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governing the second census, to make the enumeration of 1800 the vehicle for ascertaining sundry facts highly interesting and important to society, and for that purpose presented to Congress two memorials (a) which were communicated to the Senate January 10, 1800. One of these memorials, that of the American Philosophical Society, was signed by Thomas Jefferson as its president, and begged leave to submit to the wisdom of the legislature the expediency of requiring, in addition to the table of population, as in the former act, “others presenting a more detailed view of the inhabitants of the United States, under several different aspects;” and for these purposes, suggested that a table be presented showing the number of births and the number of persons "2, 5, 10, 16, 21, and 25 years of age, and every term of five years from thence to one hundred,” in order that there may be calculated therefrom the ordinary duration of life in these States, the chances of life for every epoch thereof, and the ratio of the increase of their population; firmly believing that the result will be sensibly different from what is presented by the tables of other countries, by which we are, from necessity, in the habit of estimating the probabilities of life here;" that “for the purpose also of more exactly distinguishing the increase of population by birth and immigration,” another table should contain "the respective numbers of native citizens, citizens of foreign birth, and of aliens;” and that "in order to ascertain more completely the causes which influence life and health, and to furnish a curious and useful document of the distribution of society in these States, and of the conditions and vocations of our fellow-citizens,” another table should specify "the number of free male inhabitants, of all ages, engaged in business, under the following or such other descriptions as the greater wisdom of the legislature shall approve, to wit: (1) Men of the learned professions, including clergymen, lawyers, physicians, those employed in the fine arts, teachers, and scribes in general. (2) Merchants and trades, including bankers, insurers, brokers, and dealers of every kind. (3) Marines. (4) Handicraftsmen. (5) Laborers in agriculture. (6) Laborers of other descriptions. (7) Domestic servants. (8) Paupers. (9) Persons of no particular calling, living on their income; care being taken that every person be noted but once in the table, and that under the description to which he principally belongs." The other memorial, that of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, which was signed by Timothy Dwight, its president, recited the fact that it was the belief of the memorialists “that to present and future generations it will be highly gratifying to observe the progress of population in
a A comparison of these memorials, as printed in Garfield's Report on the Ninth Census (House Reports, Forty-first Congress, second session, Vol. I, No. 3), pp. 35, 36, with the originals on file in the office of the Secretary of the Senate, shows minor differences in the text, which have been made use of in this article.
this country, and to be able to trace the proportion of its increase from native Americans and from foreigners immigrating at successive periods; to observe the progress or decline of various occupations; the effects of population, luxury, mechanic arts, the cultivation of lands, and the draining of marshes on the health and longevity of the citizens of the United States;” and that “for the accomplishment of these and other scientific objects, to which, on this extensive scale, no individual industry is competent," they begged leave to request that the next census “may comprehend the following particulars, viz, the number of children under the age of 2 years, and between the ages of 2 and 5 years; the number of persons between the ages of 16 and 30, 30 and 50, 50 and 70, 70 and 80, 80 and 90, 90 and 100, and above 100, distinguishing in each class the males from the females; the number of natives and of persons not born in the United States; the number of persons in each of the handicraft occupations; the number of merchants, cultivators of land, and professional men, distinguishing their professions; the number of married persons, of unmarried persons above 30 years of age, of widows, and widowers;” and also "that the returns from the several cities, towns, counties, or other districts may be kept distinct."
These memorials were referred by the Senate to a committee to whom the preparation of a census law had already been intrusted, but this committee, although instructed to do so, apparently made no report thereon, nor is there any mention made of these memorials in the recorded debates. (a)
The total population of the United States in 1800 was 5,308,483, and the total cost of the enumeration was $66,109.04. (6)
THE THIRD CENSUS: 1810.
The third census was taken under the direction of the Secretary of State, and under the same general provisions of law which governed the two preceding, but by the terms of the act of March 26, 1810, the marshals and the secretaries of the territories were required to appoint one or more assistants in each county and city, who must be residents thereof, and to assign to each assistant a certain division of their districts; but such division could not consist of more than one county or city, but might be composed of one or more towns, townships, wards, hundreds, or parishes, plainly and distinctly bounded by water courses, mountains, public roads, or other monuments.
The enumeration, which the law now stipulated was to be made " by an actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family within each district, and not otherwise," was to commence on
a Garfield's Report on Ninth Census (House Reports, Forty-first Congress, second session, Vol. I, No. 3), pp. 36, 37.
b Report of Seventh Census, viii.
the first Monday in August and to close in nine calendar months thereafter. By act of April 12, 1810, however, the time was limited to five months, but as this did not prove sufficient for the completion of the work, by act of March 2, 1811, the time for assistants to make their return was extended to the first Monday in June, and that for the marshals and secretaries to the first Monday in July, 1811.
The schedule of inquiries relating to population called for exactly the same information as at the census of 1800, and the assistants received compensation for this work at the same rates prescribed for that census, including the allowance for the two copies to be set up two of the most public places, except that the rate allowed for increased compensation in sparsely settled areas was not to exceed $1.25 for every 50 persons, instead of $1, as theretofore.
There were 26 districts and territories to be enumerated at this census, Tennessee being divided into two districts, and the amount of compensation allowed to the marshals and secretaries was increased in several instances over the amount received at the preceding censuses; but the highest amount allowed in any case was $500, that paid to the marshal of the district of Virginia, as before, while the smallest compensation was $50, that of the marshal of the District of Columbia, separately enumerated for the first time at this census.
In case there was no secretary in either of the territories, provision was made for the performance of the duties directed by the act by the governor of such territory, for which he was to receive the same compensation to which the secretary would have been entitled and was subject to the same penalties.
The marshals and secretaries, in filing the returns of their assistants with the clerks of the district and superior courts, were also required by the law of 1810 to file an attested copy of the return which they were directed to transmit to the Secretary of State.
The results of this census or enumeration of the population were printed in a long folio of 180 pages, without title-page, the summary of the population of the several districts and territories being preceded by the following caption: “Aggregate amount of each description of persons within the United States of America, and the territories thereof, agreeably to actual enumeration made according to law, in the year 1810.” The various subdivisions of the population called for by the act were presented by counties and towns in the northern sections of the country (except New York, which was by counties only), and also in Ohio, Kentucky, and Georgia. The returns for the southern districts were limited, as in preceding censuses, to counties, usually, while the population of the territories was generally returned by counties and townships.
As has been noted, no additional details concerning the population were ascertained at this census, but by a later provision of law an attempt was made, for the first time, to gather industrial statistics. This was undertaken in accordance with the terms of the act of May 1, 1810, which, after making (in section 1) certain changes in the form of the oath or affirmation required of marshals, secretaries, and assistants, provided in section 2 as follows:
That it shall be the duty of the several marshals, secretaries, and their assistants aforesaid, at the time for taking the census or enumeration aforesaid, to take, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, and according to such instructions as he shall give, an account of the several manufacturing establishments and manufactures within their several districts, territories, and divisions. The said assistants shall make return of the same to the marshals or secretaries of their respective districts or territories, and the said marshal and secretary shall transmit the said returns and abstracts thereof to the Secretary of the Treasury, at the same times at which they are by this act, and the several acts to which this act is an addition, required respectively to make their return of said enumeration to the Secretary of State; for the performance of which additional services they shall respectively receive such compensation as shall hereafter be provided by law.
No schedule was prescribed by the law, nor was the nature of the inquiries to be made indicated, but were wholly subject to the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury. For the further carrying out of this work, it was provided by a resolution passed March 19, 1812:
That the Secretary of the Treasury be directed to employ a person to digest and reduce to such form as shall be deemed most conducive to the interests of the United States, a statement of the number, nature, extent, situation, and value of the arts and manufactures of the United States, together with such other details, connected with these subjects, as can be made from the abstracts and other documents and returns, reported to him by the marshals and other persons employed to collect information in conformity to the second section of the act of the first of May, one thousand eight hundred and ten, and such other information as has been or may be obtained, which the subject will admit of; and that he report the same to Congress.
For making this digest of manufactures, the sum of $2,000 was authorized by the act of May 16, 1812, while the sum of $40,000 was allowed for the compensation of the marshals and assistants for taking the account of the manufactures, but without statutory provisions for its apportionment.
The statement of manufactures called for by this resolution relates to but four or five items, namely, the kind, quantity, and value of goods manufactured, the number of establishments, in some cases, and the number of machines of various kinds used in certain classes of manufactures, as shown by the printed report, which contains more or less incomplete returns covering these items for considerably more than 200 kinds of goods or things considered, and including several items relating to products other than those of manufactures, but principally agricultural. This report, a quarto volume of 233 pages,
was published May 30, 1813, under the following exceedingly comprehensive title:
A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America, exhibiting
1. A collection of facts, evincing their benefactions to agriculture, commerce, navigation, and the fisheries, and their subserviency to the public defense, with an indication of certain existing modes of conducting them, peculiarly important to the United States.
II. A collection of additional facts, tending to show the practical foundation, actual progress, condition, and establishment of the American arts and manufactures, and their connection with the wealth and strength of the United States. Together with
One series of tables of the several branches of American manufactures, exhibiting them by States, Territories, and districts, so far as they were returned in the reports of the marshals and of the secretaries of the territories, and their respective assistants, in the autumn of the year 1810; together with similar returns of certain doubtful goods, productions of the soil, and agricultural stock, so far as they have been reported; and another
Series of tables of the several branches of American manufactures, exhibiting them in every county of the Union, so far as they were returned in the reports of the marshals, and of the secretaries of the territories and their respective assistants, in the autumn of the year 1810; which tables were prepared in execution of an instruction of Albert Gallatin, esquire, Secretary of the Treasury, given by him in obedience to a resolution of Congress of the 19th day of March, 1812.
Concerning the tables, Mr. Tench Coxe, who was charged by the Secretary of the Treasury with the duty of making the digest, says (p. xxvii):
In the tables which form the third and fourth parts of this statement is contained the result of this first attempt of an extensive and populous country, or perhaps of any country, to ascertain in detail the facts which constitute and display the actual condition of its manufactures. The duty of collecting the information by the marshals and secretaries was additional and secondary to the periodical enumeration of the people, and required a longer time than was allowed for such an enumeration, enjoined as a basis of distribution of constitutional power. The period of the two measures was not sufficient for the correspondence between the superior and subordinate officers, which would have produced more perfect details and greater uniformity and perspicuity. It may, however, be affirmed that the tables contain a great number and variety of clear indications of the state of the manufacturing branch of the national industry, and a mass of positive evidence upon the subject, in relation to the eastern, northern, middle, southern, Atlantic, and western sections or grand divisions of the country, with respect to the forms or modes of the manufactures which have grown up, the raw materials upon which they operate, a very considerable portion of the value to which they have arisen, very useful data for the comparative value of internal commerce or manufactures and external commerce or navigation, and foreign trade, and much elucidation of the operations of manufacturing industry upon the commercial and the landed interests, and upon the public safety.