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way, were compelled to surrender were pursuing him, and came up to themselves, to the number of four a place through which it was ima: thousand men, befides their cannon gined he would pass; not finding and standards. This advantage was
him there, they took another route; obtained on the feventh of Sep. but their guide milled them, and tember.
they again misled him. He had Buonaparte found no farther oppo- now reached Cerea, a village lying sition in passing the other defiles on between Governolo and Caftellaro, the road to Baslano. Near this at which places large bodies of the place a strong division was posted, French were posted to intercept which, favoured by the ground, him. Here too á division of their maintained, the next day, a vigorous army met him, and an engagement dispute, but was finally routed. The ensued, but he defeated them, French pushed forward to Bafrano, taking a number of prisoners, and from whence it was with difficulty advancing to Cafteilaro, encounterthat some chosen corps of Austrian ed another division with like luc grenadiers were able to protect the cels. These two actions took place retreat of marshal Wurmler himself, on the twelfth, and at night he arwho had hardly time to secure the rived at Mantua. military chest.'. This was truly a A great number of Austrians had, decisive action. Five thousand men during this cleape of their general, were taken, with thirty-five cannon fallen into the hands of the French. and upwards of two hundred large He had ftationed the
that waggons loaded with the baggage came with him in the suburbs of of the army, and a valt quantity of Mantua, where the French attacked military utensils and ftores.
him on the fourteenth. The whole Notwithstanding this great de- day was spent in very bloody fkirfeat, marshal Wurmfer leadily ad- mishes; and on the filteenth'a fehered to the resolution he had rious engagement followed. The formed, that in case his retreat Austrian general's object was to reshould be cut off to the Austrian tain poflellion of the suburbs, from territories, he would throw himself which he hoped, by means of lvis into Mantua, and defend it to the numerous' cavalry, to furage the last extremity. This was now pre- country round, and procure provicisely his fitiation : he had luckily, tions for the garrison. The object with the reinains of some battalions, of the French was to drive him rejoined a large division of his army from these posts, and confine him at Montabello, a town in the proxi- within the body of the place. The mity of Vienna, and on the road to conflict was severe and obstinate on Verona. As it was impracticable to both sides, but the Austrians loft retire across the Brenta, where the the day, and were compelled to seek French army
commanded all the Melter within the walls of Mantua. pallages, he marched to Porto Lag. No less than two thousand fell in nago, where he passed the Adige, the adion, and as many were taken, on the ninth of September, making with twenty pieces of cannon, ard all the expedition he was able to a large quantity of ammunition. reach Mantua.
The loss of the French was also The French, in the mean time, considerable, the Austrians Vol. XXXVIII.
maintained a long and desperate in the good fortune that seenied fight.
fo invariably connected with the Various were the sallies and skir- proceedings of the French in Italy. mishes that took place in the course Since their occupation of Leghorn, of this famous fiege, between the it had been the resort of all those garrison and the besiegers. Every Corsicans who had fled from, or ipecies of art and stratagem was been expelled their country, when employed by each party, and num- it became annexed to the British bers fell in the encounters that con- dominions. They received
every tinually happened. But the fuc- encouragement from the French cess was usually on the side of the there, and came to the determinaFrench, who gradually diminished tion of forming a plan for the exthe strength of the garrison, by the pulfion of the English from Corfrequent captures of those who fal. fica. lied out, and who, notwithstanding A circumstance that operated the skill and valour they displayed powerfully for the French in that on these occasions, seldom could island was, that Buonaparte was a make good their retreat into the native of it. The great actions town.
he had performed, had rendered '. While the French army lay be- him an object of universal respect fore Mantua, the standards taken among his countrymen, who glofrom the Auftrians in the several ried in him, as a man who reflected actions on the borders of Italy, to the highest honour on his country. wards the Tyrol, and lately before The report of his continual victo Mantua, were fent to the directory, ries emboldened the French party, and presented, on the first of Oco- in Corsica, to renew their endeaber, with great form and solemnity, yours to undermine the interest of by Buonaparte's aid-de-camp, Mar- the English, whose government mont, who, in a set speech, detailed they represented as domineering the recent triumphs of the French and oppressive, and contrary to those in Italy. They had, he observed, in principles that were congenial to the the course of this campaiga, destroy- natives of this island. They graed three hostile armies, taken forty, dually succeeded in propagating seven thousand men, two hundred discontent among a people noted and eighty pieces of cannon, and for their ficklenels and the inconforty-nine fland of colours. Two ftancy of their attachments. A of these indeed, the French, he said, communication was established beheld in little value, as they were tween the exiles at Leghorn and taken from the troops of his holi- elsewhere, and their partisans in ness, who had changed his late Corfica. In a short time, the adtone, as will presently appear; an herents to France became fo numeenemy unworthy of their notice: rous and active, that the English in but still they shewed the number of the island clearly perceived that an their enemies, and the extent of insurrection was preparing against their own luccelles.
them, which, from the inconliderShortly after the festivals and re- ableness of their force, they would joicings, occasioned by the presenta- not be able to withstand. The tions of these trophies, the directory Corsicans held meetings and al-, had another opportunity of exulting sembled numbers of men in arms,
wliofe intentions were evidently tion of the inhabitants was so little inimical. They openly at tength to be relied upon, and they had refused to pay taxes, or to acknow- been so thoroughly prejudiced aledge the viceroy's authority: they gainst the British government, that seized his perfon in a progrefs he it appeared totally useless to endeawas making through the island, and vour to reclaim them by reasonings, released him only on condition he which they would have disregared, 1hould recall the troops he had fta- or to coerce them by severities, tioned in the interior parts. . The which would have produced civil malcontents continued their intri- contentions and bloodshed, that gues, and completely succeeded in must have filled the island with filling the public with complaints wretchedness and calamity, without and diffatisfaction. Apprised of answering any other purpose than their designs, the viceroy perceiving perpetuating mutual enmity, and the impracticability of obviating rendering the pofleffion of it a them, intimated the intention of source of endlefs perplexity. In ' leaving the ifland, and embarking this light the determination, taken with the Englifh garrison. In con- to abandon it, was a measure of fequence of this intimation, a body timely prudence. of French and Corsicans failed from Thele various fuccesses of the Leghorn, and landed on the eigh- French, and of their partisans, acteenth of October in Corsica, where celerated the treaties of
peace multitudes having joined them, they which the princes of Italy had enproceeded to Bastia, the capital, gaged to enter with the republic. and summoned the English garrison The king of Naples and the duke to surrender; but it effected its of Parma had, conformably to the embarkation on board the ships in terms of the armistice granted to the harbour with inconsiderable them, deputed commissioners to loss, and withdrew to Porto Ferraio, Paris, to settle the conditions. It in the island of Elbe, of which the was an auspicious circumstance for English had taken poffeffion at the hoth, that Spain was at this time time that Leghom was feized by on friendly terms with France, the French, in order to prevent under the meditation of the Spanish them from making a feizure of this minister at Paris. These two prinisland in the same manner.
ces were treated by the directory The evacuation of Corsica by with more moderation than they the English, and its return to the could have otherwise expected, government of France, was an confidering the inveteracy they had event peculiarly acceptable to the manifested against the republic; directory, wbich did not fail to much the same conditions were 1peak of is in terms of the greatest granted to them, as to the other fatisfaction, and to magnify it as powers with which France had of the highest importance to the already concluded pacifications. republic, and detriment to the Eng- Naples however was required to lish interest in the Mediterranean. pay the sum of eight millions, either The fact was, that the retention of in money or in naval stores. The it would manifestly have cost much Batavian republic was formally inmore than its worth. The difpofi- cluded in thi treaty, which was
concluded in the middle of Odo the most despicable scenes of fuber.
perstition that were recorded of The conduct of the court of former ages. Rome was marked, on this occasion, The immediate intervention of with a temerity that was by num. heaven was reforted to, and mirabers attributed to imbecillity, and cles positively asserted to have been the grosseft degree of bigotry. Not- performed in many of the churches withstanding the repeated defeats of Rome, in vindication, as it was of the Imperialists, such was the construed, of the truth and dignity confidence in the prowess of the of the catholic religion, outraged by Germans, after Buonaparte had the iniquitous conduct of the French, been forced to raise thc siege of and their wicked attempts to establish Mantua; and in that fatality infidelity on the ruins of the Christian which had formerly attended the belief. The streets of Rome were French in their invasions of Italy, filled with proceflions, and the crethat it was firmly believed at Rome dulity of the people converted into they would be expelled, as they the means of inflaming them against had been before, with equal loss the French, as the enemies of the and ignomy; and that the fortune Divinity, and of all that was sacred of the houfe of Austria would cer- among men. tainly preponderate.
The court of Rome did not Full of these ideas, those who seem to reflect, that by lending its influenced the papal councils, were self to such base and scandalous atconstantly averle to the concessions tempts to impose upon the multidemanded by the directory, as re- tude, they forfeited the confiderpugnant to the long established ation of all the reasonable part even maxims of the Roman fee, and ini. of their own society. For though mical to the Catholic religion. It the propensity of the Roman cawas explicitly required of the pope, tholics to give credit to miraculous that he should revoke all those events is well known, yet the publications that had been ilued more judicious and discerning in yirtue of his spiritual authority, among them are very far from and that related to the affairs of giving countenance to the absurFrance.
dities that pass current among
the This was a blow fo directly generality. ftriking at his religious principles, Such however was either the real that no surprise was excited at the or pretended belief in the impolabhorrence he expresied of such a tures daily, propagated that the requisition. Herein he was second- zeal of all clalles and conditions ed by all the zealous adhérents to was rouzed; the populace was his tenets. Had no other means kindled to the ntmost race against been used to combat the demands all who expressed a doubt of these of the French, than reasoning and wonders, and teftified the most argument, no blame could have violent ardour to enlist in the ferbeen imputed to their antagonists: vice of the church and state. The but the spirit of bigotry and super- phrenzy of the monks, and of the ftition rose up against them in a weaker ecclesiastics, came in aid of manner that reminded the world of that which appeared in the com,
monalty, monalty, and even some persons, negociations on that very account. not devoid of understanding, were He behaved, in short, as if he had induced to think, that the fury and lived in those ages when the ignoindignation, excited by the perfua- rance of mankind, and the implicit fion of celestial assistance, being at respect arising from it for the ponhand, against the French, might tifical character; fubdued the dictates fupply the want of discipline, and of good sense in all transactions with animate the multitude to the most the church of Rome; and enabled vigorous and effectual exertions. it to domineer over nations with an
The French resident, at Rome, authority that filenced every arguendeavoured to make the adminin ment, and commanded their obe stration fenfible of the dangers to dience to him, on the despotic which it exposed the state; by these principle of his being the vicegerent rash proceedings; but his advice of heaven upon earth.. was rejected, and preparations of And yet had he turned his attenwar occupied the attention of all tion to what was passing around him, men : not howevever without mov- and even among his own people, he ing the compassion of those who must have seen the fatal impropriety foresaw the calamities, or the hu- of trusting to the disposition of men miliations, that would result from in religious or political matters, at these senseless measures, and the the present æra, as might have been derision of those who secretly ridic done heretofore. culed the idea of transforming a na- So impressive had been the extion of bigots into an army of heroes. ample of the French in affairs of This, however, did not, perhaps, religion and politics, in every part appear to the court of Rome, what of Italy, that ayowed approvers of indeed it was not, impossible; and, them had arisen in every province as to the number of those who de- and sovereignty of that country. rided fanatical and superstitious no- Republican principles, especially tions, was probably believed to be were maintained by those who still far less than it really was.
faithfully adhered to the tenets of Whether the pope himself was Christianity, which, indeed, they prompted by his own credulity, or explicitly asserted, was totally unthat of others, he completely threw connected with any form of governoff the mask of piety and resigna- ment, and inculcated no more than tion which he had forinerly assumed, obedience to the eftablished laws, as above related, and acted, through- and fidelity to the government itout the whole of this business, as self, whatever its form might be. if he considered the cause of the As these maxims, however sound and Roman see as intitled to superna- reasonable in themselves, militated tural interposition. So deep rooted against the systems prevailing in was his attachment to the rules Italy, the ruling powers felt, of and prescriptions of former times, course, an invincible repugnanice to that he listened to no advice but them. Hence their abhorrence of that of ecclefiaftics, and employed the French, and their readiness, at no other persons to negociate with the fame time, to enter into agreethe French, though he well knew ments with them, before their prin. how odious such persons were to ciples had gained sufficient latitude them, and how likely to inar all among their own subjects to incite