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or foes, to be a trostill more alarmed the id murder at Far
vaded the Norwootucks. He upbraided the Narragansets of their dead sachems, and challenged them to fight. Among other instances of misconduct, he proved treacherous to the Montauket sachem, and joined with Ninigrate, in his perfidious practices. By these means, the country was so disquieted, that it was with great difficulty the commissioners maintained the general peace. They interposed, and obliged Uncas to make restitution to the Indians, whom he had injured. They prohibited his making war, without their consent and advice. They endeavored to quiet and conciliate the natives; but they found them, whether they were friends or foes, to be a troublesome people. After all their precautions, the country was still more alarmed the next year.
In April, 1657, the Indians committed a horrid murder at Farmington, and besides Mesapano, who was the principal actor, the Norwootuck and Pocomtock Indians were supposed to be accomplices.
The Montaukets, after all the trouble and expense, which the English had been at for their defence, became tumultuous, and did great damage to the inhabitants of Southampton.
The general court at Hartford, April 9th, gave orders that the Indians, who perpetrated the murder at Farmington, should be apprehended, and that the sachems of the Pocomtock and Nor wootuck Indians should deliver up the delinquents among them.
Major Mason was ordered, with a detachment, to Long-Island, to bring the Indians there to a just and peaceable conduct, and adjust affairs between them and the English.
At the general election in Connecticut, May 21st, 1657, Mr. John Winthrop was elected governor, and Mr. Thomas Wells deputy-governor. Mr. Webster was chosen the first magistrate. The other officers were the same who had been appointed the last year. The freemen, at the election in New Haven, May 27th, made no alteration in their magistrates.
The general court at Hartford, this year, was uncommonly thin, consisting of twenty-two members only. The danger of the plantations, and of particular families, from the hostile state of the Indians, appears to have been the reason. The Montaukets, Moheagans, Narragansets, and Norwootucks, engaged in implacable wars with each other. They would pursue one another into the English plantations, and even into their houses, and kill each other in the presence of the families, to their great alarm and astonishment. Uncas was so pressed by the Narragansets, that Connecticut was obliged to send men to his fortress, to assist him in defending himself against them. The Narragansets, in several instances, threatened and plundered the inhabitants of Connecticut.
Therefore, when the commissioners met, in September, they sent messengers to them, demanding that they should cease from
: Records of Connecticut.
war, until their grievances, and the grounds of their contentions, should be heard. They assured them, that they would hear and determine impartially, without favoring any of the parties. They represented to them the covenants which they had made with the English, and the entire inconsistency of their conduct, with those engagements. They also prohibited all fighting in the English plantations.
This year, the colony of New-Haven, and indeed all the NewEngland colonies, sustained a heavy loss in the death of governor Eaton. He was a minister's son, born at Stony Stratford, in Oxfordshire; was educated an East India merchant, and was sometime deputy-governor of the company, trading to the East Indies.” For several years, he was agent for the king of England at the court of Denmark. After his return, he was a merchant of great business and respectability, in the city of London.
Upon the Laudean persecution, he left his native country, and came into New-England with Mr. Davenport, his minister, in 1637. He was one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts, and soon after his arrival was chosen one of the magistrates of that colony. Upon the settlement of New-Haven, he was chosen governor of the colony, and was annually re-elected until his death. He is represented as comely and personable, and is said to have appeared upon the bench with a dignity and majesty, which admit of no description. The impartiality with which he administered justice, was most exemplary, and his authority was not to be opposed. The wisdom, gravity, and integrity of his administration, were viewed with universal admiration. In honor to his memory, and the good services which he had rendered the colony, his funeral charges were borne, and a handsome monument erected at the public expense.3
Nearly at the same time, died his son-in-law, Edward Hopkins, Esquire, for a number of years governor of Connecticut. He conducted the affairs of government with great wisdom and integrity, and was universally beloved. He was a gentleman of exemplary piety, righteousness, and charity. In his family and secret devotions, he followed the example of governor Eaton. His charity was great and extensive. Besides the relief he dispensed to the poor, with his own hands, he gave considerable sums of money to others, to be disposed of to charitable purposes. When he went into England, on the occasion of his brother's death, who had been warden of the English fleet, he designed to return again to his family and friends, in New-England; but he was very soon particularly noticed, and made first warden of the fleet, in the room of his brother. He was then chosen commissioner of the admiralty and navy; and finally member of parliament. These unexpected preferments altered his designs, and determined him to send over for his family, and to spend the remainder of his days in his native country. He had been a consumptive man, attended with a cough, and spitting of blood, for more than thirty years. His constitution was now entirely wasted, and he died in the 58th year of his age.
1 He died January 7th, 1657,* in the 67th year of his age.
• This statement is corrected by Savage (Winthrop, 1:272), who explains the error by inferring that the term East country used by Mather referred at the time to countries bordering on the Baltic. This should also apply to the statement on p. 74 regarding Eaton.-J. T.
3 His private was not less amiable than his public character. In conversation, he was affable, courteous, and generally pleasant; but always grave and cautious. He was pious and strictly moral. His meekness, patience, and fortitude, were singular,
In the conduct of his family, he was strict, prudent, and happy. Though it sometimes consisted of not less than thirty persons, yet they were under the most perfect order and government. They were all assembled morning and evening, and the governor, after reading the scriptures, and making devout and useful observations upon them, prayed with great reverence and pertinency. On the sabbath, and other days of public devotion, he spent an hour or two with his family, in instructing them in the duties of faith and practice ; and in recommending to
* Old style. The date used in the official record makes this confusing, although it is correct.–J. T. them the reading and study of the scriptures, secret devotion, the sanctification of the sabbath, and a devout and constant attendance on all divine institutions. On these days he sang praises, as well as prayed with his family. He was greatly beloved by his domestics, as well as by the commonwealth. Indeed, there was no man, among the first planters of New England, who had a more general acquaintance with public business, or who sustained a fairer character. His monument is kept up to the present time. Upon it are these expressive lines :
His last will was highly expressive of that public spirit and charity, which had so distinguished him in life. His whole estate, in New-England, was given away to charitable purposes. He manifested his peculiar friendship to the family of Mr. Hooker, his pastor, at Hartford, by giving his relict, Mrs. Hooker, all the debts due from the family, to him; by giving to Mrs. Wilson, of Boston, Mr. Hooker's eldest daughter, his farm at Farmington, with all the houses, out-houses, and buildings upon it; and by legacies to several others of his descendants. All the remainder of his estate, in New-England, he bequeathed to his “ father, Theophilus Eaton, Esquire, master John Davenport, master John Cullick, and master William Goodwin, in full assurance of their trust and faithfulness, in disposing of it according to the true intent and purpose of him, the said Edward Hopkins, which was to give some encouragement, in those foreign plantations, for the breeding up of hopeful youths, in a way of learning, both at the grammar school and college, for the public service of the country, in future times.” He also made a donation of five hundred pounds more, out of his estate in England, to the said trustees, in further prosecution of the same public ends, “ for the upholding and promoting the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ, in those parts of the earth.” This last donation was considered as made to Har
“ Eaton, so meck, so wise, so fam'd, so just,
The Phcenix of our world here hides his dust :
vard college, and, by virtue of a decree in chancery, was paid in 1710. The interest given in New-England, was estimated at about 1,000l. sterling; and was appropriated to the support of the grammar schools in New-Haven, Hartford, and Hadley. The money originally belonged to New-Haven and Hartford; but as a considerable number of the people of Hartford afterwards removed to Hadley, and were principal settlers of that town, they received their proportion of the donation.
At a general court in Hartford, March 11th, 1658, a troop of thirty horsemen was established in Connecticut, and Richard Lord was appointed captain. This was the first in the colony.
May 20th there was a very considerable alteration with respect to governors and the council, both in Connecticut and NewHaven. At the election in Connecticut, Thomas Wells, Esquire, was elected governor, and John Winthrop, Esquire, deputy governor. To the magistrates last year, who were again re-chosen, there was an addition of Mr. Matthew Allen, Mr. Phelps, Mr. John Wells, Mr. Treat, Mr. Baker, Mr. Mulford, and Mr. Alexander Knowles. There appears to have been sixteen magistrates, and twenty-six deputies; in the whole, forty-two members.
On the election at New-Haven, Mr. Francis Newman was chosen governor, and William Leet, deputy governor. Mr. Jasper Crane was added to the magistrates, and Mr. William Gibbard was appointed secretary.
This year a considerable settlement was made between Mistic and Pawcatuck rivers. This tract was called Pequot, and originally belonged to New-London. The first man who settled upon this tract, was William Cheesebrough, from Rehoboth, in 1649. A complaint was exhibited against him for carrying on an illicit trade with the Indians, for repairing their arms, and endangering the public safety. The general court of Connecticut declared, that they had a clear title to those lands, and summoned him before them. They reprimanded him for settling upon them without their approbation; for withdrawing himself from Christian society and ordinances; and for unlawfully trading with and assisting the Indians. He confessed his faults; ? but pleaded, in excuse, that he had been encouraged by Mr. Winthrop, who claimed a right at Pawcatuck. He gave bonds for his good conduct, and was allowed to continue upon the land. The court promised him, that
1 Mr. Stephen Goodyear, who had been deputy governor, with governor Eaton, through almost his whole administration, died this year, in London, and was either there, or on his passage, at this election. He appears to have been a worthy man, and left a respectable family.
· Cheesebrough does not appear to have confessed to any illicit trade with the Indians at Pawcatuck. The official record says “he acknowledged his former transgression,” which must have been some transactions with the Indians at Rehoboth, his former residence. After the jurisdiction of Connecticut was settled, Cheesebrough appears to have been a man of good standing, and a deputy to the general court.-J. T.
if he would procure a sufficient number of planters, they would give them all proper encouragement, in making a permanent settlement. About ten or twelve families, this year, made settlements in that quarter; and, finding that there was a controversy between Connecticut and the Massachusetts, with respect both to title and jurisdiction, they, on the 30th of June, entered into a voluntary contract to govern themselves, and conduct their affairs in peace, until it should be determined to which colony they should submit. The principal planters were George Denison, Thomas Stanton, Thomas Shaw, William, Elisha, and Samuel Cheesebrough, and Moses and Walter Palmer. These, with some others, were signers of the voluntary compact.
At the meeting of the commissioners, the Massachusetts claimed that tract of country, by virtue of the assistance which they afforded Connecticut in the conquest of the Pequots. The commissioners resolved, “That the determination did arise only from the several rights of conquest, which were not greatly different; yet that being tender of any inconvenience which might arise to those who were already possessed, either by commission from Massachusetts or Connecticut, in any part thereof, should they be put off their improvements; also, upon inquiry, finding, that the Pequot country, which extented from Nehantick to Wekapaug, about ten miles eastward from Mistic river, may conveniently accommodate two plantations, did, respecting things as they then stood, conclude, that Mistic river be the bounds between them, as to propriety and jurisdiction, so far as conquest may give title. Always provided, that such as are already accommodated, by commission of either of the said governments, or have grants of any tracts of land, on either side of the Mystic river, be not molested in any of their possessions or rights, by any other grants.”
Upon the petition of the planters, October 19th, the general court of the Massachusetts made them a grant of eight miles from the mouth of Mystic river towards Wekapaug, and eight miles northward into the country, and named the plantation Southerton. It continued under the government of Massachusetts until after Connecticut obtained a royal charter.
This was a year of great sickness and mortality in Connecticut, and in New-England in general. Religious controversies, at the same time, ran high, and gave great trouble to church and commonwealth. The Indians continued their wars with implacable animosity. The commissioners employed all their wisdom and influence to make peace; but they could not reconcile those bloodthirsty barbarians. The crops were light, and it was a year of fear, perplexity, and sorrow."
i In a proclamation for a general fast, the intemperate season, thin harvest, sore visitation by sickness, and the sad, prolonged differences in the churches, are par. ticularized as matters of humiliation.