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and to erect on its fite a pillar with broken forces of the Austrians had this inscription, “ Here stood the in their retreat taken refuge on the city of Pavia.”

Venetian territory. Hither they In order to deter the inhabitants were closely pursued by the French. of this, and the other towns in- But previously to the commencement clined to stir up insurrections, the of operations in the Venetian state, promoters of that at Pavia were Buonaparte was careful to give forTentenced to be slot, and two hun- iħal notice of his intentions to the dred hostages, for their peaceable senate. behaviour, were delivered to Buona- The disposition of the Venetian parte, who sent them to France. government, towards France, was He next issued a proclamation, de- juftly fufpected to be inimical. Had claring, that those who did not lay it been friendly before the entrance down their arms within twenty-four of the French into Italy, their fuchours, and take an oath of obedience cefles, and the powerful footing they to the French republic, should be had now obtained, would have rentreated as rebels, and their houles dered them toodangerous to be viewcommitted to the flames.

ed with a favourable


Situated The nobles and priests in the in- between two such powers as France furgent districts were to be arrested and Austria, Venice had no incliand sent to France, The places nation to befriend the one more than within the precincts of which a the other, and would gladly have Frenchman was assassinated, were been delivered from the proximity condemned to pay triple taxes till of both. Unwilling to offend a state, the aslasin was given up. The between which, and the French resame fine was laid on places where public, an amicable intercourse concealed arms and ammunition Sublisted, the French general pubwere found.

Persons of rank and lished an address to that government fortune who excited the people to and people, wherein he assured revolt, either by difmifling their ser- them, that in following the enemies vants, or by holding inimical dif- of France into the Venetian terricourses against the French, were to, tories, he would observe the strictest be sent to France, and to forleit discipline, and treat the inhabitants part of their estates.

with all the amity and consideration Injunctions and declarations of due to the ancient friendship exthis nature were posted up in every ifting between the two nations. place of note throughout the Mi- In the mean time, the Austrians lanese. Particular precautions were had taken poßeffion of Peschiera, taken for the security of the city of by the connivance of the Venetians, Milan, the castle of which still re- to whom that town belonged. Here mained in poliession of the Austrians, Beaulieu hoped to be able to make who might, in case of any formidable a stand, till luccours arrived to him insurrection, have given it effeclual from Germany. Buonaparte, desirous assistance.

to expel him from Italy, or to comFreed from the perplexity occa- pel him to surrender, 'advanced to fioned by these disturbances, Buona- ihat town, intending to cut off his parte prepared to prosecute the retreat to the Tyrol, by the eastern plans he had been forming The fide of the lake of Garda. Early in the morning of the thirteenth of the late residence of the French May, several divisions of the French prince. He now determined to lay approached the bridge of Borghetto, liege to Mantua, the only place of by which Buonaparte proposed to ef- strength and importance left to the féct a passage over the Mincio, and emperor in Italy. The reduction surround Beaulieu's


The of this fortress would effectually put Austrians made the utmost efforts to an end to the influence of the court defend the bridge; but thie French of Vienna, and transfer to France, crofl:d it after a warm action : the the power and credit exercised by Austrian general perceiving their in- the emperor in all the affairs of tent, withdrew in haste from his Italy. position at Peschiera, and retired This was a deprivation to which with the utmolt expedition to the the head of the house of Austria river Adige, which, having palled, could not bear the idea of submithe broke down all the bridges, to ting, and every effort was resolved prevent the French from pertuing upon to prevent it. The ill success bim. By thele means he fecured of Beaulieu had been such, that it his retreat to the Tyrol, the only was determined, at Vienna, to subplace of safety now remaining to stitute another commander in his him.

room. Marshal Wurmser, a veteran Buonaparte might now consider general in high esteem, was aphimtelf as the undisputed master of pointed to succeed him, though he Italy. He was so much viewed in that had himleli experienced several delight by the lenate of Venice, even teats by the French. previoully to his pallage of the In hope of reducing Mantua beMincio, and the deleat of Beaulieu, fore fuccours could arrive, Buonathat, foreseeing the danger of ap- parte determined to lay immediate pearing too well inclined to the liege to it. On the fourth of June, house of Bourbon, they had warned it was invested by the French, who out of their territories the unfor- drove the out-posts into the town, tunate brother of the late king of which was now closely surrounded France, who had, on the death on every fide. of his nephew, fon to that monarch, But the want of artillery prealliumed the name of Lewis the vented him from doing any more eighteen, together with the royal than blockading it. He had formed title.

hopes of reducing that city by other The circumstances of his dismif- means than a forinal siege ; which fion did the Venetians no credit: were to cut of all succours from Gera on that prince's demanding the many, and all provisions from its 1word, formerly prelented to the neighbourhood. fenate by his ancestor, the celebrated In order to effect the first of these Henry the fourth of France,asa token purposes, he resolved to carry the of his regard, they refused to restore war into the Imperial dominions in it, on pretext that a large fum of Germany, and to invade the Tyrol money, due from him to the state, itself. This was doubtless a very had never been discharged.

bold and hazardous attempt : the Buonaparte took poflellion, on the natives of that difficult and moun. third of June, of the city of Verona, tainous country being not only a

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resolute and hardy race of men, but of his conquests; menaced by a extremely attached to the family of variety of unfavourable circumstanAuftria; of whom they had forces, against which vigorous exercenturies continued the faithful and tions were required without delay. affectionate subjects.

The distance at which the forces Buonapartedid not, however, de- of the French' were at this time, spair to make an impression upon from several districts, known by the them in his favour, through the me- name of Imperial Fiefs, and situated dium of those addresses, of which he on the borders of Piedmont, Genoa, he had experienced the efficacy on and Tuscany, had emboldened the other occasions. On the fourteenth people there, who were in the inof June he published a manifesto, terest of the emperor, to act a very wherein he intormed them, that he hostile part against the French ; they intended to march through their attacked their convoys, intercepted country, in order to force the em- the communication with Buonaperor to come into terms of peace parte's army, and killed his couriers. with the French, who desired a Such were the complaints and repretermination of the war, not only sentations of the French. In order for themselves, but for the benefit to put a stop to those proceedings, of all Europe, so long harrassed and which were secretly countenanced desolated through the ambition of by those numerous enemies of the the Imperial family; for which alone French, who did not dare to avow the people of its dominions were themselves, Buonaparte was obliged involved in the horrors of war, as to dispatch large detachments from well as the people of France. The the main body of his forces, to reFrench, he told them, bore no hatred press them. This was the very end to the inhabitants of Germany, but proposed by those insurrections, but solely to their ambitious fovereigns, the celerity with which he acted, and felt the sincerest sentiments of quickly effected their suppression : good will and fraternity for their the insurgents were compelled to oppressed subjects. He invited them, submit, and deliver up their arms therefore, in the name of the French, and hoftages for their obedience. to receive their army with hofpi- Heavy fines were imposed upon tality, and abstain from all hostili- them, and ordinances issued; a reties; promising the strictest honour fusal to comply with which, was and punctuality, in all dealings made punishable with military exeand transactions with them, but ad. cution. monishing them, at the same time, The motive that led to this sethat if compelled to have recourse verity, was the determination to to their arms, the French would, proceed, without the danger of behowever, unwillingly, prove as ter- ing recalled by new commotions, rible to them, as they had unvaria- in the plan of extending, through the bly done to all their other enemies. most distant parts of Italy, an un

But while he was preparing to resitting fubjugation to the dictates follow

up this manifesto, by march of France. Rome and Naples were ing his army into the Tyrol, he was the two states against which Buonacalled away by the indifpenfible ne- parte was intending to act. The ceffity of providing for the security enmity of both to the French was

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undeniable. The inability of the cessity with the best grace in the Pope to resist them was an addi- world. He discharged his subjects tional motive to invade his terri- froni molesting, and even from revitories?. Ferrara, Bologna, and Ur. ling the French. He exhorted them bino, all cities of importance, were

to use them well, and even to pray taken pofleffion of, and Rome itself for them. iu former ages, the popes was threatened.

were wont most bitterty to curse The partisans of the French in even their own fpiritual cons, when Italy, and elsewhere, expresied open they fewed any degree of a resatisfaction at their conduct towards fractory spirit. The piety of the the Roman fee. The disreputable church, smothered by wealth and means by which it had risen to power, appeared to be revived with power, and acquired the territories perfecution. The Chriftians feemed compofing its fovereignty, were not to return to the principles of " lovforgotten. The arrogance of its ing their encmies, blessing those pretenfions, and the daily dimina- that cursed them, doing good to tion of the reverence and veneration those that hated them, and praying which it formerlycominanded, joint for those who despitefully uled and ly induced people to view its hu- persecuted them.” Had the pope miliation with pleasure. Conscious with the Romilh clergy been fincere of these sentiments in the generality, in 'fuch professions of humility and Buonaparte felt the less fcruple in benevolence, and credit been given the severity of his transactions with to such professions, the church might the court of Rome, with which it have sprung, like a phenix, from its seems he had determined to keep no own ashes, and the tide of affairs measures ; commiflioned doubtless been turned: but, without inquiring by the government of France to act too minutely into the piety of the in this rigorous manner.

pope, we must commend his pruTerrified at this invasion of his dence, in advising the Romans to dominions, and totally unable to give up a part of their wealth, rarefif it, the pope was reduced to ther than the whole. His holiness the necessity of suing for an armi- was a more prudent man than the ftice, which was granted to him, Roman knight Nonius, who was on conditions similar to those on put to death by Tiberius, for rewhich the dukes of Parma and Mo- fusing to part with a very exquidena had obtained it: to which fite and precious piece of sculpture, was added, the surrender of the All persons imprisoned for their opicities of Bologna, Ferrara, and the nions were now to be ft at liberty; citadel of Ancona, with the terri- the ports of tle ecclefiaftical state to tories of the two former, and a be open to the French, and shut to larger proportion of pictures and their enemies, and a free padlage alftatues, and fome bundreds of the lowed to the French troops through most curious manuscripts from the the papal territories. This armistice Vatican library. The pope, with was signed on the twenty-third of a refignation more becoming the June : but the directory, though head of the church, than so many willing to negociate a peace with of the ambitious and daring actions the pontiff, refused to receive the of his predecessors, yielded to ne- minifiers he had sent to Paris for

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that purpose, on account of their of the French, and the terror of being ecclefiaftics, a profession of his arms, he was equally careful to which they had declared to admit impress the Italians with favourable no members in the quality of ne- opinions of his inclination to progociators.

mote their general welfare, and A suspension of arms had already equally of his respect for learning been concluded with the king of and literary men. This, he knew, Naples, on terms of more equality. would exhibit an advantageous conThe multiplicity of operations, un- trast of the respective dispositions of dertaken by the French, did not the French and the Austrians,in mat, permit them to exert the like fere- ters of this nature. The neglect and rity with a prince who was so much indifference of these latter, for the more able to oppose them.

polite arts and sciences, and their In the mean time, the resolution profefiors, had long been well known, taken by the directory, to exclude and it was a part of Buonaparte's the English from an access to any policy, by displaying his partiality port to which it could barr their to characters of this description, to entrance prompted them to direct conciliate their esteem, and secure their general to fieze on the port their preposession in his favour. of Leghorn, on pretence of the flag To this intent he had taken with of France having been insulted there, him, to Italy, several eminent literati and the French merchants illtreated, from France. They were the comin violation of the rights of neu- panions of his private hours, and trality. On the twenty-eighth of were looked upon as a credit to his June, a detachment of Buonaparte's expedition : with them he consulted. army took poffefsion of this place. in what manner he could make it The English merchants, however, redound to the benefit of letters and being apprised of his intentions, had philosophical knowledge. sufficient time to remove their pro- The cultivators of learning in perty on board their ships in the Italy, to whom he was represented harbour, and very little was seized in this advantageous light, could not by the French.

fail to conceive amicable ideas of The seizure of Leghorn was ac- him, and he was particularly folicompanied by the reduction of the citous to improve them. An opporcastle of Milan: this celebrated tunity offered, on the reduction of fortress, surrendered to them on the Milan, where he requested an inlast day of June. The garrison, con- terview with the celebrated astrofisting of more than two thousand nomer Oriane, in order to testify men, convinced of the impossibility his respect, and that of the French of making any effectual resistance, nation, for his extraordinary merit. yielded themselves prisoners of war. In a letter, written to him on this One hundred and fifty pieces of occasion, and addrefled, through cannon, with an immense quantity him, to all the Italian literati, Bnoofammunition and stores, were taken naparte exerted his persuasive talents here by the French.

to convince him and them of the During these various transactions, predaliction with which the rulers while Buonaparte was occupied in of France regarded all individuals extending through Italy the empire of his character, and how zealous

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