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country as 'a Roman province. Roman colonies then and afterwards were established in Dacia, from whom, combined with the native inhabitants and subsequent Bulgarian 'conque rors, the modern population may be considered as descended. The incidents of this war were sculptured upon the shaft of the historical column, erected in honor of the victories of Trajan, and much information touching the appearance, dress, arms, and military character of the ancient inhabitants of Wallachia and Moldavia has, in this singular manner, been perpetuated.* The language of the Wallachians of the present day, and the denomination by which they call themselves, are proofs of their descent. Their name, in their own tongue, is Roumuni. Eustace affirms, that, when one of these modern Romans offers to enlist in the Austrian service, he answers the usual question, what countryman he is, with the words, Romanus sum.' This is altogether fabulous, or if such a thing ever happened, the individual spoke, not his native Wallachian, but the ancient Latin, taught in the schools of Transylvania and Hungary. Any one, who will inspect only so much of this dialect as is given in Adelung's Mithridates, will see, that it is not so like the Latin as the Italian is. In addition to the mixture of aboriginal Dacic and Latin, the Slavoniari conquerors of a later period have furnished a full contribution to the language,

*The following stanzas from the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold," will remind the reader of the fate of the Dacian captives, when brought to Rome.

"I see before me the Gladiator lie;
He leans upon his hand-his manly brow
Consents to death, but conquers agony,
And his drooped head sinks gradually low,
And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow
From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one,
Like the first of a thunder-shower; and now

The arena swims around him,-he is gone,
Ere ceased the inhuman shout, which hailed the wretch who won.

"He heard it, but he heeded not,-his eyes
Were with his heart, and that was far away.
He recked not of the life he lost nor prize;
But where his rude hut by the Danube lay,
There were his young barbarians all at play,
There was their Dacian mother,-he, their sire,
Butchered to make a Roman holiday-

All this rushed with his blood.-Shall he expire
And unavenged ? Arise! ye Goths, and glut your ire !

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as well as to the natural stock of the Wallachians of the present time. What few books they have, are printed in the Slavonian character. The origin of the name of Wallachians, Valaques, Blózou, is unknown. It is not improbable that it connects itself with the history of their barbarous conquerors, from the Volga, in the ninth century, and is but another form of the name Bulgarians, still given to a tribe of these conquerors, which settled about the same time on the right bank of the Danube. A plausible hypothesis makes the Gypsies, which exist in greater numbers in Hungary and the Dacian provinces than in any other part of the world, remnants of the population existing in these provinces before the conquest of the Bulgarians, and by them reduced to the condition of serfs. Many of this degraded race lead a Nomadic life, but many others are attached to the soil, constituting the principal wealth of the Wallachian and Moldavian Boyards. They are called by the Turks Zingari, by the Wallachians Katrivelos. Their French name Bohémiens points to the region, in which they first attracted the notice of the cultivated nations of the west of Europe. What circumstance gave them their English name of Gypsies or Egyptians, we do not know.*

The line of Hospodars, or princes of Wallachia and Moldavia, goes back to the close of the thirteenth century, when Radul Negris, a prince of Transylvania, who crossed the mountains which separate that country from Wallachia, entered the latter province with his court and army, established himself there, and built the cities of Tergovista, Bucharest, Kimpolungo (Campus longus, a specimen of Dacian Latin), Petesti, and St George. Negris, or Negro, took the title of Wod, or Waywode, importing governor, and which is used in this and other parts of the Turkish empire, to the present day. The name of Hospodar, also a title of the governors of Moldavia and Wallachia, is of Slavonian origin.

The government thus established by Radul was a despotism like that of the ancient dukes of Russia, mitigated by the power and influences of the Boyards or nobles. On the death of the Waywode, his son or heir succeeded, not without a formal election on the part of the Boyards. After the conquest of

* We are aware, that a popular hypothesis makes them a wandering tribe from Hindostan. It seems difficult, on this supposition, to account for their concentration on the left bank of the Danube.

Moldavia and Wallachia by the Turks, and their reduction to the state of provinces tributary to the Porte, the same constitution of government subsisted. If the suffrages of the Boyards were divided, the Porte gave the investiture to the candidate who bid highest. This continued to be the practice till about a century since. In 1714, the Porte took the matter into its own hands, and nominated Constantine Mavrocordato to the place of Hospodar.

The chief wealth of the country, and the power of the state, are divided among the prince, the nobles, and the clergy. The nobles are of several orders, bearing their distinctive names. From the first order are selected the twelve great officers of state, whose names and functions it would occupy too much of this brief sketch to repeat. We will only observe, that the first of these, the Great Ban, the governor of Krajova, a kind of viceroy to the Hospodar, presents the remnant of a once sovereign title, of which a trace also is seen in the designation of a neighboring province, the Bannate of Temeswar.

The clergy are numerous; and the metropolitan, who is subject to the patriarch of Constantinople, and the two bishops of Rimnic and Bouzec, are dignitaries of great influence. The churches, monasteries, and other ecclesiastical houses are exceedingly numerous, and endowed with an undue proportion of the wealth of the country. They serve, however, as they do in all the christian countries tributary to the Porte, as eleemosynary establishments. Heavy contributions are levied from them, on the succession of a new prince; and no inconsiderable branch of Wallachian and Moldavian politics consists in the contests between the Hospodars and the priors of the monasteries, for the division of the substance which they unite to plunder from the people.

The government established by Radul in 1229 subsisted till 1383, when one of his successors by the name of Mirza, wearied with the constant state of warfare with the neighboring powers, and seeing the rapidly increasing ascendency of the Turks, placed himself and his principality under their protection, engaging to pay them a tribute, but stipulating for an undisturbed enjoyment of the rights of the people. This compact was of short duration. The Turks demanded an increase of tribute, and an addition to it of one hundred slaves. Mirza revolted, defeated the Sultan who marched against him, and reinstated the country in a condition of independence, which lasted seventy-seven years.

After a state of frequently renewed hostilities, the Waywode, Laiota Basaraba, in 1460, again submitted the province to the Porte; and the capitulation then entered into, has remained to the present day, a sort of Wallachian Magna Charta. Our limits do not permit us to quote it entire, but the diligent student of the constitutional law of the Dacian provinces will do well to peruse it in Engel. · It stipulates for the independence of the province on payment of a tribute ;-one Turk alone to be allowed to enter the principality, namely, the receiver of the tribute, and he under an escort from the Hospodar; the prince to have the right to make peace and war, and the power of life and death; Wallachians travelling in Turkey to be free from all taxes; the Hospodars to be chosen according to the ancient laws of the principality.

The provisions of this charter were renewed, at the confirmation of each new Waywode, and, with greater or less fidelity, observed till the early part of the last century. Till this period, the principality, under its native Waywodes, sustained armies, made war and peace with its neighbors, and enforced the respect of its rights from the Porte. In 1714 Brancovano, the last of the Wallachian princes chosen in accordance with the ancient constitution of the state, was assassinated, by order of a Turkish vizier, then present with his army at Bucharest, and Nicholas Mavrocordato was named by the Porte his suc


The distinction which a prince of the same name and family has attained in the present Greek revolution, induces us to dwell a moment upon the history of his ancestors. Alexander Mavrocordatos, the father of the Hospodar, studied medicine at Padua, at the age of twelve, and acquired a knowledge of the principal languages of Europe. He published a treatise on the circulation of the blood, which had been discovered about fifty years before by Dr Harvey, also a pupil of the school at Padua.* Although he obtained a high reputation at Constantinople as a physician, he abandoned the medical for the political career, and on the death of Panagioti Nicusio, was made drogoman of the Porte. In this capacity, he assisted at the negotiation of the treaty of Carlowitz. His services on this occasion procured him an appointment to the Turkish council of state. During his life, and by testamentary bequests, he founded a Greek school at Constantinople, which he placed under the care of Jacob Manos of Argos, a learned man of the Aristotelian school. A. Mavrocordatos died in 1709, leaving behind him a Roman history, an ecclesiastical history, and other curious and valuable works.

* The treatise of Mavrocordato bears this title; 'Pneumaticum Instrumentum circulandi Sanguinis, sive de Motu et Usu Pulmonum. Authore Alexandro Maurocordato Constantinopolitano, Philos. et Med. Doctor.' Its dedication to Ferdinand the Second, Grand Duke of Etruria, bears date Bologna, 1664. Harvey began to lecture on the circulation of the blood in 1616, and published his discovery in 1628.

The administration of his son Nicholas commenced at Bucharest in 1716. He inherited his father's talents, but was an oppressive prince, imposing burdens on his subjects, and surrounding himself with the needy Greeks of the Fanal. War broke out at this time between the Porte and the Austrians, Wallachia was overrun, and Mavrocordato carried a prisoner into Transylvania. During his confinement, his brother John, a wise and beneficent prince, was named by the Porte in his place. In about two years the latter died, and Nicholas, released from his captivity, reässumed the government. Taught by experience, his policy became milder and more benevolent. He devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and to literary pursuits, and died peaceably at the close of an administration of eleven years.

From this period, for a space of fifty years, the government of this and the adjoining principality, was, as it were, set up at auction, to be bought by the Greek princes who would pay most for it to the Porte, and who afterwards found their indemnity in extortions from the people. About the middle of the eighteenth century, the policy of Russia toward the Porte began to form and develope itself. These two provinces immediately presented themselves to Russia, in the interesting light of frontier regions of approach to Turkey, inhabited by a christian population of the Greek church, and claiming certain rights by ancient capitulations. For some time prior to the war of 1769, emissaries were sent by Catharine the Second into every part of Christian Turkey, and particularly into the ultra Danubian provinces. In 1769, an army, under Prince Galitzin, appeared on the Dneister, and another under Count Romantzof in the Ukraine. After various but decisive successes on the part of the Russians, the Wallachians formally submitted themselves to the empress in 1770. year took place the expedition of the Russians against the VOL. XXVII.-NO. 61.


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