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importance to him ; and, besides, he has to perform the duties of a public instructer. The causes that render the administration of justice in the German universities one of the most difficult tasks, arise, principally, from the circumstance, that the students have been educated in different institutions and under different forms of government, from which different associations and different national prejudices are inseparable. A large majority (generally two thirds) of the literary population of Göttingen, are foreigners, that is, such as do not belong to the states of Hanover, Brunswick, and Nassau. Pride of ancestry, high rank, national boast, national descent, and other like distinctions, must submit to the same laws of fair equality, which bind the middling classes. Hence frequent jealousies and a conflict of passions arise, which easily prompt the fervor of youth to rash deeds. The great number of the students also contributes to increase the difficulties. For although the government acts upon the sound principle, that academic prosperity depends rather on the industry and moral habits, than on the number of the students, yet this often exceeds fifteen hundred. If the decisions of the prorector bear the slightest mark of partiality, or if any weakness be discovered in his character, this motley community becomes unmanageable. The dignity of a magistrate and the authority of a parent must constantly combine to sanctify his authority.

The law respecting matriculation requires of home students a certificate of their attainments and moral character. Foreigners are only required to exhibit their passport. Examinations for admission and divisions into classes are unknown. Recitations from text-books are very unpopular. Frederic the Great once persuaded the professor of philosophy at Halle to cause his hearers to recite from Locke's 'Essay concerning Human Understanding. This singular attempt produced as singular an effect. The students unanimously deserted the professor, on the ground that for such purpose they needed no instructer. The ment, in order to keep the spirit of diligence ever active, obliges every home student to transmit a separate certificate of each course of lectures, furnished by the respective instructers, and signed by the president and secretary in the name of the senate. Farther to stimulate ambition, annual prizes are offered for the best dissertations written on difficult questions, relating to subjects within the departments of the four faculties, and also for the best sermon on a certain text. The proclamation of the victors in these intellectual games occasions the only public solemnity celebrated by the whole university, there being neither annual commencements, nor exhibitions of any kind. Every one pursues that course of studies which he or his friends may deem best adapted to his particular purposes.


The academic year is divided into two equal terms, at the close of each of which a catalogue of lectures to be delivered during the ensuing season is published. The lectures are either public (which are gratuitous), or private (for certain fees), or privatissima, at the private request of a limited number of students. Public lectures are given by public professors, ex officio, once or twice a week, but they have, of late, fallen almost into disuse. A regular course of private lectures is generally confined to one term, five or six being delivered in a week. Lectures, however, on the Pandects, on anatomy, ecclesiastical history, and some other subjects, are delivered two and sometimes three times a day, or are continued through more than one term. The average

number of courses of lectures on all branches of science and art is one hundred, in addition to those delivered by private instructers. Most lectures are accompanied by manuals, , for the double purpose of facilitating, by a general synopsis of the subject, the private studies of the hearer, and of sparing him the trouble of taking copious notes; a practice of which the benefit is unquestionable in regard to some sciences, but problematical in regard to others. The great value of such manuals may be conceived from Mr Bancroft's faithful English version of Heeren's History of the States of Antiquity, a fair specimen of this rich department of German academic literature.

Another extensive branch of lectures, also, is formed by the Encyclopædias of the various sciences. Encyclopædia (év xúxdą παιδεία οι εγκύκλιος παιδεία) originally implied the complete course or circle of a liberal education in science and art, as pursued by the young men of Greece ; namely, gymnastics, a cultivated taste for their own classics, music, arithmetic, and geometry. European writers give the name of encyclopædia, in the widest scientific sense, to the whole round or empire of human knowledge, arranged in systematic or alphabetic order ; whereas the Greek imports but practical school knowledge. The literature of the former is voluminous beyond description, it having been cultivated from the beginning of the middle ages to the present day. Different from either of them is the encyclopædia of the German universities; this is an introduction into the several arts and sciences, showing the nature of each, its extent, utility, relation to other studies and to practical life, the best method of pursuing it, and the sources from whence the knowledge of it is to be derived. An introduction of this compass is, however, with greater propriety styled encyclopædia and methodology. Thus we hear of separate lectures on encyclopædias and methodologies of divinity, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy, mathematical sciences, physical science, the fine arts, and philology. Manuals and lectures of this kind are exceedingly useful for those who are commencing a course of professional study. For the best way to learn any science,' says Watts, is to begin with a regular system, or a short and plain scheme of that science, well drawn up into a narrow compass.'

The whole circle of knowledge, taught in a university, has been brought into a system, and is ranged in two grand divisions, namely, anthropological sciences, representing man in all his intellectual and moral faculties; and ontological sciences, embracing all external objects. Each of these extensive empires contains four departments; the former contains philosophy, history, geography, and statistics or politics; the latter, mathematics, physics, natural history, and technology. Our limits prevent a specific enumeration of the subdivisions included under these several heads, but it is thus the contemplative mind of the philosopher arranges the empire of knowledge. In regard to the practical interests of life, however, the comparative value of the several sciences appears in a different light. Here the relative importance of the learned professions must be taken into consideration. And it is the object of a German university, as we have mentioned above, to furnish professional students with all the means and facilities of attaining a familiarity with those sciences, which they intend to practise in civil life, for the benefit of society and for the welfare of the state. Besides these professional studies, all the auxiliary branches of learning are placed within the student's reach, and enable him to develope all the faculties of his mind, whatever they be, to improve his taste for literature, to cultivate the feelings of his heart, and to polish his manners. In addition to this

, proper exercises strengthen his body, and a consistent and unyielding discipline averts all imminent dangers, menacing destruction to the spirit of harmony and peace, without which the best constitution is useless. On the other hand, effective measures are taken to encourage mental activity and studious habits, as the best protectors of virtue and good morals. How far practice ought to assist and illustrate theory, depends upon the nature of the different sciences and arts. Let practice, here, be subordinate to theory; but let theory be as distinct and perfect as time and circumstances admit. Empirical knowledge has no rational ground, and from this cause can never find favor in institutions founded on philosophical principles. Yet experiments, which either accompany or follow a plain exposition of theories, are indispensable to the understanding of medical, physical, and some of the mathematical sciences. An anatomical theatre, a hospital, and other clinical institutions for the practice of medicine and surgery; an establishment for the practice of obstetrics ; a collection of pharmaceutic specimens, with all its useful appendages, preparations, &c., for the illustration of the materia medica, are necessary for medical pursuits. An observatory with the best astronomical instruments must assist and encourage the study of astronomy; the instructor in natural philosophy and other physical sciences must have the use of an apparatus, and of a sufficient number of instruments, and collections of natural curiosities. Chemistry is to be studied in a laboratory with an extensive apparatus; and botany cannot be studied without a botanical garden. Above all, an ample library must furnish a general and liberal access to the best works of all ages and civilized nations.

Instruction in the fine and useful arts ought to be confined to theories and histories alone. Practical information belongs to separate academies, which are flourishing in every part of Germany. The study of languages, both ancient and modern, and of their literature, is of great moment to a university, whose aim it is to manifest the power and energy of the mind in whatever tongue genius has spoken. Hence, Greek and Latin, the best of the Oriental dialects, and the principal languages of Europe must be taught thoroughly.

The rank of the four faculties, which is the same in all the German universities, indicates the importance, which is attached to each of them, in relation to the interest and happiness of civil society. The established order is, divinity, jurisprudence, medicine, and philosophy. The last constitutes the most numerous faculty, since it embraces all the sciences and arts, which, properly, do not belong to the three professions, and hence are counted among the auxiliary studies. In order to show the tendency, extent, and present condition of all of them, we find it necessary to give a brief account of each one separately.

1. Theology. The authenticity of the Scriptures, and the sacred truths of Christianity rest upon the firm basis of biblical criticism and exegesis, by the invincible force of which the Reformation obtained that splendid triumph over the abuses, which had grown for centuries upon Christendom, and restored to the christian world the doctrines of religion in their native purity. The accuracy and certainty, with which German theologians have established the principles of interpretation, and their persevering industry, stimulated by an elevated spirit of research and free inquiry, have finished the work so nobly commenced by protestantism. A new period in the history of the New Testament begins with Griesbach's laborious collations of ancient manuscripts. The historical and critical interpretation of the Old Testament has received a better direction from the skill of Rosenmueller, Gesenius, and others. Eichhorn has commenced a new era in the historical criticism of the Old Testament. Ecclesiastical history has never been treated with more conscientious accuracy than in the present age, by Schmidt, Hencke, Vater, and Planck. Doctrinal theology, and the system of christian morals and ethics, have been illustrated with uncommon zeal and profound learning by Reinhardt, De Wette, Staeudlin, and others. An exact knowledge of theology manifests itself in the systematic order, which must prevail in the arrangement of all its parts. Nothing else but an intimate acquaintance with the original text of the scriptures, is able to promote so desirable an object. Philological study, therefore, must impart to the young divine, habits of discrimination, and distinctness of thought, in order to prepare him for the duties of his high vocation. Copious lectures on the Greek text of the four Gospels, and on the other parts of the New Testament, are delivered by several professors, and form, in all the German universities, a course of two years. Separate introductory lectures are besides given on the history of the Bible, and on the characters of the writers of the Old and New Testament. A course of grammatical and explanatory lectures on the Hebrew text of the historical books, the Psalms, Isaiah, Job, and other parts of the Old Testament, lasts generally two years. Those who intend to become more familiar with the spirit of the Old Testament, pursue, besides the Hebrew grammar and antiquities, the study of other Oriental languages, as the Arabic and Syriac. An encyclopædia of theology gives the student a complete sketch of all the branches of divinity, delineated in their most prominent

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