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of detail with which the results were presented, marks the beginning of the third era in census taking in this country. The three censuses taken under the law of 1850, although very decided improvements over the earlier enumerations in point of number of details covered, were, nevertheless, deficient in many respects, and, owing to the manner in which the data were collected by officers appointed for a different purpose, and in many respects beyond the jurisdiction and control of the department having the supervision of the census, the results were neither complete nor reliable, and, aside from the mere numbers of the population, did not represent true conditions at each census period. The census of 1880 was not without its faults, it is true, but the change in the methods of supervising and collecting the data and the employment of experts in making the special investigations resulted in much better returns and enabled the census officials to give to the country more accurate statements, presented in great detail, concerning its population, wealth, industries, and varied


The total population of the United States at the census of 1880 was 50,155,783.

The total cost of the tenth census was $5,790,678.40, of which $134,489.40 was paid to the supervisors as compensation and for clerk hire and miscellaneous expenses; $2,095,362.02 to the enumerators; $815,534.38 for printing, engraving, and binding, and $2,745,292.60 for all other expenses, including the cost of special agents' work, salaries of officers and employees at Washington, and miscellaneous and contingent expenses.


The eleventh census was taken under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1889, which was modeled upon the act which governed the work of the census of 1880. It was not contemplated originally to make the census of 1890 quite so comprehensive as its predecessor, but, in effect, the same schedules of inquiries were authorized and, in addition, the Superintendent of Census was directed, under the authority of the Secretary of the Interior, to cause an enumeration to be made, by means of a special schedule, of the name, organizations served in, and length of service of surviving Union soldiers, sailors, and marines who had served in the war of the rebellion, and the widows of such as had died; to ascertain, by an inquiry on the population schedule, the number of negroes, mulattoes, quadroons, and octoroons, and, at the time of the general enumeration or prior thereto, as the Secretary of the Interior might determine, to collect the statistics of and relating to the recorded indebtedness of private corporations and individuals, and make report thereon to Congress. The act of February 22, 1890, also made it the duty of the Superintendent of Census

to ascertain the number of persons who live on and cultivate their own farms, the number who live in their own homes, the number who hire their farms and homes, the number of farms and homes which are under mortgage, the amount of mortgage debt, the value of the property mortgaged, and whether such farms and homes have been mortgaged for the whole or part of the purchase money for the same or for other purposes, and the rates of interest paid upon mortgage loans; and for the accomplishment of this purpose, an appropriation of $1,000,000 was made, in addition to the regular census appropriations. The number of farms and homes owned and hired, and of those owned the number free and mortgaged were obtained by the addition of five inquiries on the population schedule, while the supplemental information as to the value of the property so mortgaged, the amount of the mortgage debt, and the object for which the debt was incurred, was obtained by correspondence and special agents. The information concerning the recorded indebtedness of private corporations and individuals was abstracted by special agents from the public records in every county in the United States.

Under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1889, Hon. Robert P. Porter was appointed by the President April 17, 1889, as Superintendent of Census at an annual salary of $6,000, instead of $5,000, as in 1880. Mr. Porter qualified three days later and entered at once upon the preliminary work necessary to the enumeration, which began on the first Monday in June, 1890, the 1st day of June falling on Sunday, and which was conducted in the same manner and under the same general conditions as in 1880. There were 175 supervisors in 1890 instead of 150 as in 1880, and one or more were appointed in each State or Territory, exclusive of Alaska and the Indian Territory. Each subdivision assigned to an enumerator was not to exceed 4,000 inhabitants, as near as may be, according to estimates based upon the tenth census, and the enumeration was to be completed in two weeks in cities having over 10,000 inhabitants under the census of 1880 and in one month in all other subdivisions. Each enumerator, having been duly commissioned and qualified by his oath of office, was required to obtain all the information prescribed by the census act by a personal visit to each dwelling house and to each family, and in the absence of the head of the family or other competent person to procure the information from the person or persons living nearest to such absent person or family. The same penalties were provided as in 1880 for refusal to furnish information and for neglect to perform their duties or willful wrongdoing on the part of supervisors and enumerators. Daily reports were required from each enumerator, and he was also required to fill out and return a certificate of completion of the enumeration of his district the same as in 1880.

The schedules of inquiry intrusted to the census enumerators con

sisted of the four general schedules relating to population, agriculture, manufactures, and mortality, eight supplemental schedules calling for special information concerning the defective, dependent, and delinquent classes, and the special schedule relating to Union survivors of the war of the rebellion. These schedules were sent out in bulk from the census office to the supervisors, and were distributed by the supervisors to the enumerators. Over 25,000,000 schedules, weighing more than 300 tons, were needed to supply the enumerators, and these schedules, from two-thirds to three-fourths of which came back in the form of completed returns, were carried by registered mail from the census office, through the supervisors, to the enumerators, and were returned by them to the supervisors and by the supervisors to the census office, without the loss of a single package.

As in 1880, the mortality schedule was withdrawn in certain States and cities, and the information obtained from the official registration records, while in the principal manufacturing centers the schedules of manufactures were also withdrawn and the statistics collected by special agents appointed for each city, town, or place.

The mortality schedules at the census of 1890 were wholly withdrawn from the enumerators and a copy made of the registration record in the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, in 83 cities outside of these States, and in the District of Columbia. Of the whole number of deaths reported in 1890 (875,521), very nearly one-half (409,125), as against one-fourth in 1880, were obtained from the registration records of these States and cities, representing a population of 19,659,440, or more than three-tenths of the entire population of the country in 1890, as against one-sixth in 1880.

The schedules of manufactures were withdrawn in 1890 in 1,042 important manufacturing centers as against 279 in 1880, and the duty of collecting the statistics charged upon special agents.

The law further provided, as in 1880, for the employment of experts and special agents in making a special enumeration of all Indians living within the jurisdiction of the United States, a separate census of the population and resources of Alaska, and in obtaining complete statistics concerning mines and mining, the fisheries, churches, education, insurance, transportation, and wealth, debt, and taxation, the schedule for social statistics being withdrawn, as in 1880, from the general enumerators.

The schedules used by the enumerators at the census of 1890 were much smaller in size than those used in 1880, being about 15 by 11 inches, with the exception of the schedules of manufactures, which were 9 by 11 inches. Furthermore, a family schedule was adopted for the enumeration of the population in 1890, that is, a separate schedule for each family enumerated, instead of the schedule in use

at the censuses from 1850 to 1880, inclusive, on each page of which the entries were made concerning from 40 to 50 persons. The adoption of the family schedule also permitted its use as a "prior" schedule, for which provision had been made in the laws governing the censuses of 1880 and 1890, wherever deemed advisable, but this was not attempted to any extent, even in the larger cities, principally for want of time in which to make the necessary preparations.

The supervisors of census, instead of receiving, as in 1880, the fixed sum of $500, without regard to the size of the district, were to be compensated, under the act of March 1, 1889, in addition to a fixed sum of $125, at the rate of $1 per 1,000 inhabitants in thickly settled districts and $1.40 per 1,000 inhabitants in sparsely settled districts; but no supervisor was to receive in the aggregate less than $500, which, by an act approved January 23, 1890, was increased to $1,000. Under this provision as amended all but four supervisors, those for the State of Massachusetts (a single district) and the cities of New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia, received the minimum sum of $1,000. Certain sums were also allowed to supervisors, in the discretion of the Superintendent of Census, for clerk hire and miscellaneous expenses.

The maximum and minimum rates of compensation, both per capita and per diem, to be paid enumerators at the census of 1890 were fixed by the law, but the Superintendent of Census was given discretionary powers, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, as to the rate to be paid in each district. In accordance with these provisions of the law, three per capita rates were established, as follows: For each living inhabitant, 2, 2, and 3 cents; for each farm, 15, 171⁄2, and 20 cents; and for each manufacturing establishment, 20, 25, and 30 cents. Uniform rates were allowed in per capita districts of 2 cents for each entry on the mortality schedule, 5 cents for each record on the special schedule for surviving Union soldiers, sailors, etc., and 5 cents for each entry on each of the supplemental schedules. Three per diem rates of $4, $5, and $6 were paid in certain districts where per capita rates were impracticable, on account of the difficulties of enumeration.

The whole number of enumerators who received compensation at the census of 1890 was 46,804, of whom 43,533 were regular enumerators, 2,226 were special enumerators for large institutions, etc., and 1,045 were enumerators appointed to reenumerate such districts or parts of districts in which the original work was improperly done. The enumerators who received per capita rates numbered 42,952, of whom 34.595 received the lowest rates, 5,247 the medium rates, and 3,110 the highest rates. Of the remaining 3,852 enumerators who were paid per diem rates, 2,203 received $4 per day, 1,067 received $5 per day, and 582 received $6 per day. Of the enumerators who

received per capita rates, 18.79 per cent earned less than $2 per day; 25.04 per cent from $2 to $2.50 per day; 22.71 per cent from $2.50 to $3 per day; 14.72 per cent from $3 to $3.50 per day; 8.97 per cent from $3.50 to $4 per day, and 9.77 per cent more than $4 per day.

The compensation of experts and special agents was not to exceed $6 per day and actual traveling expenses, as in 1880, but by subsequent legislation the Superintendent of Census was authorized to pay special agents in Alaska, in addition to their salaries, a per diem allowance, to cover all expenses of subsistence and transportation, not to exceed $7 per day, while other special agents were given a per diem allowance in lieu of subsistence of $3 per day.

The provision of the act of 1879 requiring each enumerator to make a duplicate of the name, age, sex, and color of all persons enumerated by him and to deposit the same in the office of the county clerk, and for which he was paid at the rate of 10 cents for each 100 names, was not repeated at the census of 1890, but a provision was substituted by which, upon the request of any municipal government, the Superintendent of Census was required to furnish such government with a copy of the names, age, sex, birthplace, and color or race, of all persons enumerated within the territory in the jurisdiction of such municipality, to be paid for by such municipal government at the rate of 25 cents for each 100 names.

The first returns of the enumerators were received in Washington during the week of June 14, and a few days later the work of counting the population was begun. The first announcement of population was made June 28, being that of the District of Columbia, and was followed by that of the city of New York on July 18, and by that of the city of Philadelphia on August 18. During the month of August the count for four States was completed and announced; during September for nine States and Territories, and during October for thirtyfive States and Territories. The completed results for the entire country, according to the first "rough" count, were given to the public on October 28 and the "official" count, as finally determined, and upon which the new apportionment was based, on November 26, or in less than five months after the legal termination on June 30 of the time allowed for the enumeration. The last returns of the census of 1890 were received on November 10, having been delayed in the mails by being improperly addressed, being the returns of a single enumeration district which had to be retaken after the close of the regular work.

The first count of population was made direct from the schedules, by what is known as the family count, or the number of persons in each family enumerated. Two counts from the schedules for each enumeration district were made in each case by different clerks, and where differences appeared recounts were made. By this count was

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