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a peasant. ' In this dress he wan- chiefly accelerated the submission of dered about the country without a the insurgents, was the lenity with companion, in hope of escaping his which the government came to the pursuers, and gaining the sea fide, resolution of treating all those who where he might find an opportunity laid down their arms. A proclamaof Aying to England. But the search tion had already been issued, during made after him was so strict and the heat of hostilities; inviting thie incessant; that he fell into the hands insurgents to return to obedience, of a patrole that was in quest of under a folemn promise of burying him. He was tried and sentenced their revolt in 'oblivion, and of to be not. His execution took granting them every just concession place at Nantes on the twenty-eighth they could require the directory of April. His affociate, the well availed itself of he advantages it known Stoflet, who had also been had obtained, to convince those made a prisoner, suffered death in who had been concerned in the inthe same manner; about two months surrection, that the only use the before him.

government would make of the The fall of these two principal situation to which they were now chiefs of the insurrection, especially reduced, would be to deprive them the former, gave it a blow from of the means of exciting disturwhich it did not recover. Nei- bances; and that, provided they acther the Vendeans, nor the Chouans quiesed in the injunctions laid upon who had joined them, seemed to them, they would be placed on the have been overcome by despondency fanie footing with their fellows cition this occasion, and they still con- zens, and enjoy similar rights. tinued to maintain their ground with

So anxious was the directory to as much obstinacy as ever : but whe- impress them with this persuasion, ther none of their remaining leaders that it published a circular address were of equal ability, or that their to the commanders of the troops people did not repose the fame con- employed in fupprefling the infurfidence in them, their defeats be- rection, firietly enjoining them to came continual, and such numbers keep the intentions of the governtvere flaughtered, that the generality ment in conftant view, and not to of the insurgents began to loolé exceed them by needless acts of courage, particularly after the losses severity. of those who commanded then. But the animosity of the republiNo less thian thirteen of their prin- cans against the insurgents was such, cipal chiefs fell in battle, and ten that they occasionally exercised great others were taken and condemned rigour over them, to the serious to be shot.

concern of the directory, which re: The death of these officers proved prehended, with marked severity, · an irreparable lofs: they were men those who had been guilty of these of conspicuous resolution, and had excesies. It anxiously reiterated its long conducted the affairs of their orders to abstain from all harshness, party with remarkable ikill and per- and to receive all who submitted leverance in the arduous trials they with a generous forgiveness of the had fo frequently experienced – past; confidering them as deluded one at this period seemed capable brethren, whose attachment it was of fupplying their place; but what the duty of their conquerors to win



through mildness and conciliation, of the promises made to the insurwhich were the only effectual means gents, io induce them to lay downi of restoring them to the bosom of their arms, a number of publicatheir country, and converting them tions, suited to the capacity of those into good citizens.

for whom they were designed, were In pursuance of these maxims, distributed in the districts where the every district that surrendered its insurrection had taken place: and arms, and punctually conformed to those individuals on whose fidelity the conditions prescribed, was im- and attachment to republican prinmediately placed under the com- ciples the government could depletest protection of the laws, and pend, were encouraged to take all no infraction of these fuffered to possible pains to inculcate the protheir detriment.

priety of uniting with the majority The meafures thus taken, by the of their countrymen, and of undirectory, availed them more than feignedly abjuring those sentiments military coercion would have done. that had cost them so many lives, The dread of punishment had kept and plunged their families into fo feveral bodies of the insurgents to. much misery. gether : but the moment they found The necessity of acting conformthat a pardon would be granted to ably to this advice, became so apthem, on acceding to the terms of parent, that even the royalist genethe proclamation that had fo long rals thought themselves bound no been circulated ; and to which go- longer to obstruct the submission of vernment was yet willing to adhere, the insurgents, convinced that it they repaired in crowds to the head was the only means left them to efquarters of the republican generals, cape destruction. A proclamation declaring their readiness to accept to this purpose was issued and fignof the conditions proffered to them. ed by viscount Scepeaus, the prin

These submissions gradually took cipal in command in the western place in the course of March and department. After lamenting the April. By the close of this month, fruitless efforts to restore monarchy the insurrection was so far quelled, and the Catholic religion, it acknowthat no apprehensions were enter- leriged that to persist in this attempt, tained from the few straggling par- would only be conducting the inties that remained, and which were furgents to the flaughter. It exlooked upon as people determined horted them, therefore, to desist, to lead a predatory life, rather than and yield to superior force, in order in arms for the cause they had em- to secure their lives, and be perbraced, and of which no hopes any mitted to dwell in safety at their longer existed.

homes. After subduing this dangerous in- An exhortation of this kind did surrection by force of arms, the next not fail to convince them of the measure was to pacify the minds of irutility of any farther opposition: those who had lo obstinately per- and, by the latter end of July, the fifted in it, and yielded at length country of the insurgents was so only from the impractibility of any thoroughly pacified, that martial farther resistance. To this end, in law was repealed, and civil goaddition to the punctual observance vernment relored.


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Address of the Directory to the French Armies.-Determination to carry the

War into Italy.Difficulties to be encountered in carrying this Plan into Execution.-Buonaparte.The French Army, under his Command, makes rupid Progress in Italy.-The Auftrians, under General Beaulieu, conftantly repulsed, yet not dispirited.-Various Adions.--Suspension of Arms agreed on between the French and Piedmontese Armies.-Generat Beaulieu re-crosses the Po, for covering the Countries to the North of that River.--At Paris, Negociation for Peace between the King of Sardinia and the French Republic.— Treaty of Peace belween France and Sardinia ratified by the Legislative Bodies of France.-Exultation and Confidence of the French.— Improved by Buonaparte, for the Purpose of leading on the Army to farther Exploits.--- Address to the Army.--General Olject and Tendency of Buonaparte's private Conversation.Ilomage paid to the Merit of Buonaparte and the Army, by the Directory-Buonaparte puts his Army in Motion.--Crosses the Po, and leaves General Beuulieu to break up his Camp. Armistice between the French Army and the Duke of Parma,

-The French advance toward the Capital of Lombardy, --Battle of Lodi.The Auftrians retreat to Mantua.The French proceed to Milan, where the French General allows his People fome Days of Repose.


CHILE the armies of the re- the preceding, that many people in

public were successfully em: France, as well as in other parts ployed in suppresling those internal of Europe, began to consider the commotions, the directory was anxi: enthusiasm of the French as conously taken up with the plans that fiderably abated. But the sanguine were to be prosecuted, as foon as difpofition of the generality of the domestic difficuties were overcome,

French attributed their defeats on In the end of April, they thought the Rhine folely to the unskilful themselves so completely deliver management of their generals; and ed from all apprehenfions at home, itill remained convinced, that, had that they began immediately to turn they been judiciously commanded, their attention to those two under they would have been việtorious as takings, on the fortunate termina- before. tion of which the future security In order to encourage this perof the republic would be establish- suasion, the directory published an ed beyond the possibility of being address to the different armies, prefhaken by any external force. viously to their taking the field. It

The events of the last campaign was conceived in very animated had been so different from those of terms, and recalled to their notice



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of peace,

the various exploits they had per- lapse of even a few years, they might formed in the two foregoing years, consider as already decided. In this the patience with which they had situation of affairs they determined borne not only the hardships of the to divert the energy and attention field, but the pressures of want, and of the emperor from his Belgian the privation of every convenience territories, where his authority had and comfort, and the invincible for been so often disputed, to his Italian titude with which they had perlifted, dominions, where his will was a amidst all these difficulties, to dif- law, and from whence he drew still charge the duties of brave soldiers. greater supplies. While they cut It exhorted them to persevere as off the emperors resources in Italy, they had done: fresh toils and victo- they would add to their own. They ries were expected from them by did not doubt of reaping immenle their country, before its eneinies benefit from the possession of that would consent to reasonable' terms country, the inhabitants of which

It held out the most were known generally to have little flattering hopes of success; and that affection for their present sovereigns. they were at the eve of terminating The people of the duchies of Milan, their patriotic labours, the issue of Parma, and Modena, were peculiwhich would procure safety to their arly disaffected, and, the nobility and country, and glory to themselves; clergy exçepted, seemed rather to who then would return to its bosom, desire, than to dread, a change of to enjoy the love and gratitude só masters. The commonalty, in the justly due to them from their fellow- republics of Venice and Genoa, citizens, and fo nobly earned by professed no attachment to their their services.

rulers. In Tuscany, and the papa! This address was sent to all the dominions, there were numbers of military bodies of the republic, and discontented; and in the kingdom read to them with great folemnity of Naples the number was still It was received with much respect greater. and satisfaction. The officers and Among these multitudes there soldiers formally renewed their al- some indiyiduals resolute furances of fidélity to the republic, enough to declare their disiatisface and their readiness to lay down their tion at their respective governlives in its defence.

ments, notwithstanding the perThe object which the directory fonal dangers to which they exhad now chiefly in contemplation posed themselves by fo daring a was to carry the war into Italy. conduct. But what was more, fome The Austrians were prepared to had the courage to entertain a pripaís the Rhine in great force: the vate correspondence with France, attachment of the Belgians to their and explicitly to folicit some of French conquerors might waver; the prineipal persons in the rethe fate of another campaign was public to invade Italy, where, they -uncertain; múch was to be lost, no- allured them, they would find more thing gained, in the Netherlands, by friends than fués among the natives, 21) appeal to arms, on a question, and meet with no opposition but which, if the authority of the re- from the Austrians, and their few public should be confirmed by the adherents, among the poffeffors of



places and employments in their thoufand horse to serve in the Imservice.

perial army. Induced by these various motives, Though the strength with which the directory resolved to begin mili- the French proposed to attack their tary operations abroad, with the at- enemies in Italy was much inferior tack of a country, where the princes, in number to theirs, and far from one excepted, the king of Sardinia, being so well supplied, it was comcould place little reliance on the posed of hardy and resolute soldiers, loyalty of their subjects; and where filled with enthusiasm, and impathis prince had already lost such a tient to enter into action, and to portion of his territories, as greatly indemnify themselves for the fufferendangered the remainder.

ings they had undergone upon the Nevertheless, obstacles of a fe- rocky and barren coast, to which rious nature presented themselves. they had long been confined, through The undertaking was, indeed, ar- want of reinforcements to enable duous. Italy, proverbially the grave them to move forward against the of the French, was viewed by the enemy. generality of people as unconquer. The supplies of men and ammuable on the side of France. Envi- nition did not arrive till the beginroned by mountains, the passes of ning of April, when the French dewhich were fortified with the ut- termined immediately to commence most art, and guarded with numerous their operations. They were canwell-disciplined troops, it seemed toned along the coast of that sea, calculated for an invincible refift- called the river of Genoa, within ance. The French, after reducing three leagues of that city; and the many forts and fortresses in the heart Austrians and Piedmontese were of the Alps, had not been able to posted on the mountains opposite to make an effectual impression on them. Piedmont, without which an

The French were commanded by trance into Italy appeared impracti- general Buonaparte, already noticed cable. The powers interested in the in the action between the convenpreservation of Italy, aware of the hof- tional troops and the sections of Patile intentions of France, had made ris,* in October, 1795, a native of ample preparations for defence. The Corsica, born, as it were, a comemperor's forces amounted to eighty mander, and uniting the intrepidity thousand well-disciplined men, com: of an ancient Roman, with the manded by excellent officers and subtlety and contrivance of a mogenerals, and ided with every dern Italian; and both these fortispecies of warlike necessaries. The fied and improved by a liberal, as king of Sardinia's army was fixty well as military, education. Hardly thousand strong, exclusive of mili- thirty years of age, he had signatia. The pope and the king of lized his military abilities, not only Naples were occupied in embo- on that but some other very decisive dying as many troops as their cir- occafions, and acquired a reputation cumstances woull permit; and the that had raised him to the highest latter had difpatched two or three degree of esteem in his profession.


* See Vd. XXXVII. Page 106.



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