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evidence of an occurrence. Professor Ferguson, who exhibits unusual diligence in searches of this kind, cites numerous other instances of executions, acquittals, pardons, and suspicions of being suspected, on various authorities. The fact, however, remains, that the official records are, as our author says, silent regarding the actual proceedings; and it is only by inference that it may be found from these records that the executions took place.

There remains but little more to be said by way of introduction that has not already been said by the author in his own preface. It seems fitting, however, that a very brief sketch of his career and lineage should be given in closing.

Benjamin Trumbull was born in Hebron, Conn. December 19, 1735. He was the son of Benjamin Trumbull of Hebron (1712–), grandson of Benoni Trumbull of Hebron (1684-1770), greatgrandson of Joseph Trumbull of Suffield, Conn. (1647-84), and great-great-grandson of John Trumbull, who appears on record at Roxbury, Mass. in 1639, and Rowley, Mass. in 1640, having emigrated from Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, in 1639, and not from the West of Wales, as Sprague erroneously states in his “ Annals of the American Pulpit.” Among his most distinguished family connections were Governor Jonathan Trumbull, to whom he refers in his preface, a first cousin once removed; Colonel John Trumbull, the artist, and his brothers Jonathan and Joseph, who were his first cousins; and Dr. John Trumbull, the lawyerpoet, author of “McFingal,” also a first cousin. His most distinguished lineal descendant was his grandson, the Hon. Lyman Trumbull, U. S. Senator from Illinois, and afterwards distinguished as a lawyer and jurist.

His career as a clergyman is remarkable, even for the times of long pastorates in which he lived. He was the pastor of the North Haven Congregational Church for sixty years of continuous service, interrupted only for six months by his services as chaplain in the Fifth Battalion of Wadsworth's Brigade, during which time he was with this battalion in the important period covering the battle of Long Island and the retreat from New York. This service is officially recorded as extending from June 24 to December 25, 1776. Eye-witnesses have told us that, at the battle of White Plains, his patriotism would not allow him to remain in clerical garb among the non-combatants, but that he shouldered

Essays in American History, pp. 73-77.

his musket, and loaded and fired with coolness and the utmost precision of which he was capable. Immediately on his return to North Haven, January 5, 1777, his martial spirit again so asserted itself that he temporarily exchanged the word for the sword, and was chosen captain of a company of sixty volunteers of that town. He was also to be found at the post of danger at the time of Tryon's invasion of New Haven, July 4, 1779.

All accounts agree that he was a man of wonderful vigor and activity even up to the time of his death, at the advanced age of eighty-five. But nine days before that time he preached his last sermon. He died on the 2d of February, 1820. He is also described as a man of courteous demeanor and quick intelligence.

The fullest account of his career which is known to me is in Sheldon B. Thorpe's “ North Haven Annals.” Sprague's “ Annals of the American Pulpit ” devotes five pages to him, and gives personal reminiscences of contemporaries. For the most part, his career of steady, untiring clerical and literary labor would reveal but little to interest the reader of to-day. A large part of his long, busy, useful life was devoted to collecting the material for this History of Connecticut, a work prosecuted under disadvantages which he bravely and persistently overcame, many of which would not be encountered in these days of printed records and quick and easy communication.

JONATHAN TRUMBULL. NORWICH, Conn., March 1, 1898.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER 1,
INTRODUCTION, 1 ; the discovery
of North-America and New-England, 2;
captain Smith's discovery, 3; the coun-
try is named New England, 3; New-
Plymouth settled, 3; the great patent of
New-England, and patent of Massachu-
setts, 3, 4; the settlement of Salem,
Charlestown, Boston, and other towns in
Massachusetts. 5: Mr. Warham, Mr.
Phillips and Mr. Hooker, with others of
the first planters of Connecticut, arrive,
6; and make settlements at Dorchester,
Watertown, and Newtown, 7; their
churches are formed and they are or-
dained s

CHAPTER II.

The patent of Connecticut, 9; the situ.

ation, extent, boundaries and area of the

settled part of the colony, 10, 11 ; the dis-

covery of Connecticut river, 12; a descrip-

tion of it, and the signification of its name,

13; the colony derives its name from the

river, 14 ; description of other rivers, 14 ;
Plymouth and Dutch houses, 16; pros-
pects of trade upon the river, 17.

ber of the garrison at the mouth of the
river, and besiege the fort, 53 ; captain
Mason is sent down from Connecticut
with a reinforcement, 54; the enemy
make a descent on Weathersfield, torture
and mock the English, 54 ; the court at
Connecticut declares war against them,
56 ; Captain Mason takes Mistic fort, 61;
Sassacus destroys his royal fortress and
flees to the westward, 64 ; a second expe-
dition is undertaken against the Pequots
conjointly, by Massachusetts and Con-
necticut, 65; the great swamp fight, 65 ;
the Pequots subdued, 67 ; Sassacus flying
to the Mohawks was beheaded, 67 ; the
captivated and surviving Pequots, after
the war, were given to the Moheagans
and Narragansets, and their name extin-
guished, 68.

CHAPTER VI.

Effects of the war, 69; great scarcity

in Connecticut, and means taken to re-

lieve the necessities of the people, 69; set-

tlement of New Haven, 70; plantation

covenant, 73; means for the defence of the
colony, 73; captain Mason made major
general, 70; civil constitution of Connec-
ticut, formed by voluntary compact, 75 ;
first general election at Connecticut, 77 ;
governors and magistrates, 77 ; general
rights of the people, and principal laws
of the colony, 77; constitution and laws
of New Haven, 78; purchase and settle-

ment of several towns in Connecticut and

New-Haven, 83.

CHAPTER III.
The state of the country of Connecti-
cut when the settlement of the colony
began, 19; its trees and fruits, 19; its
animals, 20; number, situation, genius,

manners, arms, utensils and wars of the

Indians, 21-25.

and refers the differences between him
and the colonies to arbitrators, 153; their
determination, 155; and the line is fixed

between the English and Dutch planta.

tions, 156; agreements with Mr. Fenwick

occasion general uneasiness, 157 ; com-

mittees are appointed to explain and as-

certain them, 158 ; towns are invited to

attend the committees, by their deputies,

at Saybrook, 158 ; an act for the encour-

agement of Mr. Winthrop in seeking and

improving mines, 158; Norwalk and Mat.

tabeseck settled and made towns, 159;

the colony of New-Haven make another

attempt to settle at Delaware, 159; the

Dutch Governor seizes the company and

frustrates the design, 160 ; he pursues his

former line of conduct toward the colo-

nies, 160 ; the resolutions of the commis-

sioners relative to his conduct, 161; to the

settlement of Delaware, 161 ; and the

tribute to be paid by the Pequots, 161 ;

French commissioners from Canada, 162 ;

their proposals. 162 : reply to them. 162:

the Dutch governor and Indians concert

a plan to extirpate the colonies, 165; the

commissioners meet, and dispatch agents

to the Dutch governor, 166; they deter-

mine upon war, unless he should manifest

his innocence, 166; and redress the griev.

ances of the colonies, 166; they determine

on the number of men to be raised, and

draw a declaration of the reasons of the

war, 167; the agents return unsuccessful,

167; the commissioners meet again, and

determine to make war upon the Dutch
and Narraganset Indians, 168 ; the gen-
eral court of Massachusetts refuses to
raise men, and prevents the war, 168 ; al-
tercations between that general court and

the commissioners, and between that and

the general courts of Connecticut and

New-Haven, 169; the alarm and distress

of the plantations in these colonies, 172 ;

their general courts protest against the

court of Massachusetts, as violators of the

articles of confederation; and write to

Cromwell and the parliament for assist-

ance, 173; the tumultuous state of the

inhabitants in several of the towns, 175.

inhab

CHAPTER IX.
Settlement of New-London, 136 ; sala-
ries first granted to civil officers, 137 ;
troubles with the Narraganset Indians,
137 ; Rhode-Island petitions to be united

with the colonies in confederation, 138;

the Massachusetts resume the affair of

the impost, 139; Mr. Westerhouse com-

plains of the seizure of his vessel by the

Dutch, in the harbour of New-Haven,
141 : murders committed by the Indians.

142; resolutions respecting the murder-

ers, 145; body of laws compiled, 143;

debates relative to the settlement of Del

aware, 144 ; the Pequots revolt from

Uncas, and petition the English, 146;
resolution respecting them, 147; Mr.
Westerhouse petitions to make reprisals
from the Dutch, 147 ; letter to the Dutch
governor, 147; further altercation respect-
ing the impost, 148 ; final issue of that
affair, 149; the conduct of the Massachu.
setts upon its decision, and the declara
tion of the commissioners respecting it,
149; their treatment of Connecticut re-
specting the line between the colonies,
151; the court at Connecticut determine
to avenge the death of John Whitmore,
151 ; and detach men to take the mur.

derer, 151.

CHAPTER XI.
The death and character of Governor
Haynes, 576; the freemen of Connecticut
meet and appoint a moderator, 177 ; Mr.
Ludlow removes to Virginia, 178; the
spirited conduct of the people at Milford,
in recovering Manning's vessel, 178; the
freemen add to the fundamental articles,
179; fleet arrives at Boston for the re-
duction of the Dutch, 179; the colonies
agree to raise men to assist the armament
from England, 180; peace prevents the
expedition, 180; the general court at

New Haven, charge the Massachusetts

with a breach of the confederation, 181 ;

they refuse to join in a war against Nini-
grate, and oblige Connecticut and New-
Haven to provide for the defence of them-

selves and their allies, 181 ; Ninigrate

continuing his hostile measures, the com-

missioners send messengers to him, 182 ;

his answer to them, 182; they declare war,

and send an army against him, 183; the

CHAPTER XII.
The general court of Connecticut de-

clare their loyalty and submission to the

king, 197 ; determine to address his maj-

esty, and apply for charter privileges,

197; a petition to his majesty is prepared,

197; and a letter addressed to lord Say

and Seal, 198; Governor Winthrop is ap-
pointed the colony's agent, to present
their petition, and solicit a patent, 199;
regicides condemned, 199; Whalley and
Goffe arrive at Boston, 199; escape to
New-Haven, and are kindly entertained,
and kept from their pursuers, 199; New-
Haven falls into great trouble and danger
on that account, 202 ; New-Haven excuse
themselves, 203; decline sending an
agent, 204; but join with Massachusetts
in supporting one, 204 ; the king pro-
claimed, 204 ; Governor Winthrop obtains
the charter of Connecticut, 205 ; first gov-
ernor and council under the charter, 205 ;
representation of the constitution it or-
dains, and the privileges it conveys, 205 ;
difficulties of the colony of New Haven :

Governor Leet's address, 206; charter of

Connecticut arrives, 207 ; proceedings of

Connecticut in consequence of the char-

ter, 207 ; they extend their jurisdiction to

all places within the limits of their patent,

208 ; and challenge New-Haven colony,

as under their jurisdiction, 208; contro-

versy between the two colonies, 209; set-

tlement of Killingworth, 216; patent of

the duke of York, 221; colonei Nichols

and commissioners arrive, 221; reduce

all the Dutch settlements, 223; their ex-

traordinary powers, 225; important crisis

of Connecticut, 226; the general court

make a present to the commissioners, 226;

answer to the propositions from his

majesty, and reply to the duke of Hamil-

ton's claim and petition, 229; boundaries

between Connecticut and New-York, 227;

union of Connecticut and New-Haven,

230.

CHAPTER XIII.

A view of the churches of Connecticut

and New Haven, from their first settle-

ment, until their union, in 1665, 231; their

ministers, 232 ; the character of the minis-

ters and first planters, 233; their religious
and political sentiments, 233; gathering
of the churches of New Haven and Mil-

ford, 236; installation of Mr. Davenport

and Mr. Prudden, 236; church formed at

Guilford, 236 ; number of ministers in

Connecticut and New Haven before the

union, 238 ; proportion of ministers to the

people, before, and at the union, 239;

harmony between the civil rulers and the

clergy, 239 ; influence of the clergy, and

the reasons of it, 240; their opposition to

Antinomianism, 240; assisted in the com-

pilation of Cambridge Platform, 240 ; ec-

clesiastical laws, 241 ; care to diffuse gen-

eral knowledge : its happy influence, 242;

attempts to found a college at New-Ha-

ven, 242; no sectaries in Connecticut nor

New Haven, until after the union, 243;
and for twenty years the churches gener-
ally enjoyed great peace, 244; deaths and
characters of several of the first ministers,
244; great dissensions in the church at
Hartford soon after Mr. Hooker's death,
247; dissensions and controversies in the
colony and churches in general, relative

to baptism, church-membership, and the

rights of the brethren, 247 ; a new gener-

ation arises, who had not all imbibed the

spirit of their fathers, 247 ; grievances

presented to the general court of Connect-

icut, on the account of the strictness of
the churches, and that sober people were
denied communion with them, and bap-
tism for their children, 249; the court of
Connecticut send to the other general
courts for advice, 249; laws against the
Quakers, 249 : Massachusetts and Con-
necticut agree in appointing a synod at
Boston, 250 ; general court at New-Haven
oppose the meeting of a synod, and de-
cline sending their elders, 251 ; questions
proposed for discussion, 252 ; the synod
meet and answer them, 253; but it had no
good effect on the churches: they would
not comply with their decisions, 254 ; dis-
sensions continued at Hartford, 254 ; acts
of the general court respecting them, 254;
councils from Massachusetts, 256; diff-

culties in some measure composed, 257;

divisions and animosities at Weathers-

field, 258; act of the general court re-

specting the church there, 258; Mr. Rus-

sell and others remove from Weathersfield

and Hartford and settle Hadley. 258: Mr.

Stow dismissed from the ministry at Mid-

dletown, by a committee of the general

court, 259 ; synod at Boston, 259 ; its de-

termination relative to baptism, and the

consociation of churches, 259; division in

the synod and in the churches relative to

those points, 259; the court at Connecti-

cut send no elders to the council, nor take

any part in the controversy, until some

time afterwards, 260.

CHAPTER Xiv.

Conduct of the king's commissioners,

262; counties and County Courts regu-

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