke then read an extract from the petition) Railway; Southampton and Dorchester Railway; Eastern Union Railway Amendment; Glasgow, Paisley, tion, stating that the petitioners did not Kilmarnock, and Ayr Railway (Cumnock Branch); Dun- deem it necessary to trouble their Lorddalk and Enniskillen Railway; Eastern Union (Bury St. Edmund's) Railway ; Londonderry and Enniskillen Rail- ships' House with any details of the serway; Chester and Birkenhead' Railway Extension ; vices in which they had been engaged, Whitehaven and Furness Railway; Manchester, Bury, because the Thawks of Parliament had and Rossendale Railway (Heywood Branch) i Great North of England and Richmond Railway; Blackburn been repeatedly offered for these duties, and Preston Railway ; Leeds and Thirsk Railway; Hud- and because self-adulation would ill bedersfield and Manchester Railway and Canal; North Wales Railway; Taw Vale Railway and Dock ; Man

come the character of British soldiers : chester and Birmingham Railway (Ashton Branch); Ash- That they threw themselves on the recomton, Stalybridge, and Liverpool Junction (Ardwick and mendation of their Lordships, with an Guide Bridge Branches) Railway; Eastern Counties Railway (Ely and Whittlezea) Deviation ; Manchester, earnest hope that the House would interSouth Junction, and Altrincham Railway; Trent Valley pose in their behalf by drawing the faRailway; London and Brighton Railway (Horsham vourable notice of the Sovereign to their case. Branch); Ulster Railway Extension; North Wales Mi

Railway; North Union and Ribble Navigation He thought it was scarcely necessary for Branch Railway; Saint Hclen's Canal and Railway; him to detain their Lordships at any length Great North of England, Clarence and Hartlepool

on the subject of that petition. He felt, Junetion Railway; Great Western Railway, Ireland (Dublin to Mullingar and Athlone); Cockermouth however, that he ought to remind the and Workington Railway; Richmond (Surrey) Rail House of the great importance which the way; Cork and Bandon Railway ; Liverpool and Man. chester Railway; Great Southern and Western Railoperations in the Peninsular war were to way (Ireland); Preston and Wyro Railway; Lynn the uliimate pacification of the world. and Dereham Railway; Middlesbro' and Relcar Rail. There were many of their Lordships who way; Dublin and Drogheda Railway; Newry and Enniskillen Railway ; Dublin and Belfast Junction Rail might remember that period of the history way; Waterford and Limerick Railway; Glossop Gas; of the country, when alarms prevailed Glasgow Bridges: Totnes Markets and Waterworks; throughout the greater part of the nation Wolverhampton Waterworks; Lyme Regis Improvement, Market, and Waterworks; Dundee Waterworks; Black

-- when the walls of Parliament, night buru Waterworks; Hartlepool Pier and Port; Kendal after nighi, re-echoed with melancholy Reservoirs ; Manchester Improvement : Belfast Improve forebodings that the British army would, ment; Chelsea Improvement; Agricultural and Commercial Bank of Ireland ; Quinborowe Borough; Forth before long, have to fall back on their ships and Clyde Navigation and Canal Junction: Manchester for refuge, and be forced, probably at no Court of Record ; Reversionary Interest, Society, Keep distant day, to return to their native land ingham Drainage; Shepley Lane Head and Barnsley Road; Harwell and Streatley Road ; Winwick Rectory: defeated and disgraced. But, thanks to Lady Sandy's (Turner's) Estate; Kidwelly Inclosure.

the transcendent talents and skill of his PETITIONS PRESENTED. From Clergy of West Grinstead,

and several other parishes, in favour of the Lunatic noble Friend (the Duke of Wellington), Asylums and Pauper Lunatics Bill.-- By Lord Camoys, and the bravery and heroism of the troops and Earl of Eldon, from Fellows or Tutors of Oxford / who acted under him, the glory of the University, of Catholic Inhabitants of Cork, and from Roman Catholic Bishops and Clergy of United Dioceses British arms was not only maintained, but of Waterford and Lismore, against the Colleges (Irc- the flag of England was planted on the land Bill.—By Lord Stanley, froin Managers, Professors; soil of France. Every one would admit and Visitors of Royal Belfast Academical Institution, and from various Literary Societies, and from Inhabitants of that the British soldiers did their duty Belfast, in favour of the Colleges (Ireland) Bill.-From during that period—not in one short camWithington, for the Better Reguation of Beer Houses, especially on the Sabbath. --From Merchants, Bankers, paign alone, but during a struggle, the duand others of Cambridge, for Amendment of Law relat- ration of which extended for several years. ing to Bankruptey and Insolvency.

Nor should it be forgotten that, throughPENINSULAR OFFICERS.] The Duke out all that time, they were opposed by of Richmond said, in accordance with the the veteran legions of Napoleon—by men Notice which he had given on Friday last, who had been reared in the midst of war, he begged leave to present a petition from and who were as intelligent as they were the undecorated officers who had served in intrepid. He would not urge, in support the Peninsular war, on the subject of de- of the claims of the petitioners, any fear corations conferred on the army engaged that the English army would not herein the late war; and praying that this after do its duty. On the contrary, he House will interpose in behalf of the said believed their brave armies would ever be officers, and bring their case to the notice found ready to maintain the honour of of Her Most Gracious Majesty. The pe- their Sovereign and their country. He tition was drawn up in so proper and re- believed that the natural bravery of the speciful a manner, ibat he felt the best soldier-the enthusiastic esprit du corps course he could adopt would be to read a / which he possessed--the teeling that, on his own personal exertions, as it were, wards them and towards the Government might depend the fate of the day, would during a considerable number of years. I ever lead the British soldier to do his stated to them that it had been my duty duty. He would not, therefore, put the for several years to report their conduct, case of the petitioners on this ground, but whether as an army, or as divisions of that he asked what they required as a simple army, in brigades or regiments, or as inact of justice; for he could regard a debt dividuals belonging to the army, to the of gratitude only as an act of justice, and Government of the Crown, and to bring in ibis light he was sure the country at it thus under the knowledge of the Solarge would also view it. He did not wish vereign: but, my Lords, I stated that as to impute blame to any individual in the to the rewards to the army, these were country, still less to his noble Friend the matters to which I could otherwise make noble Duke, for whom he ever did and no reference—that they were acts which ever would entertain the strongest feelings were confined to the Sovereign, and to of attachment and regard. He sought not the advisers of the Sovereign-and that to attach blame to those who gave medals in this light I had never presumed to in. to the men who fought and conquered at terfere in any manner, excepting when Waterloo, and 10 those who conferred the called upon to give my opinion, or io carry honours that were bestowed on the soldiers into execution the orders of the Sovereign who fought their battles in India and in recommend persons for honourable China; but this he would say, why should marks of distinction. My Lords, I tben they not place those whom they saw recommended those Gentlemen to make covered with wounds received in the Pe- their representation 10 the Sovereign ninsular campaigns, on the same footing through the proper channel. Since I rewith their brethren in arms? He felt that, ceived notice from my noble Friend of his in presenting this petition, he was but do- intention to present this petition, I have ing his duty to their Lordships in offering inquired wheiher any such application has these remarks. He would not detain the been since made; and I can not only find House longer, because he felt it was un. no trace of such application, but I cannot necessary for him to recapitulate the he. find any account of such an application roic achievements of the great army to having been ever made. I have heard, which he had been referring. He felt it indeed, that a similar petition to that to be a personal compliment to himself to which my noble Friend has brought behave this petition entrusted to him for fore your Lordships was presented by an presentation, by gentlemen with whom he hon. Gentleman in another place; and had become acquainted in early life, and the present petition is addressed to your for whom he necessarily felt a deep ad- Lordships. But, I beg leave to submit to


10 miration, on account of their heroic deeds. your Lordships, that the proper course for In conclusion, he begged to present this these petitioners to adopt is, to present petition from the veterans of the Penin- their petition to the Sovereign, and not sular war.

to come to the Houses of Parliament in The Duke of Wellington : My Lords, order to require the interference of the the petitioners do me but justice in stat. Legislature in a matter which is strictly ing ihat I have never mentioned or re- and exclusively the prerogative of the ferred to the war in the Peninsula except. Sovereign. My Lords, I invariably, and ing in terms of praise of their conduct. I believe, in a satisfactory manner - at But, my Lords, it gives me the greatest least I never heard a complaint on the

to feel myself under the ne- subject — reported the services of the cessity of submitting to your Lord- army, or of the individuals composing it, ships, that your Lordships cannot to the attention of the Sovereign. I have gularly, and according to your usual frequently received the order of the Sovepractice, interfere in a question of this de reign to recommend officers of distinction scription. Some years have elapsed since for reward and promotion; and not only these same petitioners made an applica- have I received such directions from the tion to me--if I recollect rightly in the Sovereign of this country, but in repeated year 1840-on the same subject which instances from the Allies of the Sovereign They have now brought under your Lord of this country; and I have submitted ships' consideration. I then stated to them the names of officers to those Sovereigns, The relation in which I had stood both to- I hope in a manner satisfactory to those



who were selected. The Sovereign of, the army in chief up to the period of his this country has been pleased to give death in 1826, and also by Lord Hill, who his approbation and consent to the ac- succeeded in command up to the year ceptance by those officers of the honours 1828. First of all, various allowances to which I have recommended them. But were made to all the different officers. In in no case whatever would I ever have 1826, the officers holding brevet rank on interfered until I was called upon to give full pay had the advantage of retiring my judgment or recommendation and opin- upon the advanced half pay of the next ion on the subject. It is perfectly true, as rank above. Lieutenants serving on full the noble Duke on the cross benches (the pay whose commissions were dated prior Duke of Richmond) has stated, that to 1811, bad the option of retiring upon marks of honour of a particular description the unattached rank of captain on half have been conferred upon other armies, pay. By an Order in 1834, in every which have not been conferred on the ar- three vacancies upon the retired full and mies serving in the Peninsula, however half pay, one promotion was granted in meritorious their services may have been the ranks of captain, major, and lieutenBut, my Lords, have no marks of honour ant-colonel--all these arrangements bebeen conferred upon the armies of the Pen- ing in favour of these officers. In 1835 insula? Have no rewards been bestowed a further arrangement was made in faon those officers ? What my noble Friend vour of captains promoted under the Ge. has stated is perfectly true, that the ser-neral Order of December 1826 ; and vice in the Peninsula was not an expedi- 20 lieutenant-colonels, 20 majors, and tion, but a war carried on for several 115 captains received full pay instead of years - for six consecutive campaigns, retired half pay. These were solid boons and some winter campaigns. Nearly the conferred upon those individuals by the whole of the British army served in that public. Then I would beg your Lordwar. Out of one hundred and odd bat- ships to remember that among your Lord. talions, of which the British military force ships there are not less than seven officers consisted, there were about sixty which who have been promoted to the peerage served in that army. My Lords, this and on account of their own services, or those the other House of Parliament returned of their fathers or grandfathers, in this to that army their Thanks not less than very army. Not less than 400 of the sixteen different times, for as many differ- different classes of the Order of the Bath ent engagements; and new modes were were conferred on the officers who served discovered and adopted of distinguishing in the Peninsular army. My Lords, it is and rewarding the officers of that army. perfectly true that the late Sovereign was Medals were struck in commemoration of pleased to confer a medal on the army actions of gallantry and distinguished ac- ihat fought at the battle of Waterloo tions in the Peninsula upon no less than upon every individual who was present on nineteen occasions; and these medals that occasion. This was an honour which were distributed upon the rules and re- had never before been conferred on any gulations laid down on the occasion to body of troops, and certainly not on the about 1,300 officers of the army. And army that served in the Peninsula, alwill it be said that 1,300 officers is not a though they had fought several great considerable number in any army to re- battles, and inost undoubtedly their serceive such marks of distinction, and this vice was of a most important description on nineteen different occasions ? Then a during the six years that they were in the new mode of promotion was adopted, for Peninsula. But, my Lords, I beg you to the first time, in the Peninsular army-I recollect that the battle of Waterloo was mean the issue of special brevets for ex- an occurrence of an extraordinary nature. traordinary services; and a vast number A general peace had been made, after a of officers were promoted by these special war of a quarter of a century, in the year brevets in this very army, whose services 1814. Circumstances occurred which are now said to be unacknowledged. Sub- rendered imminent the probability that sequent to the war, upon various occa- the war would be recommenced, and great sions, arrangements were made for the preparations were made on all sides. The benefit of the whole army, cavalry, in- greatest anxiety was felt, not only in this fantry, and artillery, recommended, not by country, but throughout Europe, upon me, nor bave I the credit of them, but the breaking out of that war. That battle by the Duke of York, who commanded' was fought, and its decision certainly gave,

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