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and his mind appeared reciprocally occupied the strong line alung the calculated for the support of each Mincio, and a fortified camp before other. Both were incessantly em- Peschiera. But the French attacked ployed, the one in planning, the them on the sixth, forced their camp other in personally forwarding every and lines, and compelled them to design that was conceived. Such withdraw to the other side of the were the indefatigable qualities with Mincio, with a great lofs of men which nature had endowed him, that and cannon. They pursued them while his thoughts were uninter- to Verona, where the Austrians, ruptedly on the stretch, he allowed through the connivance of the Vehimself no kind of repose ; and, dur, netians, endeavoured to make a ing the last seven days and nights of stand: but they were driven from this dreadful contest, he was never this city, and fled in disorder toknown to have laid himself down to wards the Tyrol. This action comreft.
pleted their route, and the garrison Notwithstanding this terrible de- of Mantua excepted, no Austrian feat, the Austrian general, though troops remained in Italy on the unable to keep the open field, still fouthern side of the Adige.
CH A P.' VIII.
Italian Mobs excited against the French.--Suppressed by a Terror of the
victorious French.-Marshal Wurmfer, pursued by Buonaparte, retreats into the Tyrolese.---The Siege of Mantua resumed.-Marshal Wurmser, powerfully reinforced, makes Head against the French in the Venetian Territories.-But' is defeated.—The French take Pofesion of Trent.Continued Success of Buonaparte.-Marshal Wurmser, with the Remains of his Army, makes good his Retreat, and takes Shelter within the Walls of Mantua. -Corfica, evacuated by the English, returns under the Government of France. -Pacification between France and Naples including the Batavian Republic.-Religious Zeal of the Romans.-Awakened by the Court of Rome into rage, and avowed Preparations for War against the French.A new Republic, composed of several small States.-Prevalence of the Republican Spirit in Italy.-The Ausrians reinforced with Troops from Germany, advance against the French.-Retake Trent. -But -are defeated with prodigious Loss at Arcola.--The Auftrians, though frequently defeated, return to the Charge. -High Spirit and Courage of the Tyrolians. -Devotion of the Army in Italy to the French Republic.--Patience of the French Soldiers under manifold Privations.
CHILE the fate of the Im- ful governments and to destroy re
perial and the French ar- ligion. mies remained in suspence, the par- The fuperftitious imbecility, for tisans of Austria, presuming that which the Italian commonalty is they would recover all their losses, noted, was easily worked upon by began to act in the most hostile man- instigations of this nature. Mobs ner to all who were friendly to rose in some places, and maltreated the French. False intelligence was the French and their adherents. But every where circulated, and the re- the more prudent opposed this ratu publican army represented as van- behaviour, and the generality of quished and flying before the Auf- people did not participate in these trians. The intervention of heaven demonstrations of enmity. Numwas called in, and its aid held out bers, at the same time, who were as certain, in the expulfion of the decidedly in their favour, had the iniquitous invaders, as they were courage openly to espouse their Styled, fent by France to destroy law- cause, even when the Austrians had obtained lome succelles, and it be- most fury on the natives of France; gan to be apprehended that Buo- known to be republicans. naparte's arıy was in great danger. The news of the victories ob: This fpirit manifefted itself prin- tained over the Auftrians, put a stop cipally at Ferrara and Bologna, but to these proceedings, by the constermore than any where at Milan. nation they spead in Rome, where Here the majority of the inhabi- the general expectation was, that tants expressed the most avowed the French would thortly be exconcern at the retreat of the French pelled from Italy: but the cooler before the Imperial army, and at the part of thie public highly censured raising of the fiege of Mantua : on the readiness with which the pope the report of the total rout of the had been induced to violate the French, and the approach of the treaty concluded with the French Auftrians, the ftreets and public general, and expresied a full perplaces were filled by crowds, de- Juafion that he would require such manding arms, and offering to march a fatisfaction as would produce a instantly to the allistance of the deep repentance for its infraction. French.
In the mean time; marshal WurmBut of all those Italian states and ser was occupied in securing his princes that thewed unequivocal retreat towards the mountainous ligns of fatisfaction at the tempo. country on the north of the Venerary successes of the duftrians, none tian dominions; but he was followed equalled the temerity with which fo closely by Buonaparte, that he was the court of Rome acted upon this overtaken and defeated in two enoccasion. As foon as intelligence gagements, on the 11th and 12th, arrived that the French had re- with a levere loss of men, artillery, treated from Mantua, a vice legate and baggage. It was with difficulty was dispatched to retake poflettion that he pursued his march to the of Ferrara, notwithstanding the other lide of the city of Trent, ; noted aversion of the citizens to where he reassembled the remains the Roman government. This was of his forces. evidently a breach of the armistice The flight of the Austrians enbetween the French and the pope, abled the French to resume the but the vice legate remained in the lege of Mantua. The garrison city even in opposition to the incli- had, on its being raised, totally denation of the inhabitants, nor quitted stroyed the works of the beliegers, it, until news arrived of the entire carried all their cannon, amounting defeat of the Austrian army.
to one hundred and forty pieces, At Rome itlelf the detestation into the town, and supplied it with of the French broke out in the most large quantities of stores and pro-. outrageous treatment of the few visions. From the thirtieth of July; that were in that«city. Those who when the fiege was raised, to the Thewed themselves most forward to nineteenth of August, when the abuse them, were the priests and French recommenced their operamonks. Incited by their example tions against that city, it had been and discourles,' the populace were," put into the completest state of dewith difficulty, restrained, by the go- fence, and was now reputed more vernment, from exercising their ut. capable than ever to withstand all
the efforts of the French, till a more ed. The victories gained in İtaauspicious opportunity of relieving ly had coft the French many of it effectually
their best officers, and bravest foldiFrance, in the mean while, was ers; and their distance from France, resounding with the exploits and together with other impediments, praises of Buona parte, and his victo- obftructed the recruiting of their rious army.
The standards taken forces. Their enemies, on the confrom the Austrians, and sent by him trary, had many facilities in this to the directory, were presented to respect : the country behind theni it with great pomp and ceremony was their own : it abounded with on the twenty-seventh of August. robust and hardy men, inuired to a The officer commissioned to deliver laborious life, and inclined to the them, addressed the directory in a military profeffion. Hence contisoldierly and spirited speech, which nual reinforcements were drawn, was received with great fatisfaction by means of which marshal Wurmand applause. It was entirely de- fer was enabled to repair his frefcriptive of the bravery and deter- quent lofies, by incorporating the mination of the French foldiers, in new levies with his veterans. Italy, to shed their blood for the His head quarters were now at service of the republic. It specified Ballano, a town in the Venetian their intrepidity on divers occations, territories. Here he had assembled and the great things it had done for a confiderable force, which he dili the benefit of the state, and the tributed with great fkill in all the glory of the nation.
advantageous pofitions in his neigha i La Revailliere Lepaux, then pre- bourhood. One of his divitions fident of the directory, returned him was stationed at Alla, on the Adige, a suitable answer. He loaded the in the road to the city of Trent, of French foldiery with all those praises which Buonaparte proposed to make that affect them possibly more than himself matter. This division occuany other people of the same pro- pied a strong post at Serravalle, on fesion elsewhere. He compared the right of the Adige, and another them to the most renowned warriors at Marco, on its left. By a series of of antiquity, and exhorted them to tkilful movements Buonaparte comproceed in that career of triumph pelled a number of intermediate and fame, which would raise France bodies of Austrians to fall back to above all its enemies, and eter- these two ports; and, crossing the nize their own name. These en- Adige, on the fourth of September, . comiums were carefully transmit- he attacked the one at Marco, while ted to the army of Italy, where the remainder of his forces fell upon they produced their intended effect, the other at Serravalle. The enin the satisfaction they afforded to gagement was obstinate on both both officers and men, and the ar- fides, but the French prevailed, and dour it filled them with, to be the Austrians were defeated with confidered and treated as the heroes great lots, and driven from both of their country
positions. They retreated to RoveThese enthusiastic sentiments were, redo, in order to recover themselves, at this period, particularly want and make a stand; but the French
came up with them, and again put tive council, composed entirely o. them to the rout, and took possession natives of the district, to whom of that town.
alone every place of power and The Austrians, having retreated emolument was assigned, in absoto Trent, were making preparations lute exclusion of all itrangers. The to maintain themselves, by fortifying laws and usages established were the avenues to it: but Buonaparte, left untouched; but the sovereignty .who perceived their design, gave was vested in the French republic, orders to attack them directly in to which an oath of obedience was the post they had taken. It was required from all persons in authoextremely strong, and it required rity. vast efforts to inake them abandon By thus investing the natives of it; but they were completely rout- this place with the exclusive enjoyed, and fied in confusion towards ment of all those employments and Trent, within three miles of which profits formerly diverted from them they were pursued. Thus termi- to aliths, he held out the prospect nated this famous fourth of Septem- of a similar treatment to all that subber; in the course of which the mitted to the French. He doubted Austrians sustained three defeats, not, by this exhibition of their juland loft upwards of seven thousand tice and impartiality, to procure men, who were made prisoners, be general willingness to prefer suborfides a number of Nain, together dination to France to the dominion with thirty pieces of cannon, and exercised over them by their present a large quantity of baggage and masters. horses.
After settling the government of In the night that followed this the city of Trent, Buonaparte lost no memorable day, marshal Wurmfer, time in the prosecution of his adlosing all hope of making head at vantages over the Austrians. MarTrent, evacuated it, and, next thal Wurmser had fixed himself at morning, the French took poslef- Basiano, the way to which town fion of this celebrated city. At was rendered excessively difficult, by a small distance from it a large the river Brenta, and the defiles body of Austrians posted them- that bear its name.
'Here again felves at a bridge, commanding the the superior generalship of Buonaentrance into the town of Lavis. parte enabled him to effect a palBut hither they were immediately sage over this river. He directed followed by Buonaparte, who forced a chofen body of men to attempt the entrenchments they had thrown: it at a place where it was not exup, after making his way over the pected, and, by a circuitous march, bridge, and put them to flight. to fall upon the rear of the Au
Master of Trent, an indepen- ftrians. They succeeded completely; dant principality of the empire, and, while the small fort of Cavela, Buonaparte refolved to organize the that stood in the defile, was carried government of this city on a re- by storm, they gained the head publican plan. He totally eman- of this narrow pals, through which cipated it from that Imperial juris- the Austrians, after evacuating that di&tion, appointing an administra- fort, not being able to make their 8