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The Treaties of 1785, 1799 and 1828

between the

United States and Prussia

Gg

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

DIVISION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

THE TREATIES OF 1785, 1799
AND 1828 BETWEEN THE
UNITED STATES AND

PRUSSIA

As Interpreted in Opinions of Attorneys General, Decisions of

Courts, and Diplomatic Correspondence

EDITED BY

JAMES BROWN SCOTT

DIRECTOR

NEW YORK

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

AMERICAN BRANCH: 35 WEST 32ND STREET
LONDON, TORONTO, MELBOURNE, AND BOMBAY

1918

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Prefatory Note

On January 31, 1917, the German Government informed the United States that

from February 1, 1917, all sea traffic will be stopped with every available weapon and without further notice in the following blockade zones [describing them in detail] around Great Britain, France, Italy and in the Eastern Mediterranean.

On the third day of February, the President of the United States addressed both Houses of Congress in joint session, and, after stating in detail the relations between Germany and the United States and the apparent intention on the part of the German Government to deprive the United States of the rights which neutrals possessed upon the high seas, he informed the Congress that he had

directed the Secretary of State to announce to his Excellency the German Ambassador that all diplomatic relations between the United States and the German Empire are severed, and that the American Ambassador at Berlin will immediately be withdrawn; and, in accordance with this decision, to hand to his Excellency

his passports. The passports were accordingly handed to his Excellency the German Ambassador the same day, and diplomatic relations between the two countries were thus severed.

There are three treaties which in whole or in part in the opinion of the German Empire and of the United States affected their international relations. The treaties in question are: First, the treaty of amity and commerce concluded between Prussia and the United States of America on September 10, 1785; secondly, the treaty of amity and commerce concluded between Prussia and the United States of America on July 11, 1799; and, thirdly, the treaty of commerce and navigation concluded between Prussia and the United States of America on May 1, 1828.

These treaties have been held by the Governments of the contracting parties to apply not only to Prussia, but to the North German Confederation, of which Prussia was the leading member, and also to the

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