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Senator Thomas' first question to Mr. Kendall was this, Mr. Symington:

How often does the Board meet?

Mr. Kendall, the general counsel, replied:

The Board has been meeting, sir, during the months since last fall, almost every Friday, as I understand it. I have not attended the meetings. They have been following the Cabinet meetings on Friday. You see, Dr. Steelman is Assistant to the President and attends the Cabinet meetings. After the Cabinet meetings are over, I am advised he brings the members of the Board together for such business as is necessary.

The second question by Senator Thomas is:

The second question, which you have already partially answered, is: Do you hold regular meetings every Friday?

.Mr. Kendall's answer to that was:

I believe he holds a meeting, as I understand it from Dr. Steelman, every Friday that the Cabinet meets. The Cabinet meeting is followed by a Board meeting.

Then, to continue:

Senator THOMAS. The third question is this: Who is responsible for keeping the minutes of the meetings and could they be made available for study by this [Appropriations] committee?

This is in 1950, only about 10 days ago. Mr. Kendall's answer was: I think, sir, the only minutes kept are Dr. Steelman's own, and I don't believe they are available. I think they are in the class of Cabinet meetings.

This is to say parenthetically that the general counsel of the National Security Resources Board does not have the foggiest idea whether anybody has ever bothered to keep any minutes about the character of job which Senator Saltonstall or, I think, Senator Kefauver said in his opinion was next in importance to the President of the United States.

The fourth question by Senator Thomas is:

Who is Mr. Steelman's second in command?

Mr. Kendall answered:

The organization of the Board does not provide for a Vice or Deputy Chairman, the responsibility from the various planning offices is direct to the Chairman of the Board. There are eight planning offices, each of them with a Director, and they all report directly to the Chairman. The Chairman also has a small staff, a group of five assistants, and an administrative officer and executive assistant, a general counsel, a director of resources and requirements, and a director of program coordination.

Then Senator Thomas asks:

The next and last question is this: To whom do your staff members look for guidance in the absence of the Acting Chairman?

Mr. KENDALL. We have not had any experience in that connection yet, sir. Mr. Steelman, as you know, is out of the city, but we are in contact with him virtually every day by telephone.

If I might say in a personal sense, Stuart Symington, I thought you would like to be informed of the nature of these questions offered without prejudice to the NSRB, for they indicate conclusively that the Board never had a chance of doing anything until a Chairman in every full sense of that word was confirmed by the Senate, appointed by the President, and settled down to do a first-class job of work.

I could not be more hopeful of the success to follow your abilities and efforts, and the country will be grateful, and I am pleased to have a chance to vote for your confirmation.

Secretary SYMINGTON. Thank you, Senator.

Senator BRIDGES. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Symington and Mr. Pace must think this committee always deals in sweetness and light. I never heard so many complimentary things passed around here as have been passed around this morning.

I think this committee has probably had as many opportunities of sizing up Mr. Symington as any man in the years we have worked with him, and as far as I am concerned, I am very sorry to see him leave the post he is in, but I am glad to see him in this new responsible post.

I am confident that if the work he has done in the past is an indication of the future, that we will be pleased with that work, and to that end I move you, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. Symington be confirmed in his position.

Senator CAIN. May I make one brief observation?

I forgot to say-I always hesitate to make an observation without reference to the man's name that gave the information-but one member of the National Security Resources Board told me within the last month that during the time he has been a member of the Board he has never been advised of a meeting, and his tenure of office now runs back some few months, and he has never been advised of the coming of a meeting nor has he ever attended a meeting of the National Security Resources Board which concerned itself only with the problems before that Board.

Senator GURNEY. Mr. Chairman, I had a little bit to do with the act that created the National Security Resources Board, I had my heart in it. The bill passed through this committee, and everybody on the committee worked hard on it, and had a feeling that we were establishing something that would eventually work out and give us the kind of Defense Establishment this country is entitled to. It may take 50 years, I do not know. Everybody is working hard on it. When you say "National Security Resources Board," the first thing that enters anyone's mind is the security of the country.

Resources-well, that means everything that this country does possess. But specifically it means resources for war, if you tie it in with the Unification Act and the Defense Establishment.

Recently this committee has appointed a subcommittee to look into strategic materials, and so far we have only scratched the surface. The subcommittee chairman, Senator Hunt, has done a fine job in what time we can get at it, and we have looked a little bit into tin, into rubber, and manganese, and we are going into some more items. I think the chairman has a program lined up.

But right at the moment we have found out for sure that in some very critical materials like manganese, where we are so dependent, our whole economy even in peacetime is so dependent on raw materials from sources a long way away, I think it is apparent to all the subcommittee and maybe the full Committee of the Armed Services that we have not been doing as good a job as we should have been doing since the war on the development of those resources in this country.

As Secretary of the Air Force, you know of some of the problems of protecting the sea lanes in bringing those things from such far distances as manganese from India.

I would just like to throw in that word of caution there, that the big job in my opinion is to make our country secure in all those materials that just cost everything to get in case we get into trouble. I wanted to throw out that word and possibly get some idea from you as to your feeling on development inside this country of materials that we do have that could be developed possibly. Would that be your effort, Mr. Secretary?

Secretary SYMINGTON. Senator Gurney, I think it would be to the advantage of this country to be as self-sufficient inside its own borders as it could be in case of any military trouble.

Senator GURNEY. You feel that is a question that your Board now would rightly concern itself with?

Secretary SYMINGTON. Well, to be frank, sir, I have read the act and the implication of strategic material interest is in the act, but I would rather report back to you after I have been in it a while as regards any functions of the Board.

Senator GURNEY. I know that you are going to look into it to see just what that Board's responsibility is.

Secretary SYMINGTON. The premise of my remark was that the rest of the Senate would be as kind as this committee has been.

Senator GURNEY. I think that should be almost No. 1 with you if you think it is necessary.

Secretary SYMINGTON. Perhaps you will let me talk to you about it later on.

Senator GURNEY. I think we will all be talking to you about it. I just wanted to touch on it this morning to arouse your interest, and I know you will look into it.

Secretary SYMINGTON. I will.

Senator HUNT. I will not take time this morning to talk to Mr. Symington, but I do want to hand you two preliminary reports you can be studying. These are preliminary subcommittee reports on stand-by legislation and stockpiling.

Senator GURNEY. I knew our good subcommittee chairman had it in mind, too.

Senator KEFAUVER. Let me make the observation that all these laudatory things we have been saying about Mr. Symington, in which I join, apparently are for the purpose of getting him well prepared for a lot of work.

Senator BYRD. Is there any further discussion on the part of the committee?

Senator Wherry, do you have anything?

Senator WHERRY. I am an uninvited guest here, came absolutely unsolicited. I have a great interest in this nominee. He and I worked together on many projects. I just want to say I am here to testify that I am in complete accord with this nomination and I am not always that way with the administration, but in this case I am extraordinarily happy to be here and endorse his nomination. I hope it is approved unanimously.

I want to say I have found his loyalty above reproach, his ability is extraordinary, and his work is most efficient, and I would like to see him confirmed.

Senator GURNEY. It is most unusual to have you testify for a Democrat.

Senator WHERRY. It certainly is, and you can put that in the record if you want to.

Senator BYRD. Any further discussion? Is there a second to the motion made by Senator Bridges?

Senator HUNT. I should like the privilege of seconding it, Mr. Chairman.

(The motion to report favorably the nomination of Secretary Symington was carried unanimously.)

NOMINATIONS PER REFERENCE Nos. 167, 169, 170, 171, 179, 180, 181, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, AND 190

Senator BYRD. The next matter before the committee is the nominations of 1 captain, 1 commander, 8 lieutenants, 8 lieutenants (junior grade), and 139 ensigns, and other routine nominations in the Army and Navy.

(The committee voted unamimously to report favorably the nominations covered by the above reference numbers.)

S. 3314

Senator BYRD. The next bill before the committee is S. 3314, to authorize the appointment of Joseph F. Carroll and Bernt Balchen as permanent colonels in the Regular Air Force.

(S. 3314 is as follows:)

[S. 3314, 81st Cong., 2d sess.]

A BILL To authorize the appointment of Joseph F. Carroll and Bernt Balchen as permanent colonels in the Regular Air Force

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That notwithstanding any other provision of law; the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, is authorized to appoint Joseph F. Carroll, AO-948277, United States Air Force Reserve, and Bernt Balchen, AO-426630, United States Air Force Reserve, to the permanent grade of colonel in the Regular Air Force. For the purposes of determining position on promotion list, permanent grade seniority, and eligibility for promotion, each of the above-named persons shall be credited with an amount of service equal to the number of days, months, and years by which his age at the time of his appointment exceeds twenty-five years and shall be placed on the promotion list immediately below that officer appointed to the permanent grade of colonel on April 2, 1948, who is credited with the same or next greater amount of service.

The service credited to each of the above-named persons at the time of his appointment and his active commissioned service in the Regular Air Force subsequent to his appointment shall be included within the meaning of the term "years' service" as defined in subsection (b) of section 514 of the Officer Personnel Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 903; 10 U. S. C. 941b).

Senator BYRD. Mr. Symington, this may be your last official duty before Congress as Secretary for Air.

Secretary SYMINGTON. Thank you, Senator. I am very glad to appear on this matter, sir. I have a short statement here which I would like to read, if that is in order.

Senator BYRD. Go right ahead.

Secretary SYMINGTON. Mr. Chairman, I appreciate the opportunity of appearing before your committee in support of the bill S. 3314 which, if enacted, will authorize the appointment of Brig. Gen. Joseph F. Carroll and Col. Bernt Balchen as permanent colonels in the Regular Air Force.

Each of the individuals covered by this proposal is presently serving on extended active duty as a member of the Air Force Reserve: General Carroll as Director of Special Investigations in the Office of

the Inspector General, United States Air Force, and Colonel Balchen in the capacity of special assistant to the commanding general, Alaskan Air Command.

These officers are acknowledged experts in their respective fields and they have rendered invaluable service in each of their various assignments. The professional experience and the technical knowledge and skill of each of these officers are outstanding and unique, and it is the desire of the Department of the Air Force that these qualities be made permanently available to the military service through the appointment and retention of these officers as members of the Regular component of the Air Force.

There is no existing authority either under the Officer Personnel Act of 1947 or under any other provision of law whereby the appointment of General Carroll and Colonel Balchen as permanent colonels in the Regular Air Force can be accomplished. A requirement accordingly exists for the enactment of the special legislation which is now before your committee.

With your permission I should like to comment briefly upon the facts and circumstances which to my mind justify and warrant the favorable consideration by the Congress of this bill.


General Carroll has been on active duty in the Air Force since May 6, 1948. He came to the Air Force on a loan basis from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, of which he had been a member since 1940. While serving with the Federal Bureau of Investigation he so distinguished himself by his demonstrated diligence, ability, and leader'ship that he was advanced to the position of Special Assistant to the Director of the Bureau.

The Air Force had then been in existence as a separate department for but a short period of time, and its organizational structure was still in an active stage of development.

General Carroll, whose ability and accomplishment were already well known throughout the Government service, was considered to be the person best qualified to organize and develop within the Air Force an Office of Special Investigations. His entrance on extended active duty in the Air Force came about as the result of a special request which was submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for his services.

The correctness of this determination has been amply evidenced by General Carroll's outstanding record of performance. As the first Director of Special Investigations he brought into being a centrally directed investigations service which furnishes trained specialists to all Air Force activities for the conduct of special investigations of every sort. He personally supervised the selection of all key personnel, the administrative organization and operation of the various special investigations units, and the establishment of district offices to service all air commands within the zone of the interior.

The system established by General Carroll has proved to be so effective and successful that the majority of all overseas air commands have voluntarily adopted the form of organization and the procedural methods of his office.

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