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trians to retire into the country be- In this perilous emergency he hind them.

made a solemn appeal to his subjects These operations of the army, in Bohemia, who lay nearest the under Moreau, were designed to danger, exhorting them by every fecond those of that under Jourdan, motive of loyalty to their sovereign, who was successfully proceeding in and regard to the safety of their every enterprize he formed, and poffefsions and religion, to arm indriving before him the Imperialists, stantly in the defence of both. To under Wartensleben, a brave and this purpose he enjoined the estabexperienced officer, but at this pe- lishment of a national militia, to riod continually unfortunate. After which he held out every encoua series of ill success, he sustained a ragement and remuneration enjoyheavy defeat, on the sixth of August, ed by the regular troops. By the at Hochstadt, in the neighbourhood plan proposed, the twentieth part of Bamberg, where his own skill, of all the able-bodied men in that and the valour of his troops, were kingdom were to be drafted for the obliged to yield to the superior protection of its frontiers, from the exertions of the French.

expected irruption of the French. He now retired to a strong po- The like appeal was made to the fition between Sultzbach and Am- people of Hungary, and of all his berg, two towns on the confines of other dominions. They were carethe north of Bavaria, but here he fully reminded, on this occasion, was again attacked by general of the immense exactions of the Jourdan, on the fixteenth of Au- French, not only in money, but in gust, and his troops diven from the every article of necessity, or of use, advantageous post they occupied and with what severe punctuality here and at Neumark, a town in the payment of them was the vicinity.

quired. These repeated disasters, in Ger- It was chiefly the dread of these many, rendered more grievous by heavy demands that influenced the the intelligence daily arriving of the determination of the Germans to victorious progress of the French in contribute all in their power to Italy, caused an alarm at Vienna, prevent the farther progress of the almost equal to that which had been French. Their Jevies of money, experienced in the commencement and their other requisitions excited of the reign of the late emprels, universal alarm. The duke of Mary Theresa, when she was com- Wirtemburg had been aflessed four pelled to quit her capital, to avoid millions; the circle of Swabia, the danger of falling into the liands twelve millions, besides to furnish of her numerous enemies.

eight thousand horses, five thousand The emperor Francis seemed on

oxen, one hundred and fifty thouthe eve of being in the like manner fand quintals of corn, one hundred forced to abandon Vienna. His thousand facks of oats, a proportionhereditary dominions, Bohemia par- able quantity of hay, and one hunticularly, were menaced with a dred thousand pair of shoes. Eight fpeedy invasion by the French, millions were demanded from the less an immediate stop were put to circle of Franconia, with a very

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thus revolutionised, into confusion, to the Austrian troops, through and embroiling the French with se: their local knowledge of the counveral princes, the amity ofwhom they tries where the war was waged, were desirous to obtain, and were and through the resentment that at that time earnestly feeking. But animated them against the French, a measure of this kind must at once for the losses they had sustained in have rendered these princes irrecon- the predatory incursions of the recilably averse to any connections publican foldiery, and the avidity with a state evidently bent on the of booty for which these were pedestruction of every species of fo- culiarly noted. vereignty, but that of the people Such were the causes of the rapid at large; and determined to abolish decline of that partial disposition every where the rights of princes towards the French, exprelied by and reigning families, and every the commonalty in so many countrace of hereditary government. tries in Germany, at their first en

The real truth was, that the situ- trance. As they viewed them in ation of France, at this period, was the light of friends and brethren, extremely critical. The pecuniary coming to their relief, they were wants of the republic were fuch, the more exasperated, when they that it could not provide the sup- found them to be enemies and plies required by the coinmanders plunderers. of their numerous armies abroad, In the mean time, the army, com, which, though victorious, were fre- manded by Jourdan, having overquently reduced to the most deplor- run Franconia, was advancing toable need of the commonest necef- wards Ratisbon, levying contribufaries. It was therefore indispenfi- tions from all the districts in its bly requisite to procure them at way. The diet of the empire, fit, any rate, and with the most effec- ting in that city, was struck with tual expedition, for men who nei- consternation, at the rapidity of its ther would, nor indeed coull, wait approach, notwithstanding that the for them, and who thought them- Imperial army disputed every ftep selves entitled to a comfortable main with the utmost resolution. tenance, and some remuneration for The army, under general Mothe services they were continually reau, was, at the same time, marchperforming for their country. ing from Swabia, of which he had

The German people, in consecompleted the reduction, by taking quence of the depredations exer- Ulm and Donawerth, places of cised upon them by the French ar- great importance on the Danube. mies, became their most invete- He was now master of both fides rate foes, and loft no opportunity of that river, and proposed to pass of doing them every species of de. the Lech, dividing Śwabia from triment. They joined in crowds Bavaria, in order to penetrate into the Imperial armies; they formed this circle. The A'ustrians, ap

; themselves into bodies under chiefs prised of his intention, collected a of their own chufing, and fell upon strong force to oppose him; but he the French wherever they could do forced his passage over on the twentyit with advantage. They proved, fourth of August, near the city of in short, the moft useful auxiliaries Augsburg, and compelled the Auf

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trians to retire into the country be- In this perilous emergency he hind them.

made a solemn appeal to his subjects These operations of the army, in Bohemia, who lay nearest the under Moreau, were designed to danger, exhorting them by every fecond those of that under Jourdan, motive of loyalty to their sovereign, who was successfully proceeding in and regard to the safety of their every enterprize he formed, and poffeffions and religion, to arm indriving before him the Imperialists, stantly in the defence of both. To under Wartensleben, a brave and this purpose he enjoined the estabexperienced officer, but at this pe- lishment of a national militia, to riod continually unfortunate. After which he held out every encoua series of ill success, he sustained a ragement and remuneration enjoyheavy defeat, on the sixth of August, ed by the regular troops. By the at Hochftadt, in the neighbourhood plan proposed, the twentieth part of Bamberg, where his own skill, of all the able-bodied men in that and the valour of his troops, were kingdom were to be drafted for the obliged to yield to the superior protection of its frontiers, from the exertions of the French.

expected irruption of the French. He now retired to a strong po- The like appeal was made to the sition between Sultzbach and Am- people of Hungary, and of all his berg, two towns on the confines of other dominions. They were carethe north of Bavaria, but here he fully reminded, on this occasion, was again attacked by general of the immense exactions of the Jourdan, on the fixteenth of AuFrench, not only in money, but in gust, and his troops diven from the every article of necessity, or of use, advantageous post they occupied and with what severe punctuality here and at Neumark, a town in the payment of them the vicinity.

quired. These repeated disasters, in Ger- It was chiefly the dread of these many, rendered more grievous by heavy demands that influenced the the intelligence daily arriving of the determination of the Germans to victorious progress of the French in contribute all in their power to Italy, caused an alarm at Vienna, prevent the farther progress of the almost equal to that which had been French. Their levies of money, experienced in the commencement and their other requisitions excited of the reign of the late empress, universal alarm. The duke of Mary Theresa, when she was com- Wirtemburg had been aflessed four pelled to quit her capital, to avoid millions; the circle of Swabia, the danger of falling into the lands twelve millions, besides to furnish of her numerous enemies.

eight thousand horses, five thousand The emperor Francis seemed on oxen, one hundred and fifty thouthe eve of being in the like manner fand quintals of corn, one hundred forced to abandon Vienna. His thousand facks of oats, a proportionhereditary dominions, Bohemia par- able quantity of hay, and one hunticularly, were menaced with a dred thousand pair of shoes. Eight speedy invasion by the French, un- millions were demanded from the less an immediate stop were put to circle of Franconia, with a very

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were also required from the cities of Not content with this address to Francfort, Wurtsburg, Bamberg, and the emperor, they looked upon the Nuremberg, together with an im- situation of the diet as so precarious, mente quantity of other articles, for that they commissioned deputies to the subsistence and clothing of the repair to the French armies, to itiFrench armies.

pulate with the generals for the feBut the terror, which their arms curity and protection of the diet, had spread every where, superseded and of the public documents and all considerations but that of de- archives in its custody, and for the precating their hostility upon any neutrality of Ratisbon itself. terms. After general Moreau's pal- In this extremity, the archduke sage of the Lech, the elector of 'Ba- resolved to make a resolute attempt varia, thinking himself no longer to extricate the diet and the empire secure, made overtures to that officer at once, from the humiliating confor a pacification. This, indeed, had dition to which they were reduced. been done by every prince and city He was at this time so hard pressed that had not been able to resist him. by Moreau, that he hardly could

The diet itself of the empire, judge which of the two difficulties convened as usual at Ratisbon, par- required his attention the most: that took of the universal consternation. of opposing this formidable adverIn a fitting, held on the 30th of July, fary, or of hastening to the succour for the purpose of consulting on the of Wartensleben. situation of affairs, the deputies of Jourdan had invariably maintainthe princes and states of the empire ed his fuperiority over him: and came to the determination of open- pushing him, from post to post, was ing a negociation for peace with now advanced within a day's march France. All ihe members of the of Ratisbon. No time was, theredie acceded to it, except the depu- fore to be lost in marching to his ties from Austria and Bohemia, who assistance. This was become the ascribed the disasters of the war to more indispensible, that a strong want of union among the states of division of Jourdan's army, under the empire, and their backwardness general Bernardotte, an active and to second their chief, the emperor, enterprising officer, had been dein the common defence of their tached, with orders to proceed imcountry.

mediately to Ratisbon. But the dangers apprehended This circumstance determined the from the French, appeared greater archduke. Leaving a powerful bothan that of opposing the desire of dy to observe the motions of Mothe emperor. A decree was passed, reau, he speeded towards the Daby the diet, seriously to remonftrate nube, which he crossed on the sevento him, that, in the present circum- teenth of August, at Ingolstadt, with stances of the empire, it was necef- the intent of throwing himself befary, conformably to the wish of its tween Ratisbon and the French didivers members, to put an end to vision that was approaching it. a war that had been so calamitous, On that very day general Warand no longer to defer the conclud- tensleben's army was attacked in its ing of a peace upon reasonable con- encampment at Sultzback, by that ditions,

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of Jourdan. The Austrians had They arrived at length, with the been so much reinforced by conti- archduke at their head. Repeated nual detachments sent them by the expresies had been dispatched to archduke, that they were more than him during the night of the eighequal in number to the French. teenth, to apprise him of the retreat They defended themselves with such of the Austrians before the French obftinacy, that the conflict lafted army, and of its taking poffeffion of from the beginning of day till eleven the country on the other fide of the at night, when the French had ob- Nab. As soon as he had gained tained possession of the ground on fufficient intelligence of the relative which the battle had been fought. position of the contending armies,

During this engagement, a large he resolved to avail himself, without division of Jourdan's army marched delay, of the immense superiority towards Amberg, to prevent the which his junction with WartensleAustrians, who were stationed there, ben now gave him over the French. from coming to the aid of those who After concerting their plan of were fighting at Sultzbach. Gene- operations, the archduke attacked ral Championnet, who commanded the French division, under general this division, fell in with the Auf- Bernadotte, on the twenty-second trians while on their way to that of August, and forced him to fall town; and assailed them with fo back to Neumark, whence he was, much vigour, that they were forced on the day following, compelled to back to Amberg. The dispute was

retire towards Nuremberg; leaving maintained with great courage and the left wing and rear of Jourdan's perseverance on each side, and last- army exposed to that of the arched no less than twelve hours.

duke. On the morning of the eigh- This proved a decisive day. Geteenth, the French army moved for- neral Jourdan was no longer able wards towards the Austrians, who to contend with the united armies of were strongly posted in front of the archduke and of Wartensleben. Amberg. General Jourdan pro- They moved in order of battle, on posed to attack them before they the twenty-fourth, with an intention had been joined by the archduke; to surround him. The latter was to but their superiority was already such, asfail him in front, and the former tó that without waiting to be attacked, take him in flank and rear. The they advanced upon the French with vast disparity of his strength obliged fuch impetuosity and vigour, that the French general to make an imthese were several times forced from mediate retreat. He conducted it the position they had taken : they re- with equal judgement and fpirit. covered it at last, after repeated ef- From the twenty-fourth of August, forts; and, pursuing their advantage, when it commenced, till his arrival made themselves masters of the at Wurtsburg, on the second of Sepheights before Amberg. The Auf- tember, it was a series of encounters trians were compelled to retreat and skirmishes ; wherein the fupeacross the Nab, and wait the arrival riority of the Austrians in numbers, of the numerous troops which they aided by the great multitudes of the hourly expected would come to their peasantry, that fell upon the French affistance.

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