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HISTORY OF EUROPE. [103 they were in the protection and en- his confidence and intimacy, did couragement of polite knowledge more in conciliating the people, who and the liberal arts, and desirous had submitted to him, than the to afford them the most generous dread of his power : the clergy and and honourable countenance and the nobility excepted: to the very support. “ All men of genius,” said existence of which orders the French the letter, “ all those who have ob- system was immediately inimical : tained a distinguished rank in the theother clalles beheld in the French republic of leiters, are Frenchmen, a nation of warriors, who seemed in whatever country they may have to have taken up arms for the purbeen borne. The learned in Italy, pose of reducing all other nations to esteemed themselves happy, if left a level of opinion and government unmolested by princes and priests: with themselves, and to harbour no but henceforth, opinions thall be enmity but to hereditary fovereigns, free, and the inquifition, intole- and the adherents to implicit obedi. rance, and despotism, be no more. ence in matters of church and I invite,” he contined," the learned state. to assemble, and propose their lenti- To disseminate such a difpofitionin ments on the means necessary to be the generality, was the chief aim of taken, and the assistance they may the French general, well knowing require, to give new life and ex- that, on such a ground, he would be istence to the sciences and the fine able to erect a more durable fabric arts.”

of that republicanism he had in He addressed the university of view, than on the military power he Pavia in the same style, and took pe- had established, and which, without culiar pains to imprels on the minds those concomitances that he held of the public, that the French were out to the natives, would have been folicitous to place the people of odious to them, and have presented Italy on the fame footing with no other picture than that of conthemselves, in whatever related to quest and tyranny. the liberty of thinking, and would In this court, that was paid by feel more satisfaction in acquiring the French general to men of letters their esteem and their approbation and genius, we contemplate a policy, of the proceedings of the French not less folid than sublime. It is government, and of the political from the opinions and spirit of maxims on which it acted, than in the truly learned and intelligent, the submission enforced by their that public spirit in all nations victorious arms. The conquefts fooner or later derive their complexobtained over the human mind, ion with their origin. The class being of far greater importance to too that would be flattered by this men who knew the difficulty of ob- address was more numerous by far, taining them, and the utility which than it will be very easy to imagine: they produced, than victories won so great a portion of mankind being by the sword, and empire maintained so highly satisfied with their own through terror.

talents and accomplishments. The Language of this kind, which profeflions of Buonaparte, however, was inceffantly in the mouth of but ill accorded with his actions. the French general, and of those in The whole of his conduct indicated

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that his main design was, to establish posed a much more formidable the power and influence of the strength than that under Buonaparte. French in Italy. At Milan he But the confidence he placed in the formed the plan of a republic on valour of his men, and that which the model of that of France, and to they repofed in his superior genius be under her protection, in the same and skill, seemned, in the opinion of manner as the victorious and am- the public, to stand him in the stead bitious Romans admitted the con- of numbers. quered states to the alliances and. The passes into the Tyrol were friendship of the senate and people guarded by works extending from of Rome: thus endeavouring to the Lake of Garda to the river fubvert the authority of the empe- Adige. Here the Imperial comror, and to erect that of France on mander, newly arrived, posted its ruins, by abolishing feudal rights, himself: but the French generals and giving the great mass of the peo- Massena, and Joubert, at the head of ple a share and an interest in the a select body, broke into his lines, new government. He fortified by turning his right and left: they Verona, notwithstanding the recla- seized his baggage and standing malions of the Venetians; and placed camp, and forced him to retreat general officers, in whom he could with the utmost precipitation. This confide, over the Tuscan troops, as happened towards the close of June. well as over those of Piedmont and

The first engagement, between Milan. The intentions of the Wurmfer, and the French, would French were still less concealed at probably have been followed with Paris; where those who bore sway, worse consequences to him, had not at the same time ihat they profesled' an insurrection taken place in a city a desire to fraternize with all na- of the ecclesiastical state, which obtions, talked of nothing but the structed for a while their intended extension of their arms, and of operations. The inhabitants of the Paris becoining the capital of Eu- city and district of Lugo, incited by rope. They boafted of the ge- the complaints of their clergy, and nerous design of giving peace and pthers who bore heavily the French tranquillity to all nations under the yoke, took uparms, as they expressed protection of the French republic. themselves, * in defence of their

In the mean time, Buonaparte was faints, and their lawful sovereign, the preparing to meet the new general pope. A small detachment was appointed to take the command of fent to quell them, but they forced the Imperial forces that were march- it to retire, after killing some men, ing to the protection of the Tyrol, the heads of two of whom, accordThe fiuation of the French at this ing to the French accounts, they experiod was extremely critical: they poled at the town house of Lugo. had subdued an exiensive range of The French general, who was sent country; to preserve which they with a fufficient force to reduce had been obliged to detach con- them, employed admonitions and fiderable numbers from their main threats to that, purpose: but they body. The remains of Beaulieu's set him at defiance, and made a army, and the reinforcements ar- desperate resistance: upwards of a şiving with marshal Wurmser, com. thousand of them were killed and


wounded, and the city taken and and Verona on the other, which the delivered up to the troops for pil- French were compelled to abandon, lage during three hours. A procla- was moving with the division under mation was then issued, ordering all his command towards Buonaparte, arns to be surrendered, on pain of while the other was advancing with death to those who retained them; all expedition to place the French and threatening to set fire to places between two fires. where Frenchmen should be mur- Conscious that his strength was dered. The reduction of Lugo took not equal to an encounter with the place on the fixth of July,

Austrian general's united divisions, Mantua was, in the mean time, Buonaparte came to the determinaclosely besieged, and hard pressed. tion to attack them fingly before The garrison made several vigorous they could form a junction. This, fallies, but Buonaparte, who had by indeed, seemed the only expedient this time collected, from the many left to extricate him from his present strong towns he had taken, a nume- danger. It was not, however, tous and formidable artillery, gave without the deepest concern, that no respite to the besieged, and con- he saw. himself reduced to the nestantly repelled them. He erected cessity of abandoning the fiege of batteries for the firing red hot balls, Mantua, now almost destitute of and several parts of the city were provisions, and on the point of surin flames: but the governor was re- rendering: folved to hold out to the last ex- He raised it on the thirtieth of tremity, and refused to listen to the July, and, in pursuit of his plan, fummons to surrender.

marched with all expedition to Powerful reinforcements having Brescia, where he joined the dijoined marshal Wurmser, since the visions of his army. They had check he had received in the moun- gained several advantages over the tains of the Tyrol, he re'olved to re- Austrians, particularly at Lonado, a pair this by raising the liege of Man- town which these had seized, but tua; by effecting which he would at from which they were expelled, once undo all that had been done by after being completely defeated in Buonaparte. Animated with this an engagement, the last of July, hope, he assailed the French at Salo, wherein they lost great numbers. on the western side of the Lake of From Brescia, where the AustriGarda, and at Corona on the east. ans were again totally routed, on the He had the good fortune to disodge first of August, they withdrew in dilthem on the twenty-ninth of July, order towards the Tyrol, where they from both of these positions: those took refuge in the mountains. On at Salo retired 'to Peschiera, and the third, marshal Wurmser, who, apthose at Corona to the city of prised of the ill fortune that had atVerona.

tended his other division, had adBuonaparte, who perceived the vanced with all speed to its aíliftance, criticalness of his fituation, assembled came up with Buonaparte, who, exall his forces to oppose the Austrian pecting him, was prepared for battle. general, who, after feizing Brescia, The Austrians bad fome advantage in consequence of the capture of at first, through the rash impetuolity Salo, on the one side of the lake, of an advanced corps of French,

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which was surrounded and taken; gerous and difficult part of the
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A force, and made the most advantagedivision of them endeavoured to ous arrangements

meet the enemake good its retreat to Salo: but my, whose attack he hourly exthat place was already occupied by pected. He' visited every post, in the left wing of the French, and order to ascertain the numbers that this division, in attempting to gain could be spared to reinforce his the mountains, towards the Tyrol, main body. Repairing for this purfell mostly into the hands of the pose to Lonado, he found it occuFrench. General Augereali, who p:ed by no more than twelve huncommanded the right wing, assailed dred of his troops, while a division the left of the Austrians, posted at of the Austrians, consisting of four

Castigliona. Here a furious fight thousand men, had encompassed - was maintained the whole day be- it, and sent an officer to summon the

tween both parties. The French French to surrender. Buonaparte at length prevailed, and the Austri- concluding, from certain circumans sustained an entire defeat. Be- stances, that this body of Austrians tween two and three thousand fell belonged to the defeated part of in the field, and about four thousand their army, and was endeavouring to were made prisoners, among wliom make good its retreat, with remarkwere three generals. The French able presence of mind, told the offialso lost a considerable number, and cer, that he was mistaken in thinksome officers of great note

ing that he had met only with a dee On the fourth, a division of the tachment of the French army, the French attacked a large body of main body of which was there with Austrians, who were posted at Buonaparte himself, who now spoke Gavardo, towards the western side to him, and required him immedis of the lake. The conflict was warm, ately to return to his general, and rebut the Anstrians were again worst- quire that he should surrender in ed, with the loss of near two thou- ftantly. The commander of the

Austrians, struck with astonishment, Notwithstanding the successes of requested a parley to settle conthe thirdand fourth, Buonaparte was ditions. But Buonaparte, aware of not yet assured of a fortunate termi- the danger attending the least delay, nation of this obstinate dispute: insisted that they should directly surMarshal Wurmser had drawn toge- render themselves prisoners of war. ther all the troops that could be ral- On their still demanding time to conlied, to which he added a part of sider, Buonaparte gave orders for a the garrison of Mantua, now re- body of chosen grenadiers and are lieved from the siege, and every tillery to advance against them. This other corps within reach. When decided the matter, and they all assembled, they formed an army laid down their arms, without atformidable enough to renew the tempting to make the least resistance. contest with Buonaparte, who was Escaped from this inminent peril, fully convinced that the most dan- in so extraordinary a manner; the 3



fand men.

French general determined to lose amounted to seventy pieces of no time in bringing the contest to a non, all the carriages belonging to final issue. Feigning to be desirous his army, more than twelve thouof avoiding an engagement with fand prisoners, and fix thousand Wurmser, he ordered a retrogade Dain. notion to be made by his army,

in But the principal loss was that of order to induce him the more rea- reputation. The troops thus heaten dily to advance. This order was were chiefly veterans. Those who executed on the morning of the fifth, came with Wurmser were deemed with such dexterity, that while the the flower of the Austrian army, Austrian general, deceived by ap- that had so obstinately contended pearances, was approaching the with the best troops of France upon French army to attack it, the the Rhine. Wurmser himself was right wing of the French, under reputed an officer second to no one general Serranier, an officer of great in the Imperial service, nor indeed ability, turned the left of the Austri- in Europe, for valour, skill, and exans, and affailed its rear, while ano- perience, and was in a manner the ther division attacked a redoubt in last hope of Austria, for the receits front. The left of the French, very of Italy, in like manner, moved with unex

All these were circumstances pected rapidity against the right of deeply mortifying to the court of the Austrians, and their centre was Vienna, and proportionably procharged at the same time with such ductive of triumph and exultation, impetuosity and vigour, that, sure to the French 'republicans, and prised at movements so contrary to their well-wishers. their expectation, they were ina man- The firft intelligence of marshal ner taken unawares. They made, Wurmser's marching against Buonahowever, a resolute defence, but parte, at the head of lo selected an fortune declared for the French. army, had revived the expectations The Austrians were thrown into of all the enemies to France, and confusion; and, notwithstanding not a little alarmed the directory itthe skilful dispositions of Wurmfer, felf. But those who were able were not able to stand their ground. judges of the military talents of They retired with all expedition, Buonaparte, never felt a moment's after losing two thousand men, despondency, and it is but justice to and would certainly have lost many acknowledge that he fully answered more, had not the French, from the their utmost expectations. Throughexcessive fatigue of so many suc- out the whole course of this arduous ! cessive conflicts, been disabled from trial, his abilities astonished both a pursuit.

friends and foes: Surrounded by This victory was completely de- difficulties of every sort, he acted cisive of the contest between these with a clearness of penetration that two rival generals. The battle forelaw and obviated them all. might be said to have lasted five removed impediments as fast as they days, as there was no intermission arose, and took his measures with to of fighting during that time. The much prudence and sagacity, that he loffes of the Austrians, precluded could not be charged with having all hopes of keeping the field. They committed one falle step. His body



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