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At the census of 1890 special schedules were sent to institutions for the insane, to schools for the deaf, and to schools for the blind, calling for a statement, comprehending 54 details, in the case of institutions for the insane, of the number of patients (by sex) admitted, discharged, transferred, died, and remaining, by years from 1881 to 1889, inclusive, and of the expenditures for the same years; and for schools for the deaf and blind, respectively, a statement comprehending 28 details, in each case, of the number of pupils (by sex) under instruction, by decades from 1840 to 1880 and by single years from 1880 to 1889, and of the expenditures for the same periods and years.

Supplemental inquiries were made at the census of 1890 concerning the diseased or physically defective, that is, those suffering from an acute or chronic disease and those that were crippled, maimed, or deformed, but the returns concerning this class of persons were so deficient that the results were not fully compiled and do not appear in the printed report.

CRIME, PAUPERISM, AND BENEVOLENCE.

A return of the number of paupers and criminals was called for on the general population schedules at the censuses of 1850 and 1860, and, in addition, four or five special inquiries concerning each of these two classes were made on the schedule for social statistics. These special inquiries were also made at the census of 1870, but the general population schedule contained no inquiry as to the number of such persons, as was the case at the two preceding censuses. The special inquiries relating to crime and pauperism at the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870 are summarized as follows:

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At the censuses of 1880 and 1890 supplemental schedules were used by the census enumerators to make the return of the special information called for concerning paupers and criminals, and also with respect

to the inmates of benevolent institutions. The supplemental inquiries relating to each of these three classes are summarized in the following statement:

SUPPLEMENTAL INQUIRIES-CRIME: 1880 AND 1890.

Items of inquiry.

Court of arraignment, and whether a Federal prisoner....
Place of imprisonment, and whether national, State, or city prisoner..
Date of incarceration and offense charged..

Age when committed..

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a Not including 3 inquiries as to name and identification on population schedule.
b Not including 27 inquiries or details duplicated from general population schedule.

e Not including 3 inquiries as to name and identification on population schedule, and 4 inquiries, duplicated from general population schedule, as to mental and physical defects.

Not including 3 inquiries as to name and identification on population schedule, and 3 inquiries, duplicated from general population schedule, as to mental and physical defects.

In addition to the inquiries made on the supplemental schedule relating to crime at the census of 1880, various other sources of information were utilized, in order to secure as complete data as possible concerning the criminal element of the population. For this purpose special blanks were used, comprehending, in all, 139 items or details, as follows:

Abstract of criminal docket, including all terms ending on any day between June 1, 1879, and June 1, 1880, 36 details.

Justices' return of all criminal cases on docket from June 1, 1879, to June 1, 1880, 19 details.

Police departments, comprehending every form of police work, and including inquiries as to organization of police force or department, S. Doc. 194- -7

work done by the police in preventing crime and bringing offenders to justice, etc., 84 details.

At the census of 1890 a special schedule relating to "police and police stations or lock-ups" was used, embodying 37 inquiries or details similar to those contained in the special schedule for police departments used at the census of 1880.

MORTALITY.

Until the passage of the new law in 1850, calling for the individual enumeration of the population, no attempt was made to secure mortality statistics of any kind. At the census of 1850 a separate schedule was provided, calling for detailed information concerning each person who died during the twelve months preceding the census day (June 1), and comprehending in all 11 inquiries. The detail required at the succeeding censuses was not greatly changed, but one or two features were added and the number of inquiries slightly increased, as shown by the following summary:

NUMBER OF INQUIRIES OR DETAILS RELATING TO MORTALITY: 1850 TO 1890.

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Married or widowed.

Single, married, widowed, or divorced Place of birth (State, Territory, or country). Parentage;

Father of foreign birth; mother of foreign birth..
Place of birth of father; place of birth of mother.
Profession, occupation, or trade...
Month of birth, if born in census year

Month in which the person died.

Disease or cause of death....

Number of days ill....

Length of time a resident of county.

Name of place where disease was contracted, if other than place of death...

Name of attending physician

Whether insane or idiot..

Soldier, sailor, or marine (United States or Confederate) in civil war, or widow of such person..

Total

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a Not including inquiry as to "Number of family," for purposes of identification.
b Not including inquiry as to "Number of ward or sanitary district."

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Under the laws governing the censuses of 1880 and 1890, the mortality schedule was withdrawn in registration areas and the data secured from the records of the several registration offices. In the nonregistration States and localities the returns of the census enumerators were supplemented, as far as possible, by a voluntary return made by

physicians, at the request of the Superintendent of Census, upon blanks provided for the purpose, and by this means many thousands of deaths were added to the enumerators' returns. The inquiries called for by the physicians' return of deaths were practically the same as contained in the regular mortality schedule, and, being entirely supplementary thereto, have not been considered as being in any sense additional inquiries.

No attempt was made to secure agricultural statistics through the medium of the census until 1840, when 37 details or specifications were called for concerning the products of agriculture and of the forests and the number of farm animals of the various kinds. There was no very material increase in the number of details required at subsequent censuses until 1880, when the general schedule relating to the productions of agriculture contained 108 specifications, and this number was greatly increased in 1890, when there were 255 specifications included in the general agricultural schedule.

The details or specifications called for at each census from 1840 to 1890, inclusive, are summarized as follows:

NUMBER OF INQUIRIES OR DETAILS RELATING TO AGRICULTURE: 1840 TO 1890.

products) Acres of land:

AGRICULTURE.

Name of person conducting farm...

Color of person conducting farm

Tenure (owner; rents for fixed money rental; rents for share of

Improved.
Unimproved.

Items of inquiry.

Total number of acres in farm.

Acres irrigated...

Number of artesian wells flowing..

Farm values (farm (d); farming implements and machinery; live stock).

Cost of building and repairing fences..

Cost of fertilizers purchased

Barley

Buckwheat

Wages paid for farm labor, including value of board.
Weeks of hired labor upon farm (and dairy), excluding house-
work (c)

Estimated value of all farm productions (f)
Forest products.

Grass lands and forage crops.

Sugar

Castor beans

Cereals:

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a Improved land subdivided in 1880 as "Tilled, including fallow and grass in rotation (whether pasture or meadow)," and "Permanent meadows, permanent pastures, orchards, and vineyards." b Improved land subdivided in 1890 as "Tilled, including fallow and grass in rotation (whether pasture or meadow)," and "Permanent meadows or pastures, cultivated forest, orchards, vineyards, nurseries, and market gardens."

Woodland and forest" and "Other unimproved,

e Unimproved land subdivided in 1880 and 1890 as including 'old fields' not growing wood."

d Cash value of farm, in 1850, 1860, and 1870; value of farm, including land, fences, and buildings in 1880 and 1890.

e For white and colored persons separately.

Including betterments and additions to stock, in 1870; productions sold, consumed, or on hand, in 1880 and 1890.

NUMBER OF INQUIRIES OR DETAILS RELATING TO AGRICULTURE: 1840 TO 1890-Cont'd.

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Items of inquiry.

Forest products:

Lumber produced (value)

Tar, pitch, turpentine, and rosin (barrels)

Pot and pearl ashes (tons)..

1840. 1850. 1860. 1870. 1880. 1890.

Skins and furs produced (value)

Ginseng, and all other productions of the forest (value)

Number of men employed...

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Wood sold (cords)

Wood cut (cords).

Forest products (value).

Forest products sold or consumed (value).

Grass lands and forage crops:

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Hay produced (tons)

Wild, salt, or prairie grass harvested (acres; tons).
English and other tame and cultivated grasses harvested
(acres; tons)

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a Number of inquiries or details called for by general schedule of agriculture only; additional inquiries on special schedules of agriculture, not common to general schedule or other special schedules, are not included.

In the above summary, the first ten items of inquiry are given in sufficient detail to show the nature and extent of the detailed specifications required concerning each of them at each of the specified censuses, but beginning with "forest products," only the total number of details called for at each census is given, so as to show concisely the increase in the number of specifications required at each census for each product or kind of live stock, respectively.

This general summary is supplemented by two detailed summaries, one relating to products and one relating to live stock, in which the general tenor of the various items of inquiry relating to each product or kind of live stock is reproduced at length, as follows:

AGRICULTURE-PRODUCTS: 1840 TO 1890.

1840. 1850. 1860. 1870. 1880. 1890.

a 255

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