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ously recorded, at the head of his company in the Indian battle; another son, Benjamin, had served in the army through the Revolutionary war. Capt. James Bidlack himself had been taken by the savages, and suffered a tedious captivity in Canada. All this availed him nothing. Benjamin Harvey, who had been a prisoner to the Indians, was also arrested. Samuel Ransom, son of Capt. Ransom, who fell in the massacre, was most rudely treated on being taken. 'Ah, ha!' cried Patterson, 'you are the jockey we wanted; away with him to the guardhouse, with old Harvey, another damned rascal.' Eleven in all were taken and, driven to the fort, where they were confined in a room with a mud floor, wet and comfortless, with no food and little fire, which as they were sitting round, Capt. Christie came in, ordered them to lie down on the ground, and bade the guard to blow out the brains of any one who should attempt to rise. Even the staff of the aged Mr. Alden was taken from him." The men secure, Patterson turned their families out of doors, and placed Pennamite claimants in possession of their lands and houses. In many other cases, the widows and orphan children of soldiers, slain in battle in defence of liberty, were forced from their dwellings, and their few implements of agriculture were destroyed or carried away, by order of Patterson. The settlers now (1784) petitioned congress and the assemblies of Pennsylvania and Connecticut for redress of grievances, and the Pennsylvania assembly sent a committee to Wyoming to take depositions. These depositions were read before the assembly, and although Patterson was severely denounced by many members, he was not removed or deprived of his authority.

On January 23, 1784, moved by the petition of Zebulon Butler and others, Congress adopted measures for the settlement of the dispute, but on the remonstrance of Pennsylvania the proceedings were discontinued. On the 13th and 14th of May following, Maj. Patterson's soldiers dispossessed 150 families, burnt several houses, and compelled 500 men, women and children to march through the wilderness to the Delaware river. Several children starved and died in the woods, and the sufferings of the whole impoverished throng, as they wandered night and day over rugged mountains and through deep swamps, were terrible beyond description. Elisha Harding, who was one of this suffering multitude, says: "It was a solemn scene; parents, their children crying for hunger-—aged men on crutches—all urged forward by an armed force at our heels. The first night we encamped at Capouse; the second at Cobb's; the third at Little Meadow, so called. Cold, hungry and drenched with rain, the poor women and children suffering much. The fourth night at Lackawack; fifth, at Blooming Grove; sixth, at Shehola; on the seventh arrived at the Delaware, where the people dispersed, some going up and some down the river. I kept on east, and when I got to the top of Shongum mountain I looked back with this thought: Shall I abandon Wyoming forever? The reply was, No, oh no! There lie your murdered brothers and friends. Dear to me art thou, though a land of affliction. Every way looked gloomy, except toward Wyoming. Poor, ragged and distressed as I was, I had youth, health, and felt that my heart was whole. So I turned back to defend or die."

These cruelties to the settlers excited sympathy throughout the whole country, and the companies of Shrawder and Christie were discharged by State authority. But the inhuman Patterson re-enlisted many of the soldiers, and continued to perpetrate his hellish deeds in spite of instructions to the contrary. After an absence of several weeks the Yankees returned and fortified themselves under a cliff or rock, on the Eastern or Wilkes-Barre mountain. This, Mr. Miner says, they called Fort Lillope, but we have in our possession several orders, sent by John Franklin, John Jenkins and others, from this cave-fortress, to Matthias Hollenback, in Wilkes-Barre, for rum, tea, sugar, etc., and these orders are dated at Fort Defence. From this fort three or four persons entered Wilkes-Barre under the promised protection of Patterson, who arrested and beat them with iron ramrods. Franklin and Jenkins, now having no faith in the promises of anybody connected with Pennsylvania, removed in the month of July, with their associates, to Kingston. On the 2(Hh of that month a company of thirty young men, marching to Plymouth, met a body of Patterson's men on Rosshill. A conflict ensued, and Elisha Garrett and Chester Pierce were slain. Several of Patterson's men were wounded but none of them killed. Fortytwo effective and twenty old men, now aroused to vengeance by this bloody deed, placed themselves under the command of John Franklin. They first marched to Shawnee, and dispossessed the Pennamite families there, then crossing the river at Nanticoke, they drove off all from their dwellings on the east side, and compelled them to take refuge in the fort at Wilkes-Barre. This fort Franklin's men proceeded to surround. Patterson's troops made a sortie from the fort, and set fire to twentythree buildings, which were consumed. Franklin continued to invest the fort, and demanded its surrender, which was refused. An engagement ensued, in which the Yankees were worsted, and deemed it prudent to retire to Kingston.

Patterson and forty others were now indicted by the grand jury of Northumberland county, and Sheriff Antis was sent to arrest them. But Patterson and his associates saved themselves from arrest behind their threatening ramparts, and the sheriff was compelled to return without them. On the very day the sheriff attempted this arrest, Maj. Moore, who was returning from Northampton county, where he had secured a number of recruits for the Pennsylvania cause, was met by Capt. John Swift, at the head of thirty men, on Locust Hill. A conflict ensued. Jacob Everett, one of Moore's men, was killed, and several were wounded on both sides. Moore retired to Easton, while Swift marched back to Kingston.

The next movement in this unhappy struggle was the appointment of Col. John Armstrong, in conjunction with Hon. John Boyd, commissioners, to restore peace to Wyoming. Boyd was a member, and Armstrong was the secretary, of the supreme executive council of Pennsylvania. This Col. Armstrong was the author of the Newburg letters, had been minister to Spain and France, and was secretary of war in 1812, under the administration of President Madison. The commissioners arrived in the valley on August 8, 1784. Three-hundred infantry and fifteen horsemen were ordered to be placed at their disposal. They issued their proclamation declaring peace and good-will. They demanded a cessation of strife, and the surrender of arms by both parties. The Yankees were fearful of treachery and hesitated to accept the proffered mediation of the commissioners. But Armstrong pledged his honor as a man and as a soldier to respect his engagements, and make good his promises. The Yankees believed and laid down their arms, when they were immediately arrested. Capt. Swift's company of men, who had defeated Moore at Locust Hill, were bound with cords, and handcuffed. In this condition they were marched away to Easton jail. Forty-two others were bound and sent to jail at Sunbury. Patterson's men were not disarmed. Armstrong then returned to Philadelphia covered with infamy.

The Sunbury prisoners were released on bail. The Easton prisoners procured their liberty through Edward Inman, a man of great physical strength, who knocked down the jailer, seized the keys, and liberated himself and comrades. Fifteen of them escaped to Wyoming, but eleven were taken and confined in jail three months. An attempt was then made to indict them for the murder of Jacob Everett, who, as before stated, was killed at Locust Hill. The attempt, however, proved a failure, for the grand jury ignored the bill. No bills were found in Northumberland county against the prisoners sent thither by Armstrong. On the other hand, Patterson and Moore were both indicted, which shows that the people generally through Pennsylvania sympathized with the Connecticut settlers in their sufferings.

In September, Armstrong returned to the valley with fifty men and arrested Franklin, Pierce and Johnson for treason, but they were never convicted. On the 29th of the same month the Yankees, under Capt. Swift, attacked a house which Patterson occupied as headquarters. They set the building on fire, and two of his associates, Henderson and Read, in attempting to escape to the fort, were shot down. Capt. Swift was severely wounded, but his loss did not in the least abate the ardor and efforts of his men, who spiritedly invested the Pennamite garrison. In this conflict Franklin was wounded in the wrist, Nathan Stevens was shot in the eye and died instantly, William Smith and one or two others were also killed, and finally the Yankees were compelled to abandon the siege.

By the constitution of Pennsylvania, established after the colonies had declared themselves free and independent states, in addition to the supreme executive council and the house of representatives, there existed a council of censors who assembled once in seven years. This body was elected by the people, and had power to send for persons and papers, and to examine into all questions respecting the rights of the people and the administration of justice. After an examination, by the censors, of the Wyoming difficulties, and after the refusal of the house of representatives to furnish certain papers, in the autumn of 1784 they issued a declaration enumerating the wrongs committed against the Connecticut settlers, and severely censuring the supreme executive council and the house of representatives. These bodies, however, disregarded the reproof of the censors, and prosecuted the unholy war. Armstrong was promoted to the position of a general, and at the head of 100 armed men, on October 17, 1784, again entered the valley. The day following he attacked the Yankees, who had fortified themselves in four log houses, placed in the form of a diamond, situated above Forty fort. The contest lasted one hour, when Armstrong was compelled to retreat, having lost Capt. Bolin, and having had three or four severely wounded. On the side of the Yankees, William Jackson was dangerously wounded, and as he lay bleeding, Capt. Franklin seized his friend's bloody rifle and swore he would never lay down his arms until death should arrest his hand, or Patterson and Amstrong should be expelled from Wyoming. The next day Armstrong sent thirty of his men to gather the buckwheat on the Kingston flats, but the Yankees, stealthily encircling the workmen, carried away the grain, amounting to about 100 bushels.

At this juncture the assembly of Pennsylvania passed an act restoring the dispossessed Yankees to their lands and recalling Armstrong and Patterson with the forces under their command. This was temporary relief. The settlers at once set about the appointment of committees to organize the militia, to provide for the punishment of offenders, etc. Franklin was elected colonel of the troops. A petition signed by ninety-six men and women, setting forth their grievances and sufferings, and praying to be permitted to elect their own officers and to be protected in their rights, was sent to the assembly at Philadelphia. John Jenkins was appointed to wait on the assembly and to secure the passage of a law for the final settlement of matters in dispute, and for the permanent establishment of the rights of the Connecticut settlers. These efforts proving of no avail, Franklin waited upon the session of congress, and upon the assembly of Connecticut and endeavored to interest them in the wretched fate of the Wyoming people. He also made a bold effort to revive the slumbering energies of the Susquehanna company, which, like Connecticut, had been stunned by the Trenton decree. In this he succeeded. In July, 1785, the company met and reaffirmed its rights in these disputed lands; land was voted to recruits, called half-share rights; committees were appointed, and extensive preparations were made. Franklin returned to Wyoming, held meetings, and addressed the people in the several townships, in regard to a new plan which had been settled upon. It remained for the people to carry it out. It had been determined to form a new state out of northern Pennsylvania. The disputed territory was to be dismembered and downtrodden Wyoming was to be set free from the thraldom of Pennsylvania. Wise heads at Philadelphia saw the gathering storm, and on December 24 following, the assembly of Pennsylvania passed an "Act for

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