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is administered to the students. The ut- , to compact, whether we look to prescripmost latitude is given for the peculiar be- tion, or whether we look to the practical eflief of the different students, while ample fect, and to the good resulting from the mainsecurity is taken with regard to the religi- tenance of the present system, which was ous teaching of the professors. These Col. ratified by the Union, and has been so long leges have risen in reputation throughout established, it is expedient, with reference the long period during which these tests to the circumstances and interests of Scothave been enforced; the ablest men have land, to maintain the existing tests. I gone forth from them, and students in have considered the matter very carefully, great numbers have received instruction. and whatever obloquy may be cast upon There was a large influx of students up to me by the right hon. Gentleman, whose a very recent period, and the Colleges were custom it is to impute to his adversaries in a most flourishing condition ; and, al- the lowest and most unworthy motives, though the shock given to these institu- my conviction is, I repeat, that it is tions by the serious secession which took my bounden duty, in existing circumplace about two years ago has been consid-stances, to vote for maintaining the preerable, yet I am bound to state, that the sent tests. I think the doctrine procondition of the Universities at present is pounded by the right hon. Gentleman, not one of decay, it is not a condition that the Established Church of Scotland, which would lead us to infer that they as it existed at the time of the Union, was have ceased to fourish. I have stated to so shaken by the Act of 1712, and by the the House what I believe would be the ef- Act which was passed two years ago, that fect of abolishing the existing tests. Un- it is no longer to be regarded as the Estabhappily, those who have left the Church lished Church of that country, is an exvery recently have avowed their bitter ceedingly dangerous one; yet upon that hostility to it, and their desire that it doctrine this measure mainly rests, and the should be overthrown. I have stated the adoption of the measure would be the reasons why, in a short time, if these tests adoption of the doctrine by the British Leshould be withdrawn, the enemies of the gislature. If I had hesitated before, the Church will have, if not a preponderating speech of the right hon. Gentleman would strength in the governing body of the have confirmed my apprehensions with reUniversities, at any rale such a degree of ference to the measure under consideration. influence and power as would enable them On the grounds which I have stated, I certo carry out their hostile purposes in the tainly feel it my duty to move that the Bill University to a considerable extent. Hi- be read a second time this day three months. therto sectarian teaching has been avoided ; !

Mr. James S. Wortley regretted that no but I very much doubt whether this would be the case if the proposed change were House rose to reply to the speech of the

Gentlemen on the opposite side of the effected; I rather think that the change right hon. Baronet. It might seem strange, would lead to sectarian teaching and to the that after the triumphant answer of his prevalence of religious discord. There is right hon. Friend (cheers) —if hon. Gentleanother point which should not be omitted

men allowed him to finish the sentence, in considering this question. In the long they would see there was no cause for series of years which have elapsed since thai cheer--to the speech of the right hon. the connexion between the Church of Scotland and the Universities was formed, Gentleman, he rose to address the House a large amount of property has been left but he did not scruple to affirm that he

in opposition to the measure now proposed; by private individuals to these various Colleges. Bequests have been made on rested his opposition, at least in part, to the faith that the connexion between the the measure, on the peculiar circumstanEstablished Church and the Colleges will ces of the time at which it was brought be maintained. If you dissolve that con

forward. When they heard the Church nexion—if the governing body, which has of Scotland denounced in that House as the power of administering the bequests a religious faction, it was not difficult to made, and of exercising the trust re

foresee that the effect of the success of posed, shall become a body dissenting from this Bill would be, to excite still further the Church-it will inevitably happen that public feeling in Scotland. His first im. property which was intended for members pression was in favour of conceding what of the Church will be alienated. On the was asked in this reasure; but upon whole, I am decidedly of opinion that, inquiry into the state of feeling in Scot. whether we look to law, whether we look land, he conceived bimself justified in

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resisting the Bill. Such was the state of able, the convincing, the unanswered, and feeling in Scotland, that this measure unanswerable speech of the right hon. would be regarded as a triumph by one Gentleman the Member for Edinburgh party over another. This would, there (Mr. Macaulay), on moving the second fore, be a most unhappy moment for its reading of the Bill, had not a Gentleman adoption. But that was not his only opposite risen as the defender of the course reason for opposing the Bill. For his which the Government had taken with part, he was for limiting the application reference to this Bill. Having been one of tests as much as possible; but they of the few Members present when the hon. were not, in this instance, imposing new and learned Member for Leith (Mr. Rutests. These tests existed before the therfurd) moved for and obtained leave to Union with Scotland; and they had introduce this Bill, and having witnessed never been used for the purpose of re- with satisfaction the course which the Go. ligious persecution. The utmost latitude, vernment then took with respect to it, he it was admitted, had been given, not with felt called upon, as an English Member standing their existence; and the present of the House, to express his regret at the attempt to abolish them was prompted course which the riglit hon. Baronet (Sir by the enemies of the Church of Scotland. James Graham) felt himself compelled There was no question, that if they re- now to take, in opposing the further propealed these tesis, a struggle would fol-gress of the Bill. Ti must have been evilow to wrest the Universities from the dent to every one who listened to the Church. He agreed with the majority of right hon. Gentleman, that he spoke that House, that they must have a Church against his own convictions, that he reaconnected with the State, and if so, they soned against his own better judgment, should have a University connected with that he was speaking, in fact, under a the Church. The present question, in secret compulsion, which imposed upon fact, was, whether they would give the him an arduous task a task, which Free Church a triumph over the Church though ably performed, he had performed of Scotland. The members of the Free reluctantly, whilst his whole manner Church, of whom he wished to speak showed that he was not giving utterance wiib every respect, were pledged to use to his real sentiments. Pressed as the their utmost efforts to destroy the Church; Government were by the right hon. Memand the carrying of this measure would ber for Edinburgh, with the most crushbe received by them as a triumph over it. ing arguments by which he illustrated The question was by no means, whether their inconsistency in the course which they all classes in Scotland should have edu- now adopted, as compared with that cation, for it was admitted they had it which they had taken when leave was under the present system; but the ques- given to introduce the Bill, and their still tion was, whether they would transfer an more marked inconsistency in the course establishment, founded and endowed by which they were now taking, in urging private individuals, 10 persons who were the reimposition of those tests in Scoiihe advocates of the voluntary system, and land, as compared with that which, to consequently the enemies of all religious their credit, they had adopled with regard establishments. The right hon. Genile to the Irish Colleges Bill, and to which man said that, if this Bill were not carried, they declared themselves prepared to a new College would be established by adhere; the right hon. Gentleman got the Free Church; but he did not think up, and took credit to the Government that the carrying of this measure would for their very inconsistency, and stated prevent the establishment of that College, that they were not to be bound in their nor was he disposed to desire that the future course by any regard to what had establishment of that College should be been done on former occasions; and that prevented.

the policy of the Government was an everSir G. Grey felt that some apology was varying policy—a policy varying according due 10 the House for his addressing it to the circumstances in which they found upon a subject more immediately con- themselves called upon to act. nected with a part of the country with licy of any Government must, to a certain which he could claim no personal con- l extent, vary according to circumstances ; nexion. He should have felt reluctance but the right hon. Genileinan seemed to 10 rise on the present occasion, after the have forgotten that there was such a

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thing as principle even in the variations of not having then intimated his opinion policy, which should keep them within the that the Bill was to be opposed.' The limits of consistency; and that their po. hon. Member for Perthshire (Mr. Home licy should, in all its changes, be free Drummond) was a Member of that Comfrom that discord and inconsistency which mission; and he distinctly stated, that his exposed the Government to such severe authority, as a Member of that Commisreproofs as were justly administered by sion, was not to be quoted in favour of his right hon. Friend the Member for the continuance of these tests; and adEdinburgh. He heard with deep regret, vised Her Majesty's Ministers to be very from the right hon. Baronet, the avowal, cautious before they opposed the passage the truth of which must have been forced of this Bill. The right hon. Baronet atupon the Government, since the former tempted to show that the continuance of debate upon this Bill, that sectarian cold the tests had only been partial. Nobody legiate education in Scotland was now denied that. The right hon. Gentleman inevitable. The hon. and learned Gen- was unable to adduce a single instance in tleman opposite (Mr. J. S. Wortley) which a professor was prevented from acasked what grievance was complained of? cepting a professorship, or any in which There were no better terms in which he a professor was removed from his profes(Sir George Grey) could describe that sorship, for not taking the tests. A case grievance than as a sectarian collegiate occurred to him (Sir George Grey), in education for Scotland. As 10 the argu- which a known Episcopalian, within two ment on which the Government rested ihe years after taking his degree, became alteration of their policy, what circum- Greek professor at the University of Glasstances had occurred, subsequently to the gow, and who remained an Episcopalian former debate, which induced them to during the continuance of his professorcome to the conviction that the hope ship, and continued an Episcopalian until which they then entertained had been de- he died. He now alluded to Sir Daniel stroyed? How long was it since the Lord Sanford. [Sir J. Graham: He did take Advocale was examined, and gave his the test.) He had no reason to suppose evidence before the Commission of In- he did, but if an English Episcopalian quiry into the Criminal Law of Scotland ? could take the test, what reason was there In answer to the following question :- that a Member of the Free Church could

not--if an Episcopalian were admitted, “ Are there any penal enactments in Scotland, as represented by Mr. Hume in his under such circunstances, to a profesCommentaries, affecting persons differing from sorship—why should not a Free Churchthe national religion, except Papists ?” his man be admitted also ? So far as he could reply was, ' There are restrictions. We have gather, the whole argument if argument now pending in the House of Commons, a it could be admitted to be, for maintain. Bill, brought in to relieve from disabilities, ing these tests, was founded upon the in regard to professorships in the Univer danger which was apprehended from Free sities.'"

Churchmen and members of the Estab. At page 41, the Report of the Commis- lished Church meeling as professors in sion siated that

the same University. If the passage of “ In Scotland there appear to be no reli- this Bill were prevented, he did not see gious tests as a qualification for holding offices how the calamity of a sectarian collegior places of trust, except for the admission

ate education was to be averted; and he of the office-bearers, professors, and teachers, hoped the House would interpose, by sufin the Universities, and for parochial school

. masters; in the latter of which cases, tests

fering the Bill to pass, to avert such a have always been imposed, though in some calamity. The result of a sectarian eduof the Universities they have been, to a great

cation would be to multiply and perpeextent, in abeyance. As this subject is attuate those differences, which he earnestly present under the consideration of Parlia- | hoped would be speedily allayed and diment, we do not consider it proper to offer minished, by bringing members of the any opinion upon it.”

Free Church and of the Church as estabThey expressly abstained from recom- lished by law within the same University, mending the continuance of tests, which and there training the youth of different came under the class of penal enactments, persuasion together. The right hon. because a Bill upon the subject was pend- Gentleman said that during a century ing in Parliament, the Lord Advocate l and a half these tests had been, to a cer


tain extent, in operation. But let him, no person entitled to claim the benefit of remind the right hon. Gentleman, that that compact. It was true, said his right during that time, comparatively speaking, bon. Friend, that if any persons remained religious peace had been known in Scot- in the same condition in 1845 as they were land. During that century and a half, in 1707, he would admit their claim, as the religious differences had not occupied Church of Scotland and the Universities the prominent place in men's minds connected with it, to have the protection which they formerly occupied. But what of those tests which it was the object of this would be the case now? Every man Bill to remove; but that the Church of would look to his neighbour with suspi- Scotland, since 1842, had ceased to be that cion; and he feared that the differences Church contemplated by the Act of 1690. which he deprecated, would grow and That argument struck him (Sir R. Inglis) multiply as before. Such would be the at the time; but, on reconsideration, it effect of obstructing this Bill. The hon. seemed to him to prove too much, as it and learned Gentleman (Mr. S. Wortley) proved the utter extinction of any Church said, that the General Assembly had this to which the faith of the nation was pledged.

It could not be said, that it could be sought year discontinued the attempt recently made against Sir David Brewster.

in the Free Church ; and, if not, wliat

But would this attempt not be repeated, or alternative was there but to recognise the might it not be repeated? The Assem corporate body of the Church of Scotland, bly of this year had discontinued the pro: thorized Assembly, was then lying on the

the petition from whom, through their auceedings; but that of next year might

Table ? The question was not whether encourage similar attempts, and give them their sanction and countenance." It they should impose tests

, but whether they

should remoye those which had existed for was to prevent the possibility of the re

the last 150 years.

It was clear, by refercurrence of such attempts that he supported the present Bill. To the Bill he ral Assembly, but to Acts of Parliament,

ence not merely to the decrees of the Genegave his cordial assent, and he could that from the period of the Reformation, not help thinking that the House should the intention was, that the institution of interpose between the opinion expressed the Church should be connected with acaby the Government, that a sectarian col-demical education, and that they, and they legiate education was inevitable for Scots only, should have rule and authority in the land, and their decision that no attempt Colleges of Scotland who were in commuwas to be made to avert such a result. nion with the Church of Scotland. He deeply regetted the course which the not quite fair in the right hon. Member for Government had determined upon pursu- Edinburgh to taunt his right hon. Friend ing; for, as the natural result of that the Secretary of State for the Home Decourse, he saw springing up a rival Uni-partment with inconsistency, because he did versity to the Universities already exist- not recognise religion as the essential basis ing—a rivairy which, he feared, would of education in the Irish Colleges Bill. go far to reopen all the sources of re- His right hon. Friend had expressly deligious difference and animosity, and clared that Ireland was an exceptional case to perpeluate the schism which had al- that the course he felt bound to adopt ready unhappily taken place. He ear- differed from his general conviction, and nestly trusted, that before it was too late from that which, under other and happier the Government would reconsider their circumstances, he should have been ready decision.

to apply to Ireland itself. The question Sir R. Inglis said, his right hon. Friend was altogether different when applied to the Member for Edinburgh would acquit Scotland, where, he believed, the large him of any intention to speak of him body of the people were still attached to with any disrespect, if he said that of his the national Established Church, whose speech — brilliant and beautiful as were ministers for the last forty years had lamany of its passages—there was only one boured most assiduously in the discharge argument which seemed to him (Sir R. of their spiritual functions. He was also Inglis) to be a piece of ordnance that had ready to bear his testimony to the piety, made any impression on the bulwark he self-devotion, and great sacrifices made by had attacked. It was this that whereas the ministers of the Free Church; although there was a compact entered into in 1707 he could not think they were justified by by the Act of Union, there was at present a difference, not in doctrine or discipline, VOL. LXXXII. {Series


It was



but in church government, in breaking up the House would not assent to the second the peace of Scotland by their secession. reading of the Bill. He should vote against the Bill.

Mr. C. Buller said, when he recollected Mr. Pringle hoped the House would the proud eminence on which the hon. reject this Bill, which, be believed, if Gentleman who had just spoken stood in passed, would be most injurious, if not the eyes of the country on account of the wholly ruinous, to the Universities and singular sacrifice he had made of interest the interests of education in Scotland. to conscience in the course of the present These tests had existed in the Universities Session, he was prepared to expect someof Scotland from a period coeval almost what more clear principles of morality with the foundation of the Universities from his lips. He could scarcely conthemselves. Episcopalians themselves, ceive a test more grating to the consuch as Sir Daniel Sandford, had not scientious feelings and the honest pride of objected to take them, and there was no an honourable man, than that which the reason why members of the Free Church hon. Gentleman would keep up, and for should refuse subscription. Only those having taken which, for the purpose of would be excluded by their operation who obtaining a professorship, the member of refused to pledge themselves that they another church than the Presbyterian would not use their powers or privileges Church of Scotland was now defended. to the prejudice or subversion of the The right hon. Gentleman and the hon. Church of Scotland. The General As- Member for Selkirkshire contended that sembly of the Church of Scotland had this test did not operate as an exclusion ; petitioned the Legislature in the strongest but what, he asked, could tend more 10 terms against the Bill. The Free Church, keep out the members of another church and many other religious denominations from those professorships, than to extort in Scotland, had established educational from them a declaration that they pracinstitutions for the instruction of persons lised the worship of a Church to which of their own communion ; and, if this they did not belong? A man might, perBill were adopted, the Established Church haps, as in the case of Sir D. Sandford, of Scotland would be the only ecclesi- feel himself justitiell, by the usages of soastical establishment in that country ciety, and the lax tone of morals around which would be denied the privilege of him, in making the required declaration, possessing academical institutions for the though he was a member of a different education of its members. He called church; but this only showed the perfect upon hon. Gentlemen to reflect what farce of the profession. But he could would be the result of adopting this mea- scarcely understand such an argument as sure. At present the patronage connected coming from an hon. Member who had with the University of Edinburgh was most consistently, certainly, supported the vested in the Town Council, which had proposition for separate religious instructhe power of appointing the professors, tion being provided in the Irish Colleges subject to the control of the Act of Par- for the Protestant apart from the Roman liament imposing the existing tests; but, Catholic pupilsif those tests were abolished, every

elec- Mr. Pringle : The difference between tion would probably give rise to a con- the Roman Catholic Church and the test between the two parties in the Protestant Church is a difference of esChurch, in which the students of the sentials; while that between the Episcopal University would necessarily be involved. Church and the Presbyterian Church of He also entertained strong objections to Scotland, is not a difference of essentials. this measure on the ground that it would Mr. C. Buller contended that such a materially affect the whole system of edu- distinction did not justify the test, which cation in Scotland. The system of na- was one that ought not to continue ; and tional education in that country had been seeing the principle on which the Go. mainly, if not solely, originated by the vernment had acted with regard to IreEstablished Church ; and the result show- land, he could not understand how they ed how faithfully that Establishment had, could support it. The right hon. Baronet in this respect, discharged its duties ; but (Sir James Graham) rested his argument the adoption of the Bill now before the in favour of the application of a different House would, in his opinion, be most in principle to Scotland from that the Go. jurious to the extension of education in vernment had applied in the case of IreScotland. On these grounds, he hoped' land, upon the different circumstances of

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