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more comfortable school to the pupils, was had induced them to increase the grant for deserving of the greatest praise. He hoped education in England and Ireland. He that the right hon. Baronet would go hoped that if this grant should be found further, and allow a small portion of land insufficient for its object, that the grant in the agricultural districts to the teacher, would be increased, and that some report so as to enable him to command more com- would be laid before the House of the apfort. This would be peculiarly applicable plication of the former grant, the various in the case of Ireland, and more so than in points of expenditure, and the mode in the case of England, as land would be which the money was disposed of. He more easily procured for such purpose. He was glad to see that the Committee of the wished to call the attention of the right Privy Council had increased their exerhon. Baronet to the means that might be tions in assisting schools with school mataken to improve the condition of teachers, terials, such as maps. He thought this a in Ireland particularly. It was proposed, matter of great importance. He believed that the National Board of Education in that no people were more ignorant of the Ireland should be incorporated, so as to extent, the various circumstances, and enable them to take lands for the purposes statistics of the British possessions, than the to which he (Mr. Wyse) had adverted. He British people generally were. Now in thought that great improvement might be Prussia this was not the case. Every made in the normal schools, upon the un- school in Prussia was furnished with an derstanding that a certain system of educa- atlas, containing an exposition of the es. tion should be adopted in those schools tent and relations of the Prussian dominwhich would be satisfactory. He thought ions; and to which was appended a rathat, under such an arrangement, an in- rious and extensive amount of statistical creased sum of money might be given for facts with respect to the population, rethe improvement and enlargement of those venue, extent of territory, and various schools. He rejoiced at the statement other circumstances appertaining to Pruswhich had been made by the right hun. sia, so that every boy in those schools in Baronet, and which he had reason to think Prussia was made acquainted with the from his observation of the conduct pur- leading facts connected with the geograsued by the right hon. Baronet on this phical and statistical state and relations of question on former occasions, he was sure Prussia. He thought that this was a sub--that those observations were not made ject worthy of consideration, and meansought lightly, but that they would be followed, to be taken to diffuse a similar knowledge as they had heretofore been, by deeds and with respect to Great Britain, through the

He hoped that, after the ob- means of those schools, to the boys educated servations that had been made by the right in them. He hoped that if the right hon. hon. Baronet-a declaration which was Baronet should find the grant of 75,000l. most satisfactory-that his hon. Friend insufficient, that he would recommend a (Mr. Ewart) would be induced to with larger grant. He concluded by expressing draw his Motion.

his satisfaction at what had been stated by Mr. Hume expressed the pleasure which the right hon. Baronet, and he thought he felt at the declaration of the right hon. that after that declaration his hon. Friend Baronet on the subject of education. He could not do better than to leave the malwas glad to find that a subject of such ter in the hands of the Government. great importance had been brought for- Mr. Hawes was glad that the Motion of ward by his hon. Friend. He was happy his hon. Friend had been brought forward, to hear, from the statement of the right as it had elicited the important declaration hon. Gentleman, that the cause of educa- of the right hon. Baronet. No grant which tion, and the education of the people at the Government could propose would large, engaged the best attention of the meet with more cordial satisfaction from Government. He was glad to find that that House, than an increased grant for the the desire of the Government was that all purposes of education. In saying this, he classes should be educated without ex- could not but consider the grant of 75,0001. clusion. He was glad to see, in the as inadequate for the great purposes to increased grant for education, an increased which it was intended to be applied. The desire on the part of the Government to education now afforded in our public promote the education of all classes with schools

very imperfect Private out exclusion. He was glad to see that teachers were necessary in addition to the their interest in the cause of education school instruction. This increased the



expenses, which were so great as to put this, and showed that the school bad exit out of the power of the middle classes to cited the highest expectations amongst avail themselves of them. He thought the manufacturers, for it stated something like the collegiate system which “In the course of the last year, numerous they had lately established in Ireland applications have been received for the execumight be introduced into this country with tion of designs in various departments of great advantage. It was necessary, also, ornamental art, and every endeavour has been to improve the position of teachers, and to made to comply with these requests, as far as induce men of talent and ability, by hold. the execution of such commissions has been ing out to them sufficient advantages, to consistent with, and could be made to form a continue to devote themselves to the in- part of, the prescribed exercises and course of

study in the school. Designs for different struction of youth. With this view, he purposes have thus been furnished to manuwould suggest that a fixed annual sum facturers in London, and in several provincial should be allowed, in the shape of a pen-towns, and from time to time manufacturers sion, say from 501. to 1001. each, to such and others have purchased of students various schoolmasters as had distinguished them- designs which have been produced in the perselves by great talent and long service in formance of the exercises of the school.' In

the number of such commissions, and in the the instruction of youth. Amendment negatived.

extent to which the productions of the students are applied to commercial purposes, a con

stant increase is evident; and ihe numerous SCHOOL OF Design.) On the Question communications which come before the Counthat the Speaker do now leave the Chair, cil at each monthly meeting of the committee

Mr. W. Williams said, if the right hon. op. correspondence, as well as the frequent Baronet would consent to the appoint. visits and inquiries of persons connected with ment of the Committee for which he had ornamental manufactures, may be noticed in given notice of his intention to move, he and those commercial parties

whose interests

proof of increasing relations between the school would not detain the House with a single this institution was especially designed to observation.

promote.'' Sir R. Peel believed his hon. Friend The failure of the school was attributed would be able to show that there was no

as he believed, to the constitution of its ground whatever for the allegations in the

managing body. The whole management petition upon which the hon. Member tad

was confided to twenty-four gentlemen, founded his case for a Committee. If so, who were called the Council of the School; and considering that it would be most ob- and when was there an instance of any jectionable to do any thing that might institution having a governing body of tend to cncourage insubordination in the this nature, consisting of iwenty-four school, he must refuse his assent to the Motion.

persons, being successful? Some time Mr. W. Williams would then proceed

after the commencement of the school, to call the attention of the House" to the Mr. Dyce, a distinguished artist and very circumstances under which he brought


talented man, was appointed to conduct ward the Motion. He believed he was it, and he performed that duty with great in a condition to prove that great mis- ability and perfect satisfaction to all management existed in regard to this in parties. He was, however, removed, in stitution. That it had proved a complete consequence of some dispute with the

directors. A Mr. Wilson was then apfailure for the objects for which it was instituted was proved by the Report of the pointed director, a gentleman unlike Mr. Committee which had been just presented Dyce, for he was neither artist nor workto the House. The Committee say

Subsequently, a gentleman most

distinguished for bis talent, an associate “ It is to be regretted that manufacturers Royal Academician, and one of the most are not more generally disposed to meet the views of such candidates for their service, and rising men of the day, Mr. Herbert, was to afford them such facilities and liberal en appointed to teach the school. That couragement as would serve to secure, for the genileman, believing that the school was purposes of ornamental manufactures, much capable of producing great national ad. available talent, which, in default of such en. vantages, undertook for a salary, which couragement, is often withdrawn from the could be of no object to him, the duties further study of ornament, and directed ex- of master. The great ability of Mr. clusively to the pursuit of fine art.”

Herbert was admitted by the Council But the very next paragraph contradicted themselves in their Report; he was, how


ever, dismissed. And he understood that Mr. Herbert, their former master, the on the occasion of that gentleman's dis- same salary he had been allowed at the missal, four only of the twenty-four mem- school, namely, 1001. a year, if he would bers of the Council were present. No undertake their instruction, devoting only doubt there were many highly talented one-half of the time to that duty which men amongst the members of the Council; he had been required to give at the school; but the great misfortune was that they but that gentleman refused, for he could seldom or never attended. One great make five times as much by applying the difficulty in carrying out the objecis of same time to his profession." In consesuch an institution as the School of De- quence of the young men who gained the sign was the getting together a class of prizes last year being expelled, there was talented young men advanced in the arts. now nobody in the school to compete for That difficulty had, in this case, been got them. And here he must say that the over, and a class was formed, consisting Council bad acted with less fairness than of thirty-nine young men efficient as be expected, in declining to mention in artists, that efficiency being proved by the their Report the names of those students fact, that five of the prizes given in 1843 w ho gained prizes last year, and were were obtained by members of this class ; afterwards expelled. He was informed and last year the same class carried away that the exhibition this year exhibited a thirteen of the highest out of twenty miserable lack of talent, and the prizes prizes. The young men composing this were chiefly obtained by persons who senior class wrote a letter 10 the Council, could not be said to belong to the school complaining that the director was not certainly by persons who had not been capable of affording them the instruction educated therein. One person, who had they required ; and the Council for this, gained two prizes, had been seven years a without any inquiry, ordered their expul- designer in some of the manufacturing dis. sion.

The right hon. Baronet (Sir R. tricts of Scotland, and had obtained a Peel) said they should not encourage a respectable living there by his talents as a rebellious spirit amongst the pupils; and designer. Another person, who had gained no doubt he thought that the thirty-three prizes, had only been three months at seven scholars who had made these repre- the school, having been educated elsewhere. sentations to the Council were mere boys, Two or three other old designers had obor the sons of poor men. They were tained prizes. Let the House look at the neither. There were amongst them the falling-off in the number of pupils this sons of gentlemen as respectable as many year, as compared with the last. In April, of those he was now addressing; and 1844, the number of pupils attending the instead of being mere boys, they were for evening classes was 196; in July it was the most part men between twenty-one 189, showing a falling-off of seven. This and thirty years of age, many of whom year, the number in April was 186, and had evinced considerable talent. The in July, as he was told, it was only 111, Council had since offered to permit the being a falling off of seventy-five. This was return of those young men upon terms to be attributed to the proceedings of the contained in a letter drawn up by this very Council in expelling thirty-seven of the Mr. Wilson, in language as offensive as most advanced and inost able young men could well be imagined. They were re- in the school. What was the present state quired to make a special application to of the school? Mr. Pugin, one of the the director, acknowledging the impro- most able men in this or any other counpriety of their previous conduct, and ex- try, stated that there were but two Engpressing their intention to conform them- lishmen of any talent in his service as selves in every respect, for the future, to decorators in the Gothic department, and all the regulations of the school, as laid these were two of the pupils who had down by ihe directors. This might be a been expelled from the School of Design. proper way to treat boys of fourteen or in a leiter which Mr. Pugin bad made fifteen years of age; but it was not the way public, he gave it as his opinion that to treat men who had left the school not there was no hope of seeing any real good from any rebellious spirit, but because effected by the School of Design, as at they found they were wasting their time at present managed; though under a difthere for want of sufficient means of in- ferent system it might have been made struction. These pupils had offered to the means of creating a school of national

artists. Should his Motion for a Com- of the young persons frequenting the mittee be not granted, he would entreat, School of Design, to go there with the for the sake of the public good, that, at view rather of studying in order to beall events, the right hon. Gentleman would come artists, than mere designers of patdismiss the Council, and, instead of hav- terns for manufactures. To this fact, ing twenty-four members, assemble aj might be traced the late unfortunate dissmaller body who would attend. He at- turbances in the school. By far the larger tached great importance to the subject. numbers of the alleged "senior students” Owing so much as he did to manufac- were under nineteen years of age; four of tures, he felt the greatest possible interest them were only fifteen, another four were in their advancemeot in every way. The only sixteen, and only five or six were hon. Gentleman concluded by moving above the age of twenty. An unfortunate that

difference, in which the petitioners had “A Select Committee be appointed, to in- taken part, had arisen between Mr. Herquire into the allegations contained in the bert and Mr. Wilson, the former having Petition of the Senior Students of the School applied disparaging epithets to the latter, of Design in Somerset House, and into the for which there could be no justification. general management and present state of that According to the rules of the school, noSchool."

lices had been affixed to the doors of the Sir G. Clerk was unable, upon the class rooms, stating that certain students part of the Government, to comply with had incurred punishments for inattention. the proposition of the hon. Member, as One of them had been attached to the he thought that nothing could be more door of Mr. Herbert's class room, and he calculated to destroy the prospect of pub- and his pupils took up the matter as a lic benefit arising from the School of De- personal insult. An unseemly altercation sign, than for the House to accede to the took place in the class room, Mr. Herbert prayer of a small number of students for appealing to the students against the à Committee of Inquiry into their alle character of Mr. Wilson. It was then gations. The hon. Member's complaints found necessary, in order to preserve disseemed to resolve themselves into two cipline, lo suspend the class. Let them classes, the one founded upon gross par- examine some of the statements of the tiality alleged to have been shown to Mr. students implicated; and then let them Wilson, the other on gross injustice al- say whether such representations, coming leged to have been perpetrated towards from boys, many of them under fifteen Mr. Herbert. Mr. Wilson was chosen years of age, to the effect that Mr. Wilby the directors to succeed to Mr. Dyce, son was incapable of giving them instrucupon that genileman's withdrawal from tion, could be for a moment entertained the establishment. He was an artist of by the House. The grievances of the very high talent, and one for whose works students had been put into a printed considerable prices had been given by the shape, under the title of their “deposibest judges. Besides his qualifications tions.” Now, among the students, there as an ariist, Mr. Wilson was a man of was one person, twenty-nine years of

age, fine taste and extensive knowledge of the named Hearn; and in order to show the history of the fine arts. Now, the duties animus by which these lads were inspired, of director of the School of Design were he would direct attention to some of his different from those of a mere teacher of statements. This gentleman then stated, painting. He did not wish to say a word that Mr. Wilson took him into his private in disparagement of Ms. Herberi; but he room to show him some of his (Mr. Wilwas employed in the school merely to son's) original drawings; and that on teach drawing from the figure-not a pri- being left to copy one of these, be dismary or principal object of the School of covered in a corner of the canvass the Design, but one of an entirely subsidiary name of an Italian artist. The inference nature. Mr. Herbert was not a teacher i was obvious. Now, the fact was ibis, of ornamental design; but unfortunately, Mr. Wilson had given this young man to because the pursuit of drawing from the copy some characteristic drawings of his figure was one more likely to be attractive own early Italian architecture, upon which to young men of artistic talent, than the he had written in the corner the name of mechanical work of designing patterns, the place at which the several drawings there was a tendency on the part of many were made, and which this learned critic VOL. LXXXII. { Series}

2 P

mistook-never having heard of the town being of opinion that the recent attack on of Orvieto--for the name of some great Mr. Wilson had been dictated by a bad unknown and unappreciated Italian ar. heart, he trusted that he had said enough tist. After this specimen of the talents to show the House the propriety of reand acquirements of the leader of the fusing the Committee moved for by the dissatisfied students, he put it to the hon. Member. House whether, on the ground of such Mr. Ewurt thought the time of the complaints, the hon. Member had made House ought not to be taken up by mere out his case for inquiry? However, personal disputes; but on that portion of if the hon. Member was right in his the question which was not personal a statement that the School of Design Member was justified in making a few was making no progress, that would remarks. What was the aspect of the case be an important point in his favour. before them? Did the hon. Baronet deny He hoped i hat he would go to the exhi- that the school was disorganized ? Thirtybition now open at Somerset-house, and seven of the senior pupils had seceded; perhaps he would there see what would he called the school disorganized, for it make him change his opinion.

That ex.

was thus torn and rent asunder. Mi. hibition was one of the best which had yet Herbert, the master, had left; the combeen opened to the public, and it had plaints were general; the manufacturers been got up without any particular osten. complained that they could not get good tation or straining afier effect. But the designs ; Mr. Pugin, one of the most emia best proof of the excellence of the patterns nent judges of art in the country, declared consisted in the fact that no sooner were the state of the school to be highly they exhibited than the greater number unsatisfactory, and said he was obliged to were purchased al high prices by eminent seek out artists to work his ornaments on manufacturers. There was a test of the the Continent. Had they not a right then progress

which the school had made. He to ask for inquiry? For what purpose was believed, too, that applications had been the school originally established ? It was made by various manufacturers to the established by Lord Sydenham, in conse. Council io recommend them to young men quence of the Report of a Committee of as designers in various branches of indus- which the hou. Member for Lambeth (Mr. trial production. Many persons, too, who Hawes) and other hon. Gentlemen were had formerly received their patterns from Members. He was asked by Lord Syden. France, found it unnecessary now to do bam to be a member of the Council, but, so, as they were enabled to get patterns disapproving of the constitution of the here drawn with just as much skill and school, he refused ; the school, he believed, taste as any received from abroad. An- would have gone on well had it been other proof of the success of the school properly conducted, and he believed it would be found in the progressive increase would hereafter produce excellent effects. of the students. Considering, indeed, the But the bon. Baronet (Sir G. Clerk) shortness of the time during which the seemed to consider that the object of the school had been founded, it was surprising school was to make workmen, not artists. how so much had been effected by it; and That was the fatal error; in that consisted although these students had complained the error of the whole system. A school of Mr. Wilson not being able to impart of design ought to rest upon iwo thingsinstruction to them, yet that gentleman the study of the human figure, and copyhad received the most flattering testimo-ing from nature. This was the course of nials from those who were really the senior study pursued by the most eminent artists, students of the school, thanking him for like Raffaelle, or those who had wrought the instruction and information which he practically in the art of ornament, like had communicated to them, both as re- Benvenuto Cellini. The great school of garded the history and the style of art in Napoleon at Lyons was based on the all ages and all countries. Under these study of the figure; and the school at circumstances, looking to the progress Somerset-house would attain greater emiwhich the school had made, to the satis- nence, if the same course of study were factory nature of the present exhibition, adopted. In Paris, in the Ecole Royale knowing that the situation of Mr. Herbert de Dessein and the Ecole Communale, had been filled up by an artist of quite as study from nature and life was rigidly great reputation; kuowing all this, and enforced. In the school ac Manchester

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