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over it.

He was high in the esteem of Buona- and whose thirst of fame would parte, who had formed the greatest thereby be gratified to the utmost expectations from him, and grie- extent of his wishes. vousy lamented his fall.

Between him and that capital of The duke of Parma, in whose Austrian Italy lay the remains of fight, as it were, the French had the Imperial forces, determined to crossed the Po, and defeated the risk another battle for its preservaAustrians twice in one day, did not tion. They were posted on the dare to prolong the contest on his other side of the Adda, over which part, with so irresistable a fue.' He

He ftood a long bridge, which Beaulieu requested an armistice from Buona- had intended to break down, but was parte, and obtained it on condition prevented from doing by the quick of paying a large contribution in approach of the French general. It money, horses, and provisions, of was protected, however, by fo nudelivering into the possession of the merous an artillery, that the Aus: French, twenty capital paintings trians did not imagine the French to be chosen by them, and of send- would be able to force a pallage ing without delay commiffaries to Paris, to conclude a peace with the On the tenth of May, the French republic: on these terms the duke army arrived in sight of this bridge, procured a neutrality for luis domnis before which stood the town of nions, which was concluded on the Lodi, filled with the Imperial troops, ninth of May.

which were also posted in every The uninterrupted succesles of place around it in the moft advanthe French had now struck their tageous order of battle that the enemies with universal consterna- fituation of the town and its envis tion. Beaulieu himself, though an rons would admit. Beaulieu had, expert and intrepid warrior, thought on this occasion, displayed uncomit more prudent to act on the de- mon skill, conscious that, on the fensive, than to attack them with issue of this day, the fate of Auftroops continually defeated The tria in Italy wholely depended, and bravery of the Austrians, though un- that, were he defeated, all future deniable, had not been proof against resistance would be vain. their impetuous valour and unyield- The battle began at nine in the ing enthufiasm. They seemed to morning. The approaches to Lodi have reversed the character formerly were vigouroully attacked by the attributed to them, of impatience French, who, after an obstinate dilo and unsteadiness, and to have as pute, drove the Austrians into that sumed that of firmness and con- town; where a resolute fight ensued: ftancy.

but the French had again the advanTheir exploits had now opened tage, and forced them to retreat. to them the road to Milan, the cap- across the bridge to their main body, ture of which would give them the which was drawn up in order of possession of Lombardy, and effect battle, with formidable batteries on the expulfion of the Aufitians from their right and left to guard the Italy. This was the project of pallage of the bridge. A battery Buonaparte, whose glory would be was planted on the opposite side completed by such an'atchievement; by the French, and a violent can


nonade was kept up, on both sides, would have been much greater. It during great part of the day. was owing to the approach of night But the French general was con

that the French delifted from the vinced, that unless he fucceeded pursuit. Favoured by darkness, in effecting a passage over the bridge, Beaulieu withdrew from the field his failure would be construed into of battle, after lofing upwards of a defeat, and the reputation of the two thousand men, killed, woundFrench arms would suffer in the opi- ed, and taken, and twenty pieces nion of the public. Full of this of cannon. The loss of the French idea, which was certainly well was considerable: the crossing of founded, he determined to try every the bridge alone cost them near a effort, and to encounter every per- thousand of their boldest men, who fonal risk, in order to carry a point were destroyed by the batteries on which so much appeared at issue. pointed on it from the Austrian side Forming together the selecteft bo- of the river. dies of his army, he led them in

This defeat of the Imperial army person to the attack of the bridge, appeared fo decisive to marsal in the midst of a most tremendous Beaulieu that he durft not venture fire. The intrepidity he displayed to stop the progress of the victors was necessary to confirm the cou- towards Milan. Collecting the tage of his men, whom the great- wrecks of his army, he made a ness of the danger, seemed to stag. speedy retreat towards Mantua, purger: but his presence, and that of sued by a large body of the French all the chief officers in the French who, in their way, seized on Pizarmy, animated the soldiers to such zighitona and Cremona, two places a degree, that they rushed forward of note. The main body under with an impetuofity which nothing Buonaparte proceeded to Milan, afwas able to withstand. They cros- ter taking Pavia, where all the Auf ed the bridge and affailed the whole trian magazines fell into the hands line of the Austrian artillery, which of the French. was instantly broken. They fell Buonaparte entered Milan the fif with equal fury on the troops that teenth of May, five days after the advanced to charge them, who battle of Lodi, which, conforma were thrown into disorder, and put bly to his opinion and that of his to flight on every fide. The victo- rival, Beaulieu, proved wholly dety was complete. Had it not been cisive of the fate of Lombardy. for the exceflive fatigue undergone Here the French general thought it by the French, a great proportion neceflary to allow his people fome of whom had marched ten leagues days of repose, after the unceafing that day to join the army, the loss toils of a whole month, marked by of the imperialists thought great uninterrupted victories.


Exultation of the French at the Successes of their Armies. Their Army in

Italy animated by the Praises of their Countrymen, and the Conversation as well as the Proclamations of Buonaparte to a high Pasion for Glory.Enters the Duchy of Modena.-Spoliation of Monuments of Antiquity and Art.-Abhorrence of the Italian Nobility and Clergy towards the French greater than that of the inferior Classes. --A general Insurrection, ready to break out, quashed by the l'igilance and Promptitude nf Buonaparte.- The Aufrians, under General Beaulieu, reith the Connivance of the Venetians, take Pojesion of Peschiëva.-Buonaparte advances against Beaulieu, who retreats to the Tyrolese.The Venetians tremble before the French.Difmiss from their Territories the Brother of the late King and Claimant of the Crown of France.-Buonaparte takes Popefion of Verona.--Blockades Mantua.-Prepares to march into the Tyrolese.Detained by Insurrections in the Difriets, known under the Name of Imperial Fiefs.These being suppressed, he carries his Arms to the Southward.--Reduces Tortona, Bologna, and Urbino.Menaces Rome.--Armisice between the Pope and Buonaparte.--Sufpenhon of Hofiilities with Naples. --Buonaparte the Friend and Patron of Men of Learning and Science.-Ambitious View's of the French Republic.-- Insurrection in Lugo.--Quelled, and the City reduced by the French.-The Blockade of Mantua converted into a close Siege. - Raised by Marshal Wurmfer.-Attions between the French Army and that of the Aufriuns, reinforced by Detuchments from Mantua.-Remarkable Infance of Presence of Mind in Buonaparte.-The Austrians driven back beyond the

Adige. THE THE news of these astonishing mies of France, particularly the

successes had, in the mean time, English ; and to encourage the nafilled all Fránce with exultation. tion to bear up chearfully against A splendid festival was appointed, the pressures of the war, by the at Paris, by the Directory, in or- prospect of terminating it finally to der to celebrate them with fuit- the advantage and glory of France. able magnificence. To render it During an interval of five days more solemn, it was accompanied rest, allowed by Buonaparte to his with speeches to the citizens, and foldiers, he did not forget to address eulogiums of the victorious army, them in his usual manner, and to pronounced by Carnot, the prefi- excite their ardour, by a recital of dent of the day, and calculated to their exploits, and a representation animate the public agaimti the ene- of the honours and applause beItowed upon them by their country, mands of pictures, ftatues, and and by a prospect of the future sculptures. It seems to be the fate triumphs awaiting them.

of the great models of the arts, He was now meditating expe- like the arts themselves, to travel ditions into the territories of those from the east, by the west, to the princes of whose enmity to France north. Perhaps their tour in this difufficient proofs had been given. rection is not yet terminated Το A detachment of his army had al- deprive the poor Italians of objects ready entered the duchy of Modena, so long endeared to them, by habit the sovereign of which had fled to and possession, seemed an act of tyVenice with his treasures. From ranny exercised upon the vanquillithis city he deputed a minister to ed in the wantonness of power. the French general, with whom he Those objects had been respected concluded a suspension of arms on by all parties, in the vicissitude of much the same conditions as those those events that had so frequently granted to the duke of Parma. subjected the places that contained

The spoliation of the repositories' them to different masters. The of art, which was now annexed to French were the first who had conthe conditions of treaties with the ceived the idea of seizing them as a Italian princes, proved one of the matter of mere property. Herein most vexatious as well as mortifying they were accused of consulting their circumstances of the French inva- vanity rather than their tale for fion. The monuments of painting the fine arts. The Romans, in their and of statuary, which adorned their triumphant periods, had plundered palaces, cities, and churches, were the Greeks of all the master-pieces viewed by, the natives with a mix- they conld find in their country. ture of delight, and veneration. This appeared to the French a preThey entertained a species of affec- cedent fit for their imitation, and tion for them; and, in the presence sanction for robbing the Italians of of some of them, they placed not a what they esteemed the most valittle confidence. They had be- luable part of their property, and come a kind of tutelary deities and the most honourable proof they still household gods. The Italians were retained of their former fuperiority sensible of emotions not altogether in those departments of genius. diffimilar to those of the Israelite The conduct of the French, in Micah, into whose house armed tearing the monuments of antiquity men from Dan entered, and took and art from Italy, and carrying away “ the graven image, and the them to Paris, was universally conephód, and the seraphim, and the demned and execrated by all civimolten image."* In one respect, lized nations. It was, in truth, in the oppressions of the French in some measure, plucking the rose Italy were greater than those of from the tree. the northern hordes under Attila Motives of this nature, conspiring and Odoacer; for those chiefs did with the diffatisfaction experienced not trouble the Romans with de- by multitudes, at the irreverence

* “ Ye have taken away the gods which I made, and what have I more ?".com,


xviii. 24.

which the French testified for the massacre of all the French they religious practices of the natives, could meet with. Rumours were enabled those who hated them, on circulated, that Beaulieu, strongly this account, to inftil their hatred reinforced, was on his march to into others, and to inflame their Milan, and that a number of French indignation against men who pre- detachments had been surprised and sumed to more sense in those mat- put to the sword. Incensed at the ters than other nations.

ideas of equality upheld by the The two classes, whose inveteracy French, the nobles had dismissed to the French was most notorious, their domestics, telling them, that were the nobility and the clergy; as being their equals, they could no the French did not scruple to avow longer employ them as fervants. their enmity and contempt for both, The partisans of Austria were, in it was natural that these should short, exerting all their activity to hold them in abhorrence. In their raise commotions, and no place speeches and conversations, public was free from them. and private, the former seldom failed On the receipt of this intellito represent the nobles as tyrants, gence, Buonaparte hasted back to and the priests as impostors. The Milan with a large body of horse depression which both thele orders and foot. He arrested a number of men had fufferred in France, of suspected persons, and ordered Thewed what was intended for those to be shot who had been taken them in other parts of Europe, were in arms. He intimated to the archthe French to succeed in the vast bishop, and to the clergy and nodesign imputed to them, of intirely bles of the city, that they should subverting the political and religious be relponsible for its tranquillity. system of this quarter of the globe. A fine was imposed for every fer

Aduated by these apprehenfions, vant discharged, and every precauseveral of the most resolute of the tion taken to prevent the conspiracy nobility, and most zealous of the from gaining ground. clergy, resolved, it was said, to in- It was principally at Pavia, that the cite the commonality to rise against conspirators were the most numethe French, on the first opportunity rous. They had seized on the citadel, that should seem favourable to such 'guarded by a small party of French, a design. The day fixed upon for whom they made prisoners. Being its execution, was the twenty-fourth joined by some thousands of of May. Early in the morning, sants, they resolved to defend the Buonaparte set out for Lodi, at the town, and refused admittance to head of a strong detachment. He Buonaparte, on his summoning them had hardly reached that place, when to surrender. But a body of French he was informed, by an express, that granadiers burst open the gates, on an almost general insurrection was which those who had the custody spreading through Lombardy. The of the French, who had been comalarm bells were ringing every pelled to surrender in the citadel, where, and the peasantry and lower let them at liberty. None of them clafles throughout the country, in- were missing : had violent hands ftigated by the nobles and the clergy, been laid upon them, the determiwere up in arms, and intent on the nation was taken to destroy Pavia, VOL. XXXVIII.




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