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By the resolution of June 9, 1870, the Secretary of the Interior was authorized to increase the compensation of assistant marshals whenever, in his judgment, such increase should be necessary, but in no case to exceed 50 per cent of the amount now allowed by law, and to be made only "when by reason of the sparseness of the population the compensation heretofore allowed by law is not sufficient," and it was further stipulated that the entire compensation should not be more than $8 per day, exclusive of mileage, for the time actually employed. This increased compensation was only applicable to sparsely settled districts, however, but by section 8 of the act of March 3, 1871 (as modified by section 8 of the act of April 20, 1871), this limitation was removed, and the Secretary of the Interior given authority to allow such increased compensation, without regard to the density of population, whenever such increase was deemed by him to be necessary.

The schedules of inquiry were remodeled at this census, in the sense that the inquiries were made more explicit in many cases, and by the omission of the former slave schedule several additional inquiries were made possible. These changes and additions may be briefly summarized.

Schedule No. 1, for the enumeration of population, contained five additional inquiries, two relating to parentage, that is, of persons having either a father or mother of foreign birth; two inquiries, under the requirements of the fourteenth amendment, to determine the number of male citizens of the United States of 21 years of age and upward, and the number of such citizens whose right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than rebellion or other crime; and an inquiry as to the month of birth, for each person born within the year. The month was also called for in the inquiry relating to persons married within the year, and an extension was made in the inquiry respecting "color" so as to distinguish the Chinese and Indians among the general population. The age limitation of 15 years was also removed from the inquiry concerning the profession, occupation, or trade, while the inquiry relating to illiterate persons was divided to show the number unable to read and the number unable to write; and by the instructions to assistant marshals these two inquiries were made to apply to all persons 10 years of age and over. The inquiry on the population schedule as to whether a "pauper" or "convict" was also omitted as being offensive and superfluous, and the return for these two classes confined to the schedule calling for social statistics.

Schedule No. 2, relating to persons who died during the year, was modified by the addition of the inquiry as to parentage and the extension of the inquiry respecting color to include Chinese and Indians, as in the population schedule, and by the omission of the inquiry as to whether "free or slave," which was no longer necessary, and the inquiry as to "number of days ill," which was deemed of no importance.

Schedule No. 3, relating to agriculture, contained a division of the inquiry concerning unimproved land so as to show the "acres of woodland" and "acres of unimproved land" separately; a subdivision of the inquiry concerning the quantity of wheat produced into "bushels of spring wheat" and "bushels of winter wheat;" an extension of the inquiry concerning the value of animals slaughtered to include, in addition, those sold for slaughter; the substitution of a single inquiry as to "tons of hemp," instead of a separate return for dew-rotted, waterrotted, and other prepared hemp, as in 1860; and the addition of inquiries as to the total amount of wages paid during the year (including the value of board), number of gallons of milk sold, value of forest products, and estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock.

Schedule No. 4, relating to products of industry, subdivided the inquiry concerning motive power and machinery so as to show specifically the kind of motive power, number of horsepower (if steam or water), and the number and kind of machines used; while the inquiry concerning the average number of hands employed was also made to cover males above 16 years, females above 15 years, and children and youth, instead of the number of males and of females, as formerly. The inquiries as to the average monthly cost of male and of female labor were abandoned and an inquiry substituted as to the total amount paid in wages during the year, and a new inquiry added to show the number of months in active operation, reducing part time to full time.

Schedule No. 5, relating to social statistics, omitted the inquiries as to "seasons and crops" and substituted therefor an inquiry concerning the bonded and other debt of counties and of cities, towns, townships, parishes, and boroughs. The inquiries under "pauperism and crime" as to the number of native paupers and criminals on June 1, respectively, were extended to distinguish native whites and native blacks; under "religion," the ambiguous term of "number of churches" was expanded to two inquiries, number of church organizations and number of church edifices; under "education," inquiries as to the number of teachers and of pupils were subdivided to show, in each case, the number of males and of females, while under the three heads of "schools," "libraries," and "taxation," the kinds of schools, libraries, and taxes were classified on the schedules, to avoid confusion and error in the returns.

The enumeration of inhabitants at this census, which by law was commenced June 1, 1870, was substantially completed by the 9th of January, 1871, at which date returns for all but about 225,000 persons, out of a total of 38,500,000 people, had been received; but the entire work of enumeration was not completed until August 23, 1871, seven and a half months later, when the last return representing 304 persons was received. The period contemplated by the act of May 6, 1870, for

the completion of the census was, in round numbers, one hundred days, but the delays beyond that limit were unavoidable, under the existing census machinery, arising from the ineradicable defects of the act of 1850, under which, with slight modifications, the census was taken.

In the compilation of the results of this census, as stated by Superintendent Walker, every effort was made to adhere to the forms used in preceding census publications, so far as possible, in order to make comparison practicable, rejecting those classifications only which were thought to be essentially vicious and introducing new divisions or new groupings to overcome the inadequacies of former presentations, but retaining the old so far as to admit of comparisons. The scope of the report was further enlarged, for the purpose of more completely presenting the information obtained in the enumeration, and, in addition, the results of the preceding censuses with respect to the subdivision of the population according to color were republished, after careful revision, by States and counties, in tables 1 and 2 of the volume relating to population-a necessity due not only to the scarcity of the published volumes of the earlier censuses but also on account of the inaccuracies which existed in these official publications. In the comparative tables of population from 1790 to 1870, given in the Report of the Ninth Census, all the variations from former official totals are set forth in detail and fully explained.

The census office was organized on the 7th of February, 1870, by the appointment of General Walker as Superintendent, as already stated, and the clerical force was raised under a system of examinations, which began February 18, 1870, and were continued from time to time, and for which a total of 719 persons presented themselves. Of this number, 401 passed upon their first examination, while of 64 of those who failed on the first trial and were allowed a second examination 37 were successful. General Walker served as Superintendent of the Census until November 21, 1871, when he was made Commissioner of Indian Affairs, remaining, however, in charge of the census as acting superintendent, by request of the Secretary of the Interior, but receiving only the compensation attached to the office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Upon his resignation of this office January 31, 1873, to accept a position in private life, he was requested by the Secretary of the Interior to continue in charge of matters relating to the census, so that the continuity of plan and procedure might not be unnecessarily interrupted, and, for that purpose, received an appointment as Superintendent of the Census, without salary, and remained in charge until his appointment by the President April 1, 1879, as Superintendent of the Tenth Census, under the new law of March 3, 1879. The work of compiling the results of the census, for a portion of which a tallying machine, invented by Col. Charles W. Seaton, was used with good results, was completed in the latter part of the year 1872, and the

census office, organized for the purposes of the ninth census, was closed July 1, 1873, the former chief clerk of the office being retained in charge of the census records at Washington.

The results of the ninth census were published, under authority of the joint resolution of April 13, 1871, in three quarto volumes, one relating to population and social statistics, one to vital statistics, and one to statistics of industry and wealth. There was also a compendium authorized by the concurrent resolution of May 31, 1872, and a statistical atlas, based upon the returns of the ninth census, and compiled by Francis A. Walker, under the provisions of the act of March 3, 1873. The volume devoted to population and social statistics contains, besides the tables of selected ages, sex, race, nationality, and occupations, the statistics of school attendance and illiteracy, of schools, libraries, newspapers and periodicals, churches, pauperism and crime, and of areas, families, and dwellings; and, in addition, the detailed report of the operations of the census office for the year 1871, made under date of December 26, 1871, by Superintendent Walker, in which considerable space is devoted to a consideration of the difficulties and limitations of the census work, embodying remarks upon the thoroughness of the enumeration, complaints against the census, the essential viciousness of a protracted enumeration, defects of the census law, changes in the schedules of inquiry, and the errors and deficiencies in the census returns. The statistical tables are also accompanied by notes and explanations, whenever deemed necessary, indicating the degree to which the figures presented may be relied upon, and, as nearly as may be, the proportion of omission or error.

Maps and charts were employed, for the first time in the census, as a means of presenting graphically the highly interesting results and conclusions reached at the ninth census period, pertaining to the density of the population; the distribution of the colored and foreign elements, and of the natives of certain specified foreign countries; illiteracy; wealth; the range and degree of prevalence of certain diseases; range and degree of cultivation of leading agricultural products; physical characteristics of the country; and the acquisition and transfer of territory from 1780 to 1870, with a chapter of historical notes respecting the acquisition of the territory of the United States, the erection of existing and obsolete political divisions, and their successive changes in organization and area.

The total population returned at the census of 1870 was 38,558,371, (a) and the total cost of this census was $3,421,198.33, this being the whole amount appropriated for the ninth census.

a The census of 1870 was very deficient in the Southern States, and it has since been demonstrated by the census officials that the population in 1870 was approximately 39,818,449, instead of 38,558,371, as given in the report of that census.


An effort was made to have a national census taken in 1875, the suggestion of Superintendent Walker meeting with the approval and recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior in three annual reports and forming a part of two of the annual messages of President Grant. Such a census seemed highly desirable, not only on account of the long interval between the decennial enumerations, causing the information gathered at one decennial period to become of little practical value after the expiration of the first half of the ten-year period, but also because it would constitute a noble monument to the progress of the United States during the first century of its political life. It was not contemplated, however, to use the results for the reapportionment of Congressional representation, and the proposed census was to be divested of all political character and no reapportionment was to be made until after the census of 1880. This proposal met with general approval on the part of the press of the country, and received the attention of the Centennial Committee of the House of Representatives, to whom it was referred, General Walker being called before a subcommittee to give his views concerning its feasibility.

This effort for a quinquennial census had no practical result, however, and no further action was had with respect to the census until the necessity of preparing for the tenth census was brought to the attention of Congress in 1878. General Walker, having held over as the Superintendent of the Census, was in an official position to emphasize the necessity of having more scientific methods adopted for the conduct of the census work, and, as an additional incentive, to make this census a centennial contribution of facts, in keeping with the spirit and enthusiasm of the period. The initiatory step was taken May 20, 1878, by the introduction of a bill by Mr. Garfield, but this was without practical result. Another bill was introduced January 7, 1879, by Mr. Cox, of New York, and a substitute for this bill was reported later in the month by Mr. Cox from the Select Committee on the Census, and the same bill was reported the same day in the Senate by Senator Morrill of the Senate Committee on the Tenth Census. This bill, substantially as reported, became a law March 3, 1879, but supplementary legislation, involving important amendments essential to the proper taking of the census, was had April 20, 1880, and the main appropriations for the census work were not made until June 16, 1880, two weeks after the enumeration had commenced. The census of 1880 was taken, therefore, in accordance with the provisions of these acts, by which a radical departure was made in the methods. of enumeration and the scope of the census was increased to encyclopedic proportions.

By the new law, a census office was established in the Department of the Interior, and a Superintendent of the Census specifically pro

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