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parte had issued to them, after he party, that its enemies in France had defeated marshal Wurmfer, and were, at this time, extremely active was preparing to invade the Tyrol. in their endeavours to render it odiIt was filled with the severest threats, ous to the nation, and to excite a to fuch of them as belonged to the disapprobation of the measures of districts of which he should take government, particularly of the propofleflion, if they did not, fosthwith, longation of the war. They repreleave the Imperial service and re- fented it as wholly unnecessary for turn to their homes. This they con- the honour or the interest of France, fidered as a violation of their native and continued merely to indulge the right, to act in defence of their love- ambition of persons in power By reigni.

Juch an arrangement of their conFrom motives of this nature they duct they hoped to bring the nature flocked to the different bodies that of the power they exercised into were assembling to reinforce the de- disgust, and to prove it inconfiftent, feated army of Alyinzi, and that both with peace abroad, and trandivision under Davidovich, which, quillity at home. after forcing the French forces, jun- These adversaries to the ruling der general Vaubois, to abandon fyftem, were the friends to the antheir position, was advancing to- cient monarchy, and the adherents wards Mautua.

to the first constitution, by which In order to oppose his progress, the power of the crown was lia large force was immediately dif- mited. Thele latter were incompatched against him, which effec- parably more in number than the tually fucceeded in putting him to former, and included a large prothe rout, with so conliderable a lots, portion of the noblesse, and many that his clefigns upon Mantra were of the clergy. But both these partotally frustrated,

ties together, however numerous, The ivielligence of these various were inferior in strength to the readvantages, but elpecially of the publican, which comprehended all great victoryat Arcola, was received, the common classes, and dreaded a as usual, by the directory, with the renovation of that oppreffive authohigheit fatisfaction. The prelenta- rity which the upper ranks had extion of the standards, taken on that ercised over the lower. But what memorable day, and in the other principally weakened the two first engagements with Alvinzi's, army, parties was their disunion : they took place on the thirtieth of De hated, each other as much as they cember. It was accompanied with did the republicans. The non. a speech from the oficer who pre- juring clergy, in particular, would fented them, remarkable for the de- not divest itself of the least attachvotion it exprefied in the army of ment to their primitive tenets, and Italy, to the republican-conftitntion' anatliematized all that differed from of France, and its determination to thein. As these two parties agreed, fupport it against every attempt. however, in thcir deteftation of re. either from foreign or domestic ene- publicanism, they exerted all their mies.

abilities and influence in undervalu. A declaration of this kind rvas the ing it, and all its supporters. Buonamore acceptable to the republican · parte's great actions protected him

from

from those who might have been to that feudal vassalage which had inclined to depreciate his merit, but so long oppreffed and disgraced the he could not escape the insinuations people of France. Having emanagainst his fidelity to the common. cipated themselves from this slavery, wealth. These were industriously was it to be expected that they propagated by its enemies, in order should return to it; with their eyes to breed fufpicions in the govern- open to the contemptible character ment, and to induce it to diminill of those who arrogated the right its confidence in him, and thereby of again becoming their tyrants, to set both at variance with each and, after paying the price of so other.

much blood, to secure themselves But the intrigues and publications against their pretensions, and the to this intent were ineffeétual. It iniquitous combination of those fowas to reinove all jealoufies of this reign despots, who abetted them, in nature that Buonaparté directed his hope of sharing the spoils of the aid-de-camp, Lemarois, on present. French nation, after having again ing the colours, taken at Arcola, to reduced it to servitude? the directory, to assure them of the Reasonings of this kind were more inviolable attachment of his army to acceptable to the generality than the interest of the republic. the arguments employed by the

The mass of the nation, pleased anti-republicans, who, though they with the glory accruing to it from widely differed in opinion among So many victories, was Itrongly pre- themselves, were considered as form. poilefied in favour of a system under ing but one party, to which theis which its arms had so wonderfully enemies gave, in common,

the name prospered. The staunch asserters of royalists; meaning thereby to inof a commonwealth were continu- volve all the opponents of the comally reminding the public of the monwealth in the indiscriminate imdilproportion between the people putation of being foes to liberty, and at large and those who formerly afferters of arbitrary power. poflefled an exclufive authority over The conflicts of opinion upon them. The noblesse did not exceed these various subjects were, at this one hundred thoufand individuals, period, encreasing daily, and threatpor the clergy, with the monastic ened to produce internal convulsions orders, twice that number. Were in various parts of France, through they entitled, in juftice and reason, the invincible aĉtivity and courage lo affume a fovereign authority over of the party in opposition to governtwenty-four millions of people, con- ment. But the vigilance of the taining a far greater number of per- directory repressed every movement fons, poflefling worth and capacity, that had the least tendency to insurequal at leait, if not superior, to rection, and the decided resolution what they could boaft? Was it of all the armies, to support the prenot among the plebeians, as they fent measures, kept the discontented infultingly styled all but themselves, in awe. that the nation counted the men No class of men had fignalized of talents in all professions? Was their attachment to republican prinit equitable that these should bow ciples with such fervour and conthe neck to the others, and fubmit itancy as the French foldiery. It

was

was now the fifth campaign, during of Piedmont, to the frontiers of which their toils and sufferings were France, that the French foldiers had not less remarkable than their ex- occafion to exhibit

their patience ploits. Hunger and nakedness had under hard fare. The coarse and frequently been their portion, in the disgusting food on wbich they submidst of their most fplendid suc- fifted, was compared to the Lacecelles. Had not the incredibly hard demonian broth of old, and none, it living they were used to in their was said, but Frenchmen, Greenown country, under the feverity of landers, or Scotch Highlanders, the old government, inured their could have fed on such meffes. bodies to go through much fatigue It was by their perseverance, in with a slender fiftenance, and few these extremities, that they maincomforts, they would not have tained the posts they occupied, and proved adequate to the labours and afforded time to Buonaparte to join fcanty fupport to which they sub-them, at the head of those reinmitted, with such admirable pati- forcements, united with which they ence, in the course of their war- Inarched to the conqueft of Italy. fare. This part of their character This and their other atchieveattracted the notice of foreign na- ments were incessantly held out to tions as much as of their own; and the French armies, as incentives to it was often a matter of surprize, adhere faithfully to a cause which how they could perform the duties they had hitherto supported with fo of a military life with fo. ftinted and much glory. One more campaign wretched a fare, and under fo many would, probably, put an end to their discouragements.

toils; and, by procuring a glorious The army of Italy, in particular, peace, enable them to return to had exhibited astonishing examples their country, and spend their future of fortitude in the most trying Gtu- lives with honour and ease, in the ations; that their enemies had con- enjoyment of those remunerations cluded, froin the reports of the promised them for their fervices. difficuliies to which they were re- Such were the arguments and exduced, in procuring the means of pectations that animated the armies existence, that nothing else would of France at this period, especially be needed to compel them to aban- that which had performed such great don their position, and withdraw to things in Italy, and now hoped to France. It was previously, how close the year by the capture of ever, to the prefent campaign, and Mantua, and the total fall of the while they were stationed among Austrian empire in Italy. the rocks, extending along the fouth

CHAP

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Campaign in Germany Opposite Designs of tise French und Anrians.--.

Succejjes of the French-They-invesi Ehrenbritsieina. ---Driven back, by the Archduke Charles, to Dusseldorf-The Division of the French Army under Moreaur takes Posi at Syrupurg.-The Plan of Operations proposed by this General. ---Crosses the Rhine-Reduces the Fortiefs of Kehl.--Defeats the Austrians, wiwer Marshal Wurmfer, near Philipsburg.. And in various and fucec ljive Engagements. The refirtans relire, in order to wait for Reinforcements, into the Interior of Germany. - Junction of the French Troops under Jourdan and Kleber.-These united reduce Frankfort.Succelles of Moreau in Swabia,+Cefation of Hoftilities between the French and the Princes of Wirtemberg and Baden. Conduct of Prufia.--Å Pruffian

Army takes Pelefon of Nuremberg.Impolicy of the French in the Mode w of raising Contributions.-Caufe of this.Depredations of the French in

Germany.--Operations of the French Armies under Morean and Jourdan.Di fafters of the Auftrians. -The Emperor represents the Situation of Germany; and his own Situation, in an Appeal to his Bohenrian and Hungarian Subjects.--Diet of the Empire.-Partakes of the general Confernation of Germany. -Determination to open a Negociation for Peace with France.

The Tide of Success turned against the French by the Germans, under the Archduke Charles. -Obftinate Engagements.-Masterly Retreat of the French Armies. Particularly of thut under Moreau.-Consequences.The Auftrians occupied in the Siege of Kehl.-Sally of the Garrison there. Various Actions.-- Armiflice between the French and Auftrians.--The Diet of the Empire re-uninated by the enterprizing Spirit and Success of the Archduke Charles, folicilous to regain the Favour of the Imperial Court.

W

HILE was em

ployed in a contest with the opening of the campaign, would Austrian arms and authority in Italy, lave given great reputation to the Jourdan and Moreau were engaged Austrian arms, and opened, at the in a conflict with the same formi- fame time, a passage for the redable

enemy on the Rhine; which covery of the Netherlands. the French had long proposed to The French were no less desirous make the boundary of the republic, of obtaining poffeffion of Mentz, in on the side of Germany:

their attempts on which they had The object to which the Austrians loft fuch numbers, and experienced were thought to direct their motions so many disappointments; but the was Luxembourg; the recovery of fortifications of this city had been

sa considerably increased, and the with the greater part of their forces, garrison so much strengthened, that, to the defence of the German fide unless the French could attack'it on of the Rhine. the German, as well as on their The archduke Charles, who was own), fide of the Rhine, the com

at the head of the Imperial army, munication with Germany would crofied that river accordingly, about furnish it with continual fupplies of the eight of June, in such force, as men and provisions, and frustrate rendered the Austrians confiderably all their endeavours to reduce it. fuperior in strength to the French,

The opening of the campaign who, by this motion, were arrested was auspicious to the French. in their progress towards Menta, Moving from Dusseldorf, that divi which they had nearly approached: fion which had wintered there, and general Lefebre, one of their marched, under general Kleber, on best officers, was, after a moft brave the right side of the Rhine, towards and skilful desence, defeated, on the a body of Austrians, encamped at fifteenth, near Wetzlaar, and comthe river Sieg, to guard its passage pelled to repass the Lahn, and retire against the French; but these de towards the Seig, in his way back feated them on the first of June, to Duseldorf. and, following their successes, en- General Jourdan, who commandcountered and routed another body, ed the French army, opposed to the commanded by the prince of Wir- archduke, after raising the siege of temberg, on the fourth, at Alten- Ehrenbritsein, near Siegburg, took kirchen, a place lying on the road a position where he hoped to make to Mentz, whither the French in- a stand, until the reinforcements he tended to force their way, in order expected had joined him; but the to intercept its communication with archduke, confiding in the goodness Germany. In the first of these en- of his troops, as well as the fupegagements, the Austrians loft about riority of their numbers, attacked two thousand men; in the second, the division under Kleber, on the near three thousand.

twentieth, at Kirpen, and, after a They had now crossed the Sieg. well-disputed action, compelled him and thé Lahn, and were in pursuit to retire, and abandon all the countof the troops they had defeated at try he had reduced, in his march the passage of these rivers : they from Dulleldorf; to which place had, at the same time, invested the he found it necessary to make a recelebrated fortress of Ehrenbritstein, treat with that part of the army the capture of which would have under his command, while the other given them the command of all the recrolled the Rhine at Neuwied neighbouring country:

with Jourdan, and repollessed their Happily for the Auftrians, this was former politions, in order to prea place of extraordinary strength, vent the Auftrians from deriving and not to be fubdued but by the any farther advantages from their greatest efforts and perseverance : success. in order, however, to secure it ef- Manheim and Mentz leemed now fectually, together with the adjacent to lie open to the attacks of the parts, it was judged adviseable, by French; but, as the protection they the Austrian commanders, to move, would receive from the Auftrian

armies,

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