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them. In England and Scotland the form of society is so firmly established, that if we consider large periods of time, little seems to depend on the individual character or acts of the persons who may, for the time being, stand at the head of affairs; and its advances are gained by its own slow but steady efforts. But it is otherwise in Ireland. Improvement and civilization must there descend from above; they will not rise spontaneously from the inward workings of the community. Hence it is above all things to be hoped, that those who may now be said to hold in their hands the destinies of that important country, will take a connected view of its entire condition ; that they will deliberately frame a consistent scheme of policy with reference not to present exigencies, but to the future welfare of Ireland, and its relations to this country; that they will seek to guide events, not to wait upon them; that they will not falter at this trying moment; and that thus they may happily follow up the great work which has been too long postponed, of raising the Catholic population of Ireland to a level with the inhabitants of Great Britain, not only in political rights, but also in wealth and civilization.
IRISH DISTURBANC E S.
1760 to the present day. .
CHAPTER II.--Causes of Disturbances in Ireland.
Policy of England towards Ireland .
Consequences of the Ejectment of Tenants
The Whiteboy Association, intended to regulate the
dealings between Landlord and Tenant
Tenant in Possession, and to prevent the employ-
Impossibility of suppressing Whiteboyism by punish-