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[In reproducing the schedule inquiries pertaining to the various subjects of investigation at each census, the tabular form of the schedule has not been preserved except where necessary, but explanatory notes concerning such cases will be found under each heading.

Inquiries common to other schedules are omitted to save space and to avoid unnecessary repetition, as indicated by explanatory notes wherever such omissions


The instructions to the assistant marshals in 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, and 1870, and to the census enumerators in 1880 and 1890, are appended to the inquiries relating to population at each census, respectively.]


[There was no printed form of schedule used in enumerating the population until the census of 1830. Prior to that census the blanks used by the assistant marshals were ruled by them by hand, following the form of the schedule inquiries prescribed by each census act, respectively. The inquiries were placed at the heads of columns and the entries made on horizontal cross lines, but there was no uniformity in the size or shape of the sheets used by the assistant marshals for this purpose.

In the printed forms of schedules used from 1830 to 1880, inclusive, the inquiries are printed at the heads of columns and horizontal cross lines are provided for the entries to be made thereon, the number of entries to each page varying from 28 in 1830 to 50 in 1880.

At the census of 1890 a family schedule was used, by which a separate sheet was provided for the enumeration of all the members of each family. In this schedule the inquiries are printed at the side of the schedule and columns are provided for five entries to each printed page, the entries concerning each person enumerated being made vertically instead of horizontally, as at the preceding censuses.

From 1790 to 1840, inclusive, the return was made with respect to the number of persons in each specified class of the population, in connection with the name of the head of each family enumerated, and from 1850 to 1890, inclusive, with respect to each individual included in the enumeration.

The inquiries relating to population are identical at the censuses of 1800 and 1810. The inquiries relating to "schools" in 1840 were added to the schedule relating to population for convenience merely, and called for a summary for each district only.

At the censuses of 1850 and 1860 two schedules were used for enumerating population, one relating to free inhabitants and one to slaves.

Prior to 1850 the inquiries on the schedule relating to population are not numbered.

The circulars of instructions to marshals and assistant marshals at the censuses of 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, and 1870, and the instructions to enumerators at the censuses of 1880 and 1890, follow the inquiries relating to population for each census, respectively. The instructions governing the remaining censuses are not reproduced, aš no copies of them have been found.]


SCHEDULE of the whole number of Persons within the Division allotted to ..............

Names of heads of families.

Free white males of 16 years and upwards, including heads of families.

Free white males under 16 years.

Free white females, including heads of families.

All other free persons.



SCHEDULE of the whole number of Persons within the Division alloted to

Name of county, parish, township, town, or city, where the family resides.
Names of heads of families.

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SCHEDULE of the whole number of Persons within the Division allotted to

Name of county, parish, township, town, or city, where the family resides.
Names of heads of families.

Free white males:

Under 10 years of age.

Of 10 and under 16.

Of 16 and under 26, including heads of families..

Of 26 and under 45, including heads of families. Of 45 and upwards, including heads of families. Free white females:

Under 10 years of age.

Of 10 and under 16.

Of 16 and under 26, including heads of families. Of 26 and under 45, including heads of families. Of 45 and upwards, including heads of families. All other free persons, except Indians not taxed. Slaves.


SCHEDULE of the whole number of Persons within the Division allotted to

Name of the county, parish, township, town, or city, where the family resides. Names of heads of families.

Free white males:

Under 10 years of age.

Of 10 and under 16.

Between 16 and 18.

Of 16 and under 26, including heads of families.
Of 26 and under 45, including heads of families.

Of 45 and upwards, including heads of families.

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To the Marshal of the District of

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, June 20, 1820. SIR: The "Act to provide for taking the fourth census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States, and for other purposes," copies of which are herewith inclosed, prescribes that this enumeration shall be taken, under the direction of the Secretary of State, and according to such instructions as he shall give, pursuant to the act; in obedience to the injunctions of which the following regulations and instructions are now transmitted to you, together with the forms of the schedule to be returned, and such others as may be necessary in carrying the act into execution, and proper interrogatories to be administered by the several persons to be employed in taking the enumeration.

The purposes of the legislature in this act, subsidiary to that of obtaining the aggregate amount of the population of the United States, are, to ascertain in detail the proportional numbers of which it is composed, according to the circumstances of sex, color, age, condition of life, as heads or members of families, as free or slaves, as citizens or foreigners, and particularly of the classes (including slaves) engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures. And, also, to obtain an account of the manufacturing establishments, and their manufactures, throughout the United States. The means provided by the legislature, in the act, for the attainment of these purposes, consist in the appointment of the marshals of the several districts, and of such assistants as they may select, for the accomplishment of the returns within the period prescribed by the law.

The importance of the duties assigned to these officers by the act, in the estimation of the legislature, is sufficiently indicated by the provisions, that every marshal and every assistant shall, before he enters on the duties required by the act, take an oath or affirmation for the faithful performance of them. And that after this performance, every assistant shall take a second oath, or affirmation, that he has faithfully performed these duties in the manner prescribed by the act. Blank forms of

a Reproduced from Report on Census of 1820.

these oaths, numbered 2, 3, and 4, are herewith transmitted to you, in numbers sufficient to supply yourself and your assistants; and, for the sake of uniformity, the form of a certificate, to be subscribed by the magistrate who may administer the oath, is subjoined to it. For the security of the public, it is necessary that the evidence showing that these oaths have been taken, should be preserved. It is therefore recommended, that you should transmit to this department one copy of the certificate that you have, yourself, taken the oath required of the marshal; that you should require of all your assistants to deliver or transmit to you the certificates of their oaths, taken both before and after their returns, and that you should return them to this department, as they will be vouchers necessary for the settlement of your account. It has already been suggested to you, and could not have escaped your observation, upon perusal of the act, that much will depend for its execution in a manner which may correspond with the just expectations of the legislature, upon the judicious selection of your assistants. The duties to be performed by them, under the solemnities of an oath, both before and after their discharge, are such as will require assiduous industry, active intelligence, pure integrity, great facility and accuracy of computation; with an intimate knowledge of the division allotted to them respectively, and a faculty of discernment between the different classes of persons discriminated by the act, which will enable them readily to distinguish to which of the enumerated conditions of society each individual may, with the greatest propriety, be assigned. They must, by the letter of the act, be residents of the county or city for which they shall be appointed, and each division, though it may include one or more towns, townships, wards, hundreds, or parishes, plainly and distinctly bounded by water courses, mountains, public roads, or other monuments, must not consist of more than one county or city. The subdivisions of territory are known in different States by different denominations, and the same term of town, county, city, and parish, has a different idea annexed to it in the different parts of the Union. Hence it is that the act points to divisions bounded by water courses, mountains, public roads, or other monuments, to which you will duly attend, with reference to the particular territorial denominations known in your State, and with suitable precautions to avoid the assignment of the same portion of the population to more than one assistant, and the inconvenience that any two of them should interfere with each other.

A form of schedule (No. 1), such as is prescribed by the act, is likewise inclosed. Your assistants will observe that the act expressly requires the enumeration to be made by an actual inquiry, at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family, and not otherwise, and that the oath or affirmation, to be taken by them, after their performance of the duty, and before they can receive compensation for the same, declares, expressly, that they have ascertained the numbers, by such actual inquiry.

The act requires that the enumeration should commence on the first Monday of August next, and should close within six calendar months thereafter. From the number and extent of the inquiries to be made at every house, embracing many particulars, not required at any former census of the United States, it is obvious that the progress to be made by each assistant will be necessarily slow; and as it is extremely desirable that the enumeration should be completed within the time prescribed, you will perceive the necessity of appointing a number of assistants adequate to that result, as each assistant will be duly impressed with that of not losing a day in the performance of his task. And, I beg leave to suggest, as advisable, proper precautions, to meet the contingency that any of your assistants should be disabled by illness, or otherwise, from accomplishing his duties, and to supply immediately the places of such as may be vacated by death, or other casualty

The interrogatories to be put at each dwelling house, or to the head of every family, are definitely marked in relation to the various classes of inhabitants discriminated in the several columns of the schedule, by the titles at the head of each column. That of the name of the head of each family, must indeed be varied according to its circumstances, as it may be that of a master, mistress, steward, overseer, or other principal person therein. The subsequent inquiries, How many free white males under 10 years there are in the family? How many of 10 and under 16? etc., will follow in the order of the columns. But, to facilitate the labor of your assistants, a printed list of all the interrogatories for enumeration, believed to be necessary, is inclosed; (No. 5) in which all the questions refer to the day when the enumeration is to commence; the first Monday in August next. Your assistants will thereby understand that they are to insert in their returns all the persons belonging to the family on the first Monday in August, even those who may be deceased at the time when they take the account; and, on the other hand, that they will not include in it, infants born after that day. This, though not prescribed in express terms by the act,

is the undoubted intention of the legislature, as manifested by the clause providing that every person shall be recorded as of the family in which he or she shall reside on the first Monday in August.

It will be necessary to remember, that the numbers in the columns of free white males between 16 and 18-foreigners not naturalized-persons engaged in agriculturepersons engaged in commerce-persons engaged in manufactures-must not be added to the general aggregates, of which the sum total is to be opposed. All the persons included within these columns must necessarily be included also in one of the other columns. Those, for instance, between 16 and 18, will all be repeated in the column of those between 16 and 26. The foreigners not naturalized, and those engaged in the three principal walks of life, will also be included in the columns embracing their respective ages. In the printed form of a schedule herewith inclosed, the description at the top of these columns is printed in italics, and the division lines between the columns themselves are double ruled, with a view to distinguish them from the other columns, the sums of which are to go to the general aggregate. In preparing their schedules from this form, your assistants will find it useful, for convenience and accuracy, to distinguish those columns, by ruling them with red ink, or in some other manner, which may keep them separate from the others, by a sensible impression constantly operating upon the mind.

The discrimination between persons engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, will not be without its difficulties. No inconsiderable portion of the population will probably be found, the individuals of which being asked, to which of those classes they belong, will answer, to all three. Yet, it is obviously not the intention of the legislature that any one individual should be included in more than one of them-of those whose occupations are exclusively agricultural or commercial, there can seldom arise a question, and in the column of manufactures will be included not only all the persons employed in what the act more specifically denominates manufacturing establishments, but all those artificers, handicrafts men, and mechanics, whose labor is preeminently of the hand, and not upon the field.

By persons engaged in agriculture, commerce, or manufactures, your assistants will understand that they are to insert in those columns, not whole families, including infants and superannuated persons, but only those thus engaged by actual occupation. This construction is given to the act, because it is believed to be best adapted to fulfill the intentions of the legislature, and because, being susceptible of the other, it might be differently construed by different persons employed in the enumeration, and thus destroy the uniformity of returns, essential to a satisfactory result.

Besides this enumeration of manufactures, the marshals and their assistants are required, by the tenth section of the act to take an account of the several manufac turing establishments and their manufactures, within their several districts, territories, and divisions; and the meaning of the legislature, by this provision, is illustrated by the clause in the oaths of the marshals and assistants, that they will take an account of the manufactures, except household manufactures, from which it seems fairly deducible, that, in the intention of the legistature, persons employed only upon household manufactures are not to be included in the column of persons bearing that denomination, the occupation of manufacturing being, in such cases, only incidental, and not the profession properly marking the class of society to which such individual belongs.

This, then, offers a criterion by which your assistants may select the column of occupation to which each individual may be set down; namely, to that which is the principal and not the occasional, or incidental, occupation of his life.

The more particular the account of manufactures can be made, the more satisfactory will the returns prove. Among the papers inclosed is an alphabetical list of manufactures (No. 6), which may facilitate the labor of your assistants, but which they will not consider as complete. It is intended merely to give a direction to their inquiries, and each of them will add to it every manufacture not included in it and of which he takes an account within his division. A printed form (No. 7) is likewise inclosed, of inquiries to be made in relation to manufacturing establishments, on sheet of paper, upon which the information requested may be written and returned. In every case when it can be conveniently done, your assistant will do well to give this form to some person principally concerned in the manufacturing establishment, requesting him to give the information desired himself.

The execution of the fifth section of the act requires the further interrogatories, whether any person, whose usual abode was in the family on the first Monday of August, 1820, be absent therefrom at the time of the inquiry made: and, if so, the sex, age, color, and condition, of such person are to be asked, and marked in the proper column, in the return of the family. It follows, of course, that any person

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