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COLLEGES (IRELAND). Sir James | daled Fund when any new institution was Graham, at the five o'clock sitting, moved to be raised. During the present Session the Third Reading of the Colleges (Ire- they had drawn considerable sums from land) Bill.

that fund for the endowment of a Roman Mr. Bernal Osborne rose to bring for. Catholic College, contrary to the feeling of ward the Amendment of which he had the great majority of the tax-payers of this given notice, for an Address to Her Majesty, country. They were also called upon by praying that she would be graciously that measure to take from the same source pleased to direct an inquiry to be made another amount for the Colleges, and which into the amount of the revenues of Trinity was to be done against the wishes of the College, Dublin. He said that he was Catholic bishops; and it was impossible to fully sensible, at this advanced period of say what dips might be made into it in the the Session, when the fatigues of July course of next Session. The Land Com. legislation overcame the energies of the missioners also looked very temptingly at House, that it was impossible for any this fund; for they suggested or recomMember 10 succeed in rousing the dor- mended that a grant for the Irish Constamant attention, or in exciting the wasted bulary should be taken from this source. energies of the Members of the House in He did not mean to enter upon this

quesfavour of some particular subject. He tion at present; but he had no doubt that felt, therefore, the difficulty of awakening the Irish Members of that House would be the attention of hon. Members on the sub- constantly looking to this fund, as the ject of his Motion, to the extent which the pool of Bethesda was by cripples, that importance of the question so pre-emi- they might have a dip when the right hon. nently deserved; but, at the same time, Baronet troubled the waters. Although it was his intention to condense what he he agreed with his hon. Friend the Memfelt it necessary to say in the smallest pos- ber for Limerick in many things, he could sible compass. He did not believe that not agree with him that it was not with he could be fairly charged with throwing good intentions that the Government any unnecessary impediment in the way brought forward this measure; but he beof this measure, because, in accordance with lieved that the wiser and more satisfacthe request of the right hon. Baronet, he had tory course would have been, if they had withdrawn his Motion on a former occasion, in the first place made inquiry into the at a time when he had the chance of a much revenues of Trinily College, Dublin, with larger number of hon. Members present, a view to the establishment of these insti. and consequently a much greater probabi- tutions in connexion with that University. lity of support than at present. The more At this moment the whole of the higher he considered the subject, the more did he education in Ireland was monopolized by feel the force of the allegation that the eighteen or twenty Fellows of Trinity Colmeasure was one which must be wholly lege, Dublin, who took to themselves all inefficient for the purpose for which it was the endowments of that rich University. proposed, unless some great change were He found, from a return which had been effected in the constitution of Trinity Col- laid before Parliament, that only one in lege, Dublin. He entertained no hostility 320,000 Roman Catholics went to that to that institution. On the contrary, he College ; those who did attend were re. had many friends among its members, ceived there as long as the heads of the But he could not conceal from himself the University could get any money for their fact that the whole system pursued in that education, but afterwards excluded them College was so totally unknown, that while from all the endowments. On a late octhe darkness respecting it was maintained, casion the right hon. Member for the a stop must be put to all legislation in that University of Dublin, when he was not House in any way connected with it. He present, resisted all inquiry into the subwould ask hon. Members, when they conject, on the ground that the revenues of sidered the vast and great resources of the College were private. Did the right Ireland, and also when they recollected hon. Gentleman represent the Colleges in that the Roman Catholic gentry of that that House in a private or corporate capacountry annually send 10,0001. to the So- city? The Legislature had interfered with ciety ai Lyons for the Propagation of the and remodelled the rights of all the muniFaith, whether the people of that country cipal corporations in Ireland; and did the should be induced to look to the Consoli- right hon. Gentleman mean to say that VOL. LXXXII. { Series}



Parliament could not interfere with Trinity " Whereby knowledge, learning, and civi. College as a corporation ? As to the dis-lity may be increased among the Irish, and

their children's children, especially those that rights, he would refer to the authority of be poor (as it were in an orphaus' hospital, a most eminent jurist on the point. He given them with more ease and lesser charges

freely), may have their learning and education alluded to Sir James Macintosh. That ihan in other Universities they can attain it.” eminent man said

So far, then, from its being endowed with “Private property was one of those funda- Protestant money for an exclusive purmental acts which constituted society. It was pose, it was endowed with public money the band of society itself. But the acts which for public purposes. He defied the hon. form and endow corporations are subsequent; Member io point out a single word in the and subordinate; the property of individuals is established as a general principle which charter which justified the assertion that seems coeval with society itself; but bodies, it was for exclusive Protestant purposes. whether ecclesiastical or civil, are instruments It was reserved to forty years later, when fabricated by the Legislature for a specific puro Strafford, for his own and his inasier's pose, which ought to be preserved whilst they purposes, chose to introduce some arrangeare beneficial, amended when they are impaired, and rejected when they become useless Fellows. He would go to the foundation

ments with respect to Roman Catholic and injurious.

of this institution; and when he was told He regarded this to be a clear distinction that it was a College endowed with Probetween public and private property; and testant money for Protestant purposes, he notwithstanding the strenuous opposition would recommend those who alleged this which he might expect from the right hon. to go to the fons et origo of this establishMember for the University of Dublin, and ment. He understood that the right hon. some other persons connected with Trinity Member for ihe University of Dublin alCollege, he felt that he should have the luded to the Oath of Supremacy the other support of the hon. Member for the Uni- evening, and intimated ibat the existence versity of Oxford; for that hon. Gentleman of that would prevent Catholics taking had said that he would vote for inquiry if part in the University. If this was the any allegation of abuse were brought case, why allow them to take degrees ? forward. Now, if he brought forward The Member for Oxford, who was well acallegations of abuse, and if he proved quainted with the history of his own and satisfactorily that the charter had been all other countries, must be aware that violated, and that the endowments had the system with respect 10 the Fellows in been diverted from the purposes for which | Trinity College was peculiar, and a de. they were intended, and that the acade- parture from the general academical sys mical system had been changed, he should tem. In fact the whole system of ihe rely upon the support of the hon. Baronet. University of Dublio was an anomaly, beHe probably should be met with the cuckoo cause the Fellows consisted of married cry, that this was a Protestant institution, persons. The rule and custom of the esiablished by a Protestant Queen for University had been changed in this reProtestant purposes.

He would not be spect within the last five years. It was stopped by such an objection. He be enough to make Queen Elizabeth shudder lieved that, on inquiry, the religious opi- in her grave to hear of a body of married nions of Queen Elizabeth would not be priests holding the fellowships in the Colconsidered to have been orthodox by the lege established by ber. Supposing, then, hon. Baronet the Member for Oxford. that the University had the power of abBut let them see how much Protestant rogating the Statute in one instance, as money was devoted to the endowment of they had done in this case, was it to be this College. It was founded in 1592 by said that they had not the power in anQueen Elizabeth, and it was endowed out other? He was sure thal Queen Elizaof the confiscated estate of the Earl of beth would bave been more readily reDesmond, and it was built on the site of conciled to the abandonment of a religious the Catholic monastery of Allhallows. The rest with respect to a chemical professor, letter of the Lord Deputy, would show for than to a body of married Fellows in the what purpose this University was founded; College. He thought that the hon. Memhe would, therefore, read an extract from ber for Oxford could hardly resist his it (A.D. 1591) :

Motion, for the body of married Fellows


was contrary to the whole system of aca- | members of the University. It appeared demical institutions; and they might say that the total of the income derived from of it that it was a gigantic scheme of col- teaching was 28,3161. a year. The rent legiate connubiality. Though they had a from land held under the College, although body of married priests, Fellows of the it was difficult to get at it accurately, was College, residing within the walls of the very great. Some of the land must be University, he was told that a very small very valuable, such as Brunswick-street number of the Fellows attended in hall, and and other streets in the neighbourhood ; still fewer were present in chapel, which and, therefore, the estimate of the rental certainly was not a good example to set might be fairly taken at 21,6841. a year, to the students. The object of the eccle- thus making a total of 50,0001. a year. siastical patronage of the College was al. Of course if he knew exactly the amount together nullified since the Fellows had of revenue of the College, all neces. been allowed to marry; for since that cessity for his Motion would be obviated. time only two had resigned their fellow. Such, he believed, was really the amount ships to take a living. The junior Fellow of the income, while the money expendrefused to resign and go out to a country ed in prizes, scholarships, &c., was only living, where he would get an income of 4,4041. 14s. It was also stated, that with about 3001. a year, while he was secure of this deduction, and after the common exa good income, a residence in a very penses of the College were paid, the Fel. pleasant place, and his domus et placens lows divided the remainder among them, uror in Dublin. The truth was, ihat no (“No!”] Surely, it hon. Gentlemen would Fellow who could get a wife would take a not agree to the Motion, they would faliving. (Laughter.] This might appear to be vour him by stating how it was paid. At a farce, but it was an undoubted fact, and any rate, the duties of the Fellows were at he knew that a Fellow of Trinity College, an inverse ratio to their emoluments; for Dublin, was considered a most eligible in their duties were extremely small, while vestment in the coteries there. He be their incomes were very large. The seven lieved that the hon. Gentleman would senior Fellows were supposed to receive agree with him so far. There was another from 2,0001. to 3,0001. a year each. [Mr. allegation of abuse which he could estab- Shaw : No.] Then, what did they relish. Every Fellow on his induction into ceive ? Why not lay a return on the his Fellowship took an oath in which was Table of the House of their emoluments, the following passage :-"Studiorum finis or consent to inquiry? The junior Fellows erit mihi theologiæ professio, ut ecclesiæ received 1,5001. a year each, and besides Dei prodesse possim."

Now, so far from this, the Fellows laid violent hands on the Fellows of Trinity College devoting many of the professorships. One of the themselves to the study of divinity, several senior Fellows, whose name it was unof them were eminent mathematicians, necessary to mention, but who was a most but the divines were few and far between. excellent man, was regius professor of The great proportion, in fact, of the Fel- Greek, and he combined very oddly with lows were men of science and mathemati- this the offices of catechist and professor cians, and among them he could mention the of oratory. There was another, who was names of Hamilton, Lloyd, and Robinson. also a catechist and professor of modern Trinity College was composed of one history and civil law. Thus, in addition to Provost, seven senior Fellows, and twenty- an income of 2,0001. a year from their fel. five junior Fellows. There were twenty- lowships, they received large fixed salaries five Professors. It was a difficult thing attached to the professorships. He would to ascertain the amount of their incomes, appeal to any rational man whether they as there was no Income Tax in Ireland ; should not look for a different standard of but having taken some pains to inquire eligibility for a professorship than the holdinto the subject, he had no hesitation in ing a University fellowship. Was it not saying that the gross revenues of Trinity obvious that a much better system was College were 50,0001. a year. He would pursued in the Universities of Scotland not weary the House by going into details and Germany, where the test of excellence on the subject, but he would give a sketch and the amount of emolument depended of the receipts from various sources. He upon the number of students atiending took some of his estimates from the Uni- the lectures of the professor? If the proversity Calendar of 1844, and others from fessors in Trinity College were paid ac


cording to the number of their pupils, and as for the other three branches, logic, geology, by them, their professorships would be anatomy, they are entirely out of the question worth between 301. and 401. 'a year each. If this hela good with respect to the new ColThis appeared farcical and ridiculous, yet

leges, was he not prepared to do away with the

system entirely ?" they were told by the hon. Gentleman that

1 they could not interfere, because it was The continuance of the system in Trinity private property? Look to the University College, was, in fact, stating that the Proof Dublin as the seat of education of the testants were the only fitting persons to Protestant youths. As was truly said the teach chemistry, botany, anatomy, logic, other night by the right hon. Baronet at oratory, and all other branches of art, and the head of the Government, a forced at- science, and literature. A short time ago, tendance at chapel was not very likely to be found the following advertisement in a generate a feeling of devotion and rever- newspaper, reporting a vacant professor. ence. But those intended for holy orders ship in Trinity College :were forced to attend at chapel, and the “ Trinity College, Dublin-Pursuant to the only other religious instruction they re- provisions of the Act of 40 Geo. III., notice ceived was an examination in the Greek is hereby given, that the professorship of cheTestament. When they were preparing vacant on the 16th of May next, and that on

mistry in Trinity College, Dublin, will become for ordination they went to a person called Saturday, the 27th of May, the Provost and a "crammer,” and they then took up senior Fellows, at the board-room of Trinity “ Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History,” “Ma- College, will proceed to elect a professor of gee on the Atonement,” and “ Marsh's chemistry. The emoluments of this professorLectures.” They then went forth to coun- ship consist of a sum of 2001. paid annually by try districts as clergymen, and from the the College, and of four guineas' fee paid by nature of the education they received, en

each person attending the professor's lectures. tertained the most bitter feelings against liament, said professorship is open to Pro

Under the provisions of said Act of Parthe Catholic religion, regarding it, as it testants of all nations, provided they shall have had been described in another place, as taken medical degrees, or shall have obtained a the master-piece of Satan. Here was a license to practise from the College of PhysiProtestant clergyman receiving his educa- cians, in consequence of a testimonium under tion in a place where all the emoluments

the seal of Trinity College." were bestowed on Protestants, and where The professorship was open to the Protesthe Catholics were sedulouly excluded from tants of all nations, but it was shut to the every place of trust and emolument, which Catholics of Ireland. It must be in the naturally engendered a feeling as to the recollection of the House that the right hon. inferiority of the latter. He repudiated Baronet at the head of the Government, all distinctions between institutions found on a recent occasion, passed a high but a ed by the endowments of Catholics or Pro- just eulogium on the attainments of Protestants. If there was an endowment of fessor Kane, who, he stated, was the first a Catholic institution from Protestant professor of chemistry in Ireland. Now, money, you would complain— how then it so happened, thai Professor Kane was could you take the endowment for the ineligible to this professorship, which was Protestant Church from the Catholics ? open to Protestants of all nations. A But in this case did they intend to keep Frenchman, or a German, or a Spaniard up Protestant exclusiveness in this Col. might be eligible, but these professorships lege ? He had always understood that the were shut to the people of Ireland. If the institutions were made for the people, and penal laws were wrong, do not allow such not the people for the institutions. On this restrictions as these to exist, but carry out point he would refer to a speech made a the principle of the Act of 1793. It was short time ago by the right hon. Secretary the bounden duty of the House rather to for the Home Department. That right extend inquiry into the College, after the hon. Gentleman declared that he could case which he had stated. The right hon. see no relation between science and sects, Baronet, who apparently had more love and then proceeded to say

for a precedent than a principle, could “ In the case of metaphysics and moral phi-point. A Commission had been appointed

be furnished with a striking one on this losophy, I can see no possible reason or necessity for requiring professors of any particular to inquire into the Scotch Universities-creed in order to render them competent why not have one, then, to inquire into the teachers in those branches of instruction; and (Irish University? The right hon. Gentle


man said, that there were peculiarities in once say that he came, in the present inlegislating for Ireland; but surely, that stance, to the same conclusion at which he was no ground for resisting inquiry. If it had then arrived. Since the former discould not be properly done by thai House, cussion, however, he had had the subject why not submit it to Royal hands, and to more under his consideration, and he had a Sovereign who rivalled Elizabeth in all also considered what grounds there were the bigh attainments of legislation, and for the House of Commons addressing the was superior to her in all the softer at- Crown upon the question; and, having tributes which adorned the woman, and listened with attention to the speech of under whose sway more had been done the hon. Member, he had been unable to for Ireland than under all the Sovereigns discover that the hon. Member had alleged before her? The hon. Member concluded any Parliamentary grounds whatever for by proposing the following Amendment:- the adoption of the course recommended. “ That an humble Address be presented to

It appeared to him that the hon. Member

had not been able to allege any specific Her Majesty, praying that She will be graciously pleased to direct an inquiry to be made abuse or misappropriation of the moneys of into the amount of the Revenues of Trinity this University. But what were, in deCollege, Dublin, from rents of College lands, tail, the abuses of which the hon. Gentleendowments and bequests, fees on matricula- man complained ? In the first place, he tion, on taking degrees, and from every other said that a certain number of the Fellows source ; also, into the manner in which that had been allowed to marry. It was not income is expended, the number of Senior and for him to give an opinion if that indulJunior Fellows, of Professors, Scholars, and all other Officers of the College, with the amount gence which had been given to Trinity of salary and allowances to each of them ; with College had been rightly conceded, or not; a view to ascertain whether the income or but he might be permitted to remind the funds at present applied solely to the benefit of hon. Gentleman, that that concession was Protestants in Trinity College, Dublin, might an arrangement which had been made but not be beneficially extended, so as to make a very few years ago, and during the period Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters when Lord Fortescue was the Lord Lieueligible, if otherwise qualified, to all Scholar- tenant of Ireland—the previous Governships, and to all such Fellowships, Professor-ment having constantly refused to grant it ships, and other Offices in Trinity College, –and he thought it was, therefore, rather Dublin, as are not intended for ecclesiastical hard on the part of the hon. Member to purposes, or immediately connected with ec. clesiastical endowment."

charge that as an abuse against the Uni. Mr. Bellew seconded the Motion. He versity, which had been done with the said, a Catholic could not go through his took place, and against which he had never

consent of the Government under which it studies at Oxford; he could go through heard any complaint or remonstrance on his studies at Cambridge, but could not the part of the people of Ireland. But take a degree; at Dublin he could both the senior Fellows, said the hon. Member study and take a degree. He could also --and this was the head and front of their vote for the Member of Parliament for the offence-enjoyed very large emoluments, University. This was not included in the amounting to between 2,0001. and 3,0001. charter of Elizabeth. The hon. Mem

a year.

The hon. Member, indeed, did ber proceeded to draw a distinction be- not say that he had any very accurate data tween the systems pursued in the Univer- to go upon in making this charge ; but he sities of England, and that pursued in the (Sir T. Fremantle) thought that he University of Dublin. He maintained that ought, before he made such statements, to so long as that system was to be continued, have had some better grounds for them than so long would exist that Protestant ascen- he appeared to have had. Now, if he misdancy which the Government appeared to took not, the right hon. and learned Genthink had gone by. He thought that there tleman (Mr. Shaw) who represented the ought to be a second College united to University of Dublin, had made a statement Trinity College, forming together the Uni- not very long ago upon this subject, and versity of Dublin.

had observed that, after making every inSir T. Fremantle said, that when, on a quiry into the case, he was prepared to former occasion, the hon. Member for state that the incomes of the senior Fellows Wycombe had brought forward a similar did not exceed 1,5001.—and that a considMotion to the present, he had considered erable portion of that sum

was derived it his duty to resist it; and he might at from professorships held by them, and to


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