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called the Valley of Hell, from the their inability to prevent the passage frightful appearance of the rocks of the French, did not attempt to and mountains that hang over it on attack them in the position they had each fide, and in many places are taken after leaving the defile, nor hardly the space of thirty feet asun- in their march to Friburgh, where der. This valley extended several they arrived the next day. leagues ; and at the opening that This celebrated action took place led out of it, a formidable body of on the twelfth of October. It comAustrians was stationed. Moreau pleted the security and success of was duly sensible of the peril he one of the most memorable retreats was about to encounter ; but no recorded in the military annals of other method remained to extricate modern times. It covered with him from the many difficulties that glory the troops that performed it, surrounded him. Latour, though and the general that commanded repeatedly defeated, was still in them. Throughout the whole of great force. Anxious to regain his his expedition, Morean had displayreputation, he exerted himself incel- ed consummate abilities. He had fantly whenever the least advantage surmounted obstacles of every kind, seemed attainable. While this in- and penetrated into the very heart defatigable enemy presled upon of the empire. He had taken polhis rear, every inlet on each side of session of Augsburgh and of Munich, the valley was filled with troops, the capitals of Bavaria, and comawaiting the moment of aflailing pelled the elector to sue for peace. the flanks of the French in their Had not the ill-fortune attending paffage through it. To guard a- Jourdan's army disconcerted his gainst this multiplicity of dangers, plan, it was highly probable that he Moreau disposed of his right and would have marched into Austria, left'in such a manner, that the rear and forced the emperor to accept of part of them protected his entrance any peace that he could have obinto that valley, by facing the forces tained, discomforted as he then was under 'Latour, and the van by ad- in every quarter, and deprived of vancing upon Navandorf and Pe- any other means to save himself from trasch on their respective wings, apparent destruction. obliged them to divide their strength In the mean time, it cannot be and attention. Having made these denied, that the light in which the difpofitions, the main body of the French directory perceived and reFrench proceeded in compact order presented the expeditions of its aralong the valley, at the farther open-mies into Germany, was a true one. ing of which a desperate fight en- The princes of the empire were desued with the Austrians that guarded tached from the coalition; inimense it. But the French cleared their sums were levied, which defrayed way; as did also the rear of their the expences of the invasion; and a right and left, which marched powerful diversion was formed in fathrough with little moleftation; and, vour of the expedition into Italy. having joined their respective di- But it ought equally to have vifions, presented altogether fo for- been acknowledged, as above, that midable a countenance, that the these expeditions contributed to Austrians, already disheartened by remove the partiality enterta ned
for the French, from the minds of by the way of the Danube, otherall the people in Germany, when wise than through their connivance, they saw with how little reason which, according to the usual policy they had expected to be benefit of the court of Berlin, must be pured by the successes of those licen- chased by fome important conceftious invaders. Nothing less than fion. In a word, according to hutheir infamous conduct to the peo- man views, the abasement, if not ple, who had long viewed them with the ruin, of the house of Austria benevolence, and had received them Yeemed to be fast approaching; and with cordiality, could have effaced the liberties of the inferior states the impression which had so univer- already to have fallen. sally taken place in their favour. therefore, with universal satisfaction
The Germans now became con- that Germany beheld the Prussian vinced of their error, in expecting monarch's associates in these iniquithat a foreign nation would be fin- tous designs, disabled from giving cerely solicitous to rid them of their him aslistance or countenance. The grievances, and would not rather world indignantly beheld the affectmake use of the opportunity of ren- ed moderation he assumed, by predering them subservient to their own tending to relinquish his usurpations purposes.
on the ground, that the inhabitants But that consequence of the of the districts he had seized, would forced retreat of the French from not consent to become his subjects, Germany, which politicians ef- nor the empire itself be prevailed teemed most deserving of considera- upon to authorize him to accept of tion, was the immediate influence it their submission. His ambition aphad over the councils of the court peared altogether of a mean and of Berlin. While the French ap- contemptible kind. It was evident peared irresistible, it harboured he would have facrificed his common and undertook designs of a nature country to strangers, for the sake of tending at once to revolutionize the promoting some paultry interests, whole empire, and to exact the do- the compassing of which would never minion of Prussia equally on the fall have indemnified him from the danof Austria and the ruin of the smaller ger he must have incurred by introstates of Germany. The movements ducing so formidable and restless a and successes of the French in Italy people into Germany as the French. and on the Rhine, and the establish- Their interference in its internal ment on the part of Prussia of a affairs would, in all likelihood, have great military force in Nuremberg, been exerted without consulting his seemed to indicate a plan for sur- inclinations and intereft, and might rounding the emperor, by a wide much more shortly than he imagined, circle, at the same time that they have been extended to his own conlaboured for his destruction, by in- cerns, in a manner that would have terior attacks. The French armies affected him most detrimentally, and contracted more and more the afforded him ample cause to repent of quarters of the Austrians on the the fordid motives that had induced Rhine; the position of the Prussians, him to act against his country. at Nuremberg, precluded the army France, though disappointed in under the archduke from retreating the great projects it had formed in
the expedition to Germany, ftill persuasions of a similar kind, that preserved its general preponderance were no lefs current among the peoagainst the coalition. The directory ple of its hereditary dominions in had, previously to the opening of Germany, contributed wonderfully the campaign, published to all Eu- to animate them in the defence of rope a desire to terminate the war a family, that seemed, at all times, upon equitable conditions; but there the peculiar favourite of fortune, and did not appear such to the two re- destined, however liable to tempomaining powers in alliance against rary, depression, ultimately to. lucthe republic. They well under- ceed against all its enemies, and to stood, that the ceffion of the Ne- verify the epithet, bestowed upon it therlands would be required, toge- so long ago, of fortunate. ther with the restoration of all the The inferior sovereigns, and petty conquests made by the British army states of the empire, had, in the in both the Indies.
beginning of the contest between It was to confirm its pretensions the coalition and the republic, wato these lofty demands, that France vered in their opinion concerning made those venturous attempts in the justice and propriety of requithe empire that had almost succeed- ring them to join against a people ed. But the failure did not induce that had given them no provocathe rulers of the republic to abate tion. Hence flowed those difconin their demands, which they still tents, and murmurs, against the Iminsisted on with as much obstinacy perial mandates, and requifitions, to as if they had been completely fuc- that purpose, which were gradually cessful in those vast enterprizes. converted into an enmity to those
Austria did not display less reso- that issued them, and into good lution. It relied on that constant wishes to the cause against which good fortune which had, in the cri- they combated. But this hostile dil ticaloccurrences of many ages, never position had no activity. permitted it to be reduced to dif- and habitual subserviency to the potress, without finally providing it litics of the court of Vienna was with the means of deliverance. tou firmly established among most of Hence, in the midft of difficulties, the secondary princes, and Imperial the spirit of that high-minded fa- cities, as they are styled, to be shaken mily, though frequently staggered by transitory events. The court of at the reverses that befel it, and Berlin was more feared than re. bending occasionally before unavoid- fpected, and its tergiversation deable necessity, still remained un- firoyed all influence but that which broken, and filently cherished the proceeded immediately from the terhope, that the hour of prosperity ror of its arms. Thus the Austrian would return, as it had so often interest, though it sometimes flucludone, and richly repay it for its pastated, still recovered its influence, lofles.
and the inimical designs of Pruflia, While such ideas were prevalent, against the lesser states of the em. the court of Vienna felt more indig- pire, together with the fiagitious be. nation than despondency at the fuc- haviour of the French, retiored, in cefs of the republican arms. The a grent measure, the preponder
A long ance of the Imperial court, and the archduke in person. All the geneformer readiness to coincide with its rals that had been employed against wishes. The return of this com- Moreau, in the course of the camplying temper was also partly due paign, were present in this action, to the necessity which Austria felt, which was maintained with remarkof paying a competent regard to able obstinacy by both parties. The the ideas and inclinations of the personal intrepidity of the archduke people at large, and of carefully was confpicuous on this occafion. avoiding to give them just cause of The right wing of his army, under offence.
Latour, being repulsed, and on the The frontiers of France, on the point of abandoning the attack of Rhine, were now in danger of becom- Kindringen, he put himself at the ing again the theatre of war. The fpi- head of a body of granadiers, who rit and activity of the archduke, en- returned to the charge and carried creased by his late successes, had it. The left wing, and the centre prompted him to an enterprize, from of the Austrians, met with the firmest which, if he succeeded, much uti- resistance, and, though the French lity and honour would be derived were worsted, the action was not This was to retake, by a sudden decisive. and vigorous attack, the fortress of General Moreau, finding himself Kehl. To this end he detached, from overpowered by the immense supehis army, a corps of chosen men, riority of numbers that occupied the who attacked the French general, positions around, concentrated his Scherer, at Bruchsal, in the proximi- force in such a manner, as either ty of the Rhine, on the thirteenth to make a vigorous defence, or a seof September, and, pushing him be- cure retreat, as circumstances should fore them as far as Kehl, forced the render it most expedient. He was outworks on the nineteenth, and attacked upon the strong ground had nearly carried that strong for- he had chosen at Schlingen, situated tress. A tremendous fire, from the upon a height, near Friburgh, on French batteries, compelled them, the twenty-third of October. The at length, to retire: but the bold- dispositions made by general Moreau, ness and resolution displayed in this to receive the enemy, were so judienterprize did great honour to the cious, that, notwithstanding the numassailants, and shewed how little the ber and valour of the Auftrians, and Austrian troops were daunted by the expertness of their commanders, the successes of the French.
the contest lasted three days, when The same enterprizing difpofition the French, after disputing every continued to characterize the arch- inch of ground, retired in the best duke in his operations against the order, across the Rhine, at HuningFrench, after their retreat to Fri- -hen, on the twenty-sixth. Their burgh, where Moreau had now cf- retreat was conducted with such tablished his quarters. On the fe- firmness in the men, and skill in venteenth of October, his advanced their commander, that the Austrians posts, at Kindringen, in the vicinity, were neither able, nor willing, to were assailed with great fury by the attempt a clofe pursuit. Imperial army, commanded by the
The Few pri
The French, on leaving the right This action, for the time it lafied, fide of the Rhine, had provided and from the mutual animofity of the fortress of Kehl with a garrison, the combatants, was reputed the composed of select officers and fol- most destructive of any that had yet diers. Moreau's intention was to happened during this war.
Such find the Austrians such employment, was the fury of both the French and in the fiege of this important place, Austrians, that they were wholly that they Mould not have leisure to intent upon Naughter. turn their attention to any other ob- foners were made; and the killed ject in that quarter. His project and wounded, on both fides, was succeeded so well, that, till the computed at four thoufand, the loss commencement of the ensuing year, being nearly equal. their whole time and strength were The month of December was conspent in efforts to reduce this for- fumed in operations of this kind, tress. Herein they lost numbers of which occasioned the loss of numtheir best men.
serious ac- bers, and served only to exercise tion took place on the twenty-le- the fkill and bravery of both parcond of November. The garrison ties. It was not till the opening made a general sally, and, driving of the next year, that, after a valiant the besiegers from their line of cir- defence of two months, the fortress cumvallation, spiked all their can- of Kehl surrendered to the Austrinon, and, after making a great ans, who thereby became posielted laughter, carried off a large number of a heap of rubbish and ruins. The of prisoners.
garrison carried away the very palliIn order to balance this check, ladoes, and left nothing worth the the Austrians attacked, on the thir- taking. The works at the head of tieth of November, the fortification the bridge were in like manner eva, that covered the head of the bridge cuated some time and a final of Huninguen, on their fide. The termination put to the operations of attempt was made in the middle of the campaign in this quarter. the night, and the French were The French and Austrian armies, driven from their works. Recover- on the lower Rhine, harratied by ing, however, from their disorder, the incessant fatigues they had unthey sell upon the affailants, retook dergone, came also to the determitheir works, and defeated them so nation of concluding hostilities durcompletely, that they were obliged ing the winter. An armistice took to retire, with the utmost speed, to place between them, about the mida great distance, furiously pursued dle of December, by which they by the French, who sew and took mutually agreed to retire into canvast numbers, though not without a tonments, and to remain there peace. severe loss on their side, at the first ably, till the suspention should be onset, which was very unfavour- formally declared at an end. able, and had nearly put the enemy The termination of a campaign in possesion of the head of the so unfortunate in its commencebridge, whereby the communication ment, and fo favourable in its terwith Kehl would have been cut ofl, mination, to the Austrian interest and its reddition accelerated. in Germany, totally revived its inVol. XXXVIII.