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spondence. Some part of the detailed information called for by the supplemental schedules relating to the insane, feeble-minded, deaf and dumb, and blind, was obtained through the medium of the census enumerators, so far as these classes were found among the general population, but the most of this information was obtained by consultation and correspondence with the officers of the institutions maintained for their special care and treatment, the work being prosecuted under the direction of an expert, to whom was also intrusted the collection of the statistics relating to crime, pauperism, and benevolence. Experts and special agents were also employed to collect the statistics relating to the other topics covered by the schedule on social statistics, namely, valuation, taxation, and indebtedness; religion; libraries; colleges, acadamies, and schools; newspapers and periodicals, and wages. The law also provided for the collection of detailed information as to the condition and operations of railroad corporations, incorporated express companies, and telegraph companies, and of life, fire, and marine insurance companies, and, in addition, the Superintendent of Census was required to collect and publish the statistics of the population, industries, and resources of Alaska with such fullness as he might find expedient and practicable, and to make an enumeration, through special agents or other means, of all Indians not taxed within the jurisdiction of the United States, with such information as to their condition as could be obtained.

Section 10 of the act of March 3, 1879, specified the manner in which the compensation of enumerators should be ascertained and fixed, by which an allowance not exceeding 2 cents for each living inhabitant, 2 cents for each death reported, 10 cents for each farm, and 15 cents for each establishment of productive industry enumerated and returned could be made in subdivisions where the Superintendent of Census deemed such allowance sufficient, and he was also required at least one month in advance of the enumeration to designate the subdivisions to which these rates should apply. For all other subdivisions, the law required that rates of compensation should be fixed in advance of the enumeration by the Superintendent of Census, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, according to the difficulty of enumeration, having reference to the nature of the region to be canvassed, and the density or sparseness of settlement, or other considerations pertinent thereto; but the compensation allowed to any enumerator in any district was not to exceed an average of $4 per day of ten hours actual field work each in any district east of the one-hundredth meridian and $6 per working day of equal length in any district west of the one-hundredth meridian.

Under this provision of the law, uniform rates of compensation were allowed as frllows: Five cents for each death returned, 15 cents for each establishment of productive industry reported on the general schedule of manufactures, and 25 cents for each establishment of productive industry reported on the special schedules of manufactures. For the return of living persons and of farms, the rates allowed were varied according to the varying ease or difficulty of enumeration, the minimum allowance being 124 cents for each farm reported, and 2 cents for each living inhabitant returned. These minimum rates were paid generally in cities and incorporated towns and villages, and somewhat higher rates in less thickly settled districts. In a few districts in the Territories and sparsely settled States per diem rates of from $4 to $6 were allowed and paid, following the limitations prescribed by the census act. In addition, supplemental schedules were used in enumerating the defective, dependent, and delinquent classes, as already stated, and for each of these schedules, which were seven in number, the enumerators were allowed a uniform rate of 5 cents for each person returned thereon. Each enumerator was allowed, in addition, 10 cents for each 100 names in the copy of his schedule required to be made and deposited with the county clerk, and $2.50 per day for the two days' additional service required for the correction of his schedule of inhabitants, under the provisions of section 6 of the act of April 20, 1880.

The experts and special agents employed to collect the manufacturing and other statistics withdrawn from the general enumerators were required to take the same oath and were given equal authority with the enumerators, and they received compensation at rates fixed by the Superintendent of Census, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, not to exceed, in any case, $6 per day and actual traveling expenses.

Under the law the Superintendent of Census, with the consent of the President, could remove at any time any supervisor of census and fill any vacancy thereby caused or otherwise occurring, and similar authority was given to a supervisor of census to remove, with the consent of the Superintendent of Census, any enumerator in his district and to fill any vacancy that might occur from that or other reason. In all such cases, however, but one compensation could be allowed for the entire service, to be properly apportioned by the Superintendent of Census.

Each enumerator was required to make daily reports to the Superintendent of Census and to the supervisor of his district of the number of persons, farms, etc., enumerated by him each day, and also a statement of the time actually and necessarily occupied in this service, postal cards, properly printed and addressed, being provided for the purpose. He was also required to date and sign each page of the population schedule, and upon the completion of his work to append a written certificate that he had completed the enumeration of the

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district assigned to him, and that the returns had been duly and truthfully made in accordance with law and his oath of office.

There were, at the census of 1880, in all 31,382 enumerators, and their average daily earnings were as follows: 964, or 3.07 per cent, earned $2 and less; 2,908, or 9.27 per cent, from $2 to $2.50; 5,565, or 17.73 per cent, from $2.50 to $3; 7,529, or 23.99 per cent, from $3 to $3.50; 12,588, or 40.11 per cent, from $3.50 to $4; 630, or 2.01 per cent, from $1 to $4.50; 152, or 0.49 per cent, from $4.50 to $5; 157, or 0.50 per cent, from $5 to $5.50, and 889, or 2.83 per cent, from $5.50 to $6.

Penalties were also provided by the census act, by which it was made a misdemeanor for any supervisor or enumerator, after having taken and subscribed the oath required by the act, to neglect or refuse, without justifiable cause, to perform the duties required of him, or to communicate, without the authority of the Superintendent of Census, to any unauthorized person any statistics of property or business included in his return, and upon conviction to forfeit a sum not exceeding $500; and, also, if he should willfully and knowingly swear or affirm falsely, he should be deemed guilty of perjury, and on conviction to be subject to an imprisonment of not exceeding three years or to a fine of not exceeding $800; or, if he should willfully and knowingly make false certificates or fictitious returns, he should be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction of either offense, he should forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding $5,000 and be imprisoned not exceeding two years. It was also provided that if any person should receive or secure to himself any fee, reward, or compensation as a consideration for the employment of any person as enumerator or clerk, or should in any way receive or secure to himself any part of the compensation provided in this act for the services of any enumerator or clerk, he should be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, should be fined not less than $500 nor more than $3,000, in the discretion of the court.

The law further provided penalties for the failure or refusal on the part of any person more than 20 years of age belonging to any family residing in any enumeration district, or, in the absence of the heads and other members, of any agent of any family, to render a true account to the best of his or her knowledge of every person belonging to such family, if so required, and also in the case of similar failure or refusal on the part of any officer or agent of a corporation from which answers were required on any of the schedules provided for by the census act.

All mail matter of whatever class relating to the census, if properly addressed and indorsed, was to be transported free of postage, subject to a penalty for private use of $300.

The Secretary was also authorized, in his judgment, to call upon any other department or officer of the Government for information pertaining to the enumeration required by the census act.

Provision was also made for an interdecennial census, to be taken by any State or Territory, through its duly appointed officers or agents, during the two months beginning with the first Monday in June of the year which is the mean between the decennial censuses of the United States, according to schedules and forms similar in all respects to those used in the United States census, and upon a full and authentic copy of said census being deposited with the Secretary of the Interior on or before the 1st of September following, such State or Territory was to receive, upon the requisition of the governor thereof, a sum equal to 50 per cent of the amount paid to all supervisors and actual enumerators within such State or Territory at the United States census next preceding, increased by one-half the percentage of gain in population in such State or Territory between the two United States censuses next preceding. This provision of law was only applicable to the period between 1880 and 1890, not being reenacted in the act governing the eleventh census, and, in accordance with its requirements, censuses were taken in 1885 in the States of Florida, Nebraska, and Colorado, and in the Territories of New Mexico and Dakota, and the copies required under the act were filed in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, but no publication of the returns was made so far as the United States Government was concerned. (a)

Gen. Francis A. Walker was appointed Superintendent of Census April 1, 1879, by the President, under the provisions of the act of March 3, 1879, and immediately began the organization of the census office by the appointment as chief clerk of Col. Charles W. Seaton, a chief of division at the census of 1870 and the superintendent of the New York State census of 1875.

During the period preceding the date of the enumeration (June 1, 1880) the work of the census office consisted of the necessary preparations for the general enumeration and of the collection of certain classes of statistics which, under the law, were withdrawn from the enumerators, and for this service clerical appointments were made at successive dates, as the exigencies of the service required. There were 44 employees in the census office on the 1st of December, 1879, 121 on the 1st of May, 1880, and 245 on the 1st of June, 1880, and this num. ber had increased to 448 on August 1, to 737 on September 1, and to 1,084 on December 1. The maximum of clerical force was reached on the 15th of March, 1881, when the number of employees of all grades was 1,495.

a Several other States took a census in 1885, notably Massachusetts, Rhode Island, District of Columbia, Kansas, Oregon, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1884, but under the provisions of State laws and wholly at the expense of the State.

The compilation of the results concerning the population was made on the tallying machines invented by Colonel Seaton and used for a limited period at the census of 1870, and for which he was paid the sum of $15,000, by act of June 10, 1872, in full of all claims against the Government for their use at the ninth or any subsequent

census.

By the exhaustion of the census appropriations during the first half of 1881, the work of compiling the census returns had to be carried on, by arrangement with the Secretary of the Interior, by a volunteer force of about 700 clerks until after the necessary appropriations were made in January, 1882, for the payment of this force for voluntary services rendered, without claim against the Government, and for the continuation of the work.

General Walker resigned as Superintendent of Census November 3, 1881, to accept the position of president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was succeeded by Col. Charles W. Seaton, the chief clerk of the office, who entered upon his duties November 4, 1881, and served until March 3, 1885, when the census office was abolished. For the completion of the unfinished work of the tenth census, a census division was then established in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, and upon its substantial completion the census division was done away with, and a census clerk appointed July 1, 1886, who remained in charge of the census records until the or: ganization of the census office for the purposes of the eleventh census in April, 1889.

The printed reports of the census of 1880 cover a wide range of subjects and occupy 22 large quarto volumes, aggregating 19,305 pages, besides a compendium, in two parts, comprising a total of 1,898 pages.

The publication of these reports was not completed until late in 1888, while for two or three subjects, such as churches, educational institutions, libraries, and insurance, for which much of the material was collected and partly compiled, no report was ever published, with the exception of a few general tables relating to insurance and public schools contained in Part 2 of the Compendium. The statistics of the fisheries, which were collected in cooperation with the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, were not published as a part of the census report, but were included in a series of special reports published by the Commissioner of Fisheries.

The various volumes of the census report for 1880 were illustrated by maps and diagrams, as at the census of 1870, but the cartographic method of presentation was very much amplified and extended at the census of 1880.

The census of 1880, considered with respect to the number and variety of the subjects which were investigated, and the completeness

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