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to admit the first glint of sunshine to warm the rich dank soil beneath; second, the dangerous wild beasts on every hand and his more dangerous congener the wild forest Indians, and third and greatest of all was the long, bitter and often bloody contention between the "Yankee and Pennamite," where Greek met Greek, and made wounds that are hardly healed to this day. The first two mentioned were average of the pioneer's difficulties in other portions of the land. They had in addition to go through the same experience attendant upon the first settlement of every part of the continent, namely, of malarial diseases that always come of turning the virgin soils. We hear of these things now with little appreciation of the terrible afflictions they brought to our forefathers. Frequently there were times when there were hardly enough of the well to attend the sick; when physicians were scarce and medicines very difficult to obtain even after long journeys. The majority of cases at one time when families from necessity doctored themselves; barks, herbs and roots of the forest were diligently gathered and teas and decoctions were provided in every household. It is the oaks that battle with the storms that strike their roots deepest in the earth, and this principle ripens manhood for the severe trials of life. These people had little protection from the unfriendly elements about them, and brave hearts and strong hands were a first necessity.
Within a circle of ten miles from the Wilkes Barre court house, where is now a population of considerably over 100,000, was for fifty years the heart of the battlefield between savagery and civilization, and then came the War of the Roses in contention for the possession and ownership of the soil. The wave of the death struggle swept back and forth; literally charges and retreats and counter charges;, captures and expulsions and then recaptures and again repulsed; the swarming immigrant this year, the sad exodus the next; the victory to-day, the bloody massacre almost sure to swiftly follow. The scythe of death mowed its windows in the ranks and eagerly came others in the place of the dead. What destiny hung in the balance, so long suspended by a single hair! This was something of the alembic that distilled the remarkable manhood that has inscribed high in the temple of the immortals the names of most of the first settlers of what is now Luzerne county. Illustrious men and glorious women, all as brave as death! Your sufferings and your dearly earned triumphs deserve the record of the inspired pen, and that page would be the most luminous in history. Men, real men, develop best under adversity; the weak and inefficient faint and fall by the way, and the fittest survive and stamp their iron qualities upon their offspring, and this natural selection brings us a race of men on whose shoulders may rest a world. Heroes indeed, a race of the world's bravest and best. The simple story of their struggles and the final supreme triumphs are each and all, an epic that should be written in every living heart. Let their deeds be immortal! their memories most sacred.
The climax of the struggle came only when it was Puritan versus Quaker over the question of ownership of the soil. This was serious indeed; no men were ever more intensely earnest in the claims on both sides of the question. The law as interpreted by authority was on the side of the Quakers; yet the plain equity was with the Puritans. Both were right and both were, not intentionally, wrong. This paradox only expresses the general phase of the great problems. As R question of the letter of the law the Quaker's triumph was complete, yet to-day from Old Shamokin (Sunbury) to Tioga Point (Athens), this once disputed land is as Yankee in fact as any portion of Connecticut. When these forces" were arrayed in armed hostility, the scant records now left us of the communications between the respective leaders, communications offering adjustments, proclamations giving the world the facts in the case; petitions to the Pennsylvania authorities, and statements in the nature of pleas for justice, as well as arguments before courts, show these pioneers .from the Nutmeg State mostly as remarkable statesmen, diplomats and broad contoward a northern temperate zone until his bounding complex nature imperatively required for its full development something of the extremes of heat and cold,— variety of climate, as well as variety of soils, the stubborn and severe mixed with the ever warm and the sometimes coy soils. In other words all nature's products are lazy—man the most of all, and to grow, to develop the best energies, to have life at all that is worth the living, he must struggle for it. The storm-winds drive the roots of the tree deep in the ground, gripping with their gnarled fingers, as a vice, everything they touch. Where nature fills all the requirements of animal life there are the sjngless birds an 1 the persistent, ignorant savage man. Hence from the temperate belt running round the world has come all better civilizations, all superior intelligence. Extremes of climate whether of cold or heat stuut both the body and the mind, but there is more force inherently in the little Jakuts of the north than there is in the giant Pntagonians. The ability to think therefore comes largely of soil and climate. The home of the higher civilization is marked by the corn and the cotton; one of the inhospitable spots of the earth being the shores of the North sea—damp, cold and forever dreary—a land of rain and fog and storm, where the waters trench forever upon the land and where the smiling sun seldom goes, yet this was the breeding ground for the world's dominating races of men. The hardy sailors upon treacherous waters, on rude log rafts, braved the storms and driven by starvation became navigators and then pirates, and from pirates to warriors and from warriors to conquerors and they swarmed out and possessed the known earth and pitilessly enslaved their captives or in mercy ate them. The North Sea and the Black Woods had received the tender, tropical, lazy man, and grafted upon this stem its own grim and pitiless energies, bleaching his skin and hair to greatest whiteness, and this animal, hungry, fierce, fearless and sleepless, went out in packs like starving wolves and made tribute of the habitable world. No other animal was ever so inherently savage, and he grew to be a warrior, a fighter by instinct, and then he invented gunpowder, as a matter of imperative necessity, and in time from fighting his brother when he could find no common enemy, he grew from cunning to invention, from invention to investigation, and benign philosophy dawned from a world's long travail.
The long and slow development of the race has gone on in its fierce, blind struggles—never by scientific, but always by the bloodiest methods. And never a moment since the morning stars sang together has there not been the inviting way to produce both the pessimist and the optimist. The course of civilization has ever been upward, but spirally so. Man struggles and dies, and when he is hastily returned to mother earth there are others to take his place, struggle and die in their turn. There is no time nor place for him to be gentle and good until he is dead. The resistless energies of nature never intermit, and it seems they are merely fate that through fire and blood drive him forever on and on. Cold and hunger develop or create his activities—all his wonderful energies, and he is so constituted that he will only expand 1 and rise when beat upon by the adverse winds and his lazy hopes are riven as by the thunderbolt.
"Life, love and loss—three steps
The absence of the training and education that would best fit men to live has cost the human race ages of severest travail—a river of woe and wrong forever running round the world; a raging, swollen stream, whirling, plunging and all engulfing. And ignorant man has suffered and dreamed and lived on in the throes of death. Look upon this little spot of earth, bounded by your short imperfect vision! When civilized man looked upon it, he could see no more than the little of the surpaintings and altar decorations. They joined the church in platoons and communities—with no more real ideas of what it meant than a cage of monkeys. A petrified savagery, nor its posterity, is ever converted to the higher civilization or its religious systems. You may cover his savage body with the outward forms and ceremonies, but it is only a thin veneer at best; beneath is the savage still, and he transmits it to his children's children. After 200 years of contact with the best civilization, the "Voodoo" and the "rabbit's foot" possess much the same charms in America as in Africa. In the Sandwich Islands for one hundred years the entire population are in outward forms and ceremonies members of the church, yet every one in every journey or emergency has hid away within easy reach the same savage idols that his fathers worshiped. They simply grafted onto their fetich worship the symbols of Christianity.
Conrad Weiser passed up the river and was here in the early spring of 1737. He was fitted by nature to mingle with these woods children, and lead them away from cannibalism and to the milder precepts of the Christian religion. He Stood in this beautiful valley with the cross in one hand and the word of God in the other, the representative of the church and the Prince of Peace. He was on his way to the Onondaga Indian council, and stopped at the Indian villages and mingled with the natives. He spent a night at the wigwams where were Indians in what is now the southern part of Wilkes-Barre. He made notes of his observations of the people and the country over which he traveled. In 1743 John Bartram, an Englishman, passed, in company with Conrad Weiser, up the river, following much the same route that Weiser had previously traveled. He was a botanist, and his brief description of this portion of the State is what he designated as the "terrible Lycoming wilderness." Two years later Spaugenberger and Zeisberger, Moravian missionaries, visited the country and were here in June of that year. In 1755 Lewis Evans published a crude map of this portion of the country, and called it the "Middle British Colonies." The Moravians had established headquarters of their order at Bethlehem. Another branch of the order had settled at the confluence of the Lehigh river and the Mahony, opposite Fort Allen, which place was called Gnadeuhntten or "Huts of Mercy." Except the erection of the fort, this was the first white settlement in this portion of the State above the Blue mountains—about forty miles from Wilkes-Barre.
The tremendous struggle between the English and French for the possession of this beautiful land commenced as early as 1603. France granted charters to a large portion of the country from the northern Canadas to the mouth of the Mis sissippi river, and commenced systematic settlements. In 1605, two years later, England commenced a similar system, granting charters and making settlements. The French built forts, rather a system of fortifications, to overawe and expel the daring English, that commenced at Quebec, followed the St. Lawrence, the lakes toJDetroit, along the Ohio to the Mississippi and its mouth. They won the friendship of the savages from the British. For the next fifty years matters were shaping themselves in many directions that culminated in the Franco-Indian war. In July, 1755, our northern frontier^ flamed out in war. In terrible fury the savages poured down upon the frontiers and along the lower Susquehanna over the scattered, defenseless settlers.
In 1763 the most notable conspiracy of the Indian tribes ever formed broke upon the country as the Pontiac war. This remarkable chief had traveled among all the tribes and formed the conspiracy to drive all the whites from the country or extirpate them.
The first savage blow to what was then the nearest settlement to this place was at old Shamokin (Fort Augusta, now Sunbury), where the Moravians had gathered a small settlement. The missionaries were spared, but fourteen white persons were brutally massacred. This was soon after Braddock's defeat in 1754. The next boniferous periods. The Catskill formation is found in the Kingston mountains and here and there the rich plant food bearing soft Chemung rock. These strata are of variable thickness, and can be all easily found at Campbell's Ledge. A straight line from Harvey's lake to Bear creek would show all the way first the Catskill sandstone, and along Toby's creek would find the Chemung. On the northern side of Kingston mountain we find the Pocono sandstone. There ought to be here, as next, the red shale, but it is absent; crossing this we find the Pottsville conglomerate, and crossing this come the outcrops of the coal measures with fourteen well-defined vieas of coal, traversing the drift formations of the flats. Ascending Wilkes-Barre mountain again, we pass over the coal outcrop and reach the mountain's conglomerate summit, cross a narrow valley in the shale and arrive at the great Pocono plateau and thus to Bear Creek. In the seismic disturbances this spot was more remote from its greatest movements than the basins of Carlwn or Schuylkill counties. Therefore its general character is that of one great synclinal, the coal seams outcropping on each side before they reach their proper anticlinal. The floor of this carboniferous trough is not symmetrical. It is crumpled into many rolls that run in long diagonals across the basin in nearly parallel lines, forming, as it were, many smaller or local basins. The number of small anticlinals existing in the substrata is consequently great, and many of them are detected only with great difficulty. These saddles as they approach Carbondale diverge more and more from the general direction of the valley, but become proportionately smaller in the steepness of their anticlinals with each advancing wave. The anticlinals which originate on the southern mountain become sharper as they approach the center of the valley and die out along the line of the Susquehanna. The anticlinals originating in the northern hills are supposed to have the same characteristics, but owing to the immense accumulations of drift on the surface, the topographical evidences are but meager. The geological survey describes forty of these troughs, and each of these, it should be borne in mind, is marked by a secondary series of anticlinals, which, though but slightly seen in a map are of vast importance in a mine.
Coal. —The thickness of the coal measures varies greatly. The deepest part of the basin is in the vicinity of the Dundee shaft, near Nanticoke, where 1,700 feet of coal strata is developed. The names of the principal seams as they are met in descending No. 4 shaft of the Kingston Coal company, with their average thickness, are as follows: Orchard vein, 4J feet; Lance vein, 6£ feet; Hillman vein, 10 feet; Five Foot vein, 5 feet: Four Foot vein, 4 feet; Six Foot vein, 6 feet; Eleven Foot vein, 11 feet; Cooper vein, 7| feet; Bennett vein, 12 feet; Ross vein, 10 feet; Red Ash vein, 9 feet.
The total thickness of coal is therefore ninety feet. The material in these veins is softer than the strata of the southern basin, but nevertheless it is identical in formation. Professor White says: "Although Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton are distant from each other over twenty miles the same coal beds can be recognized at the two places, showing that they once spanned the wide rock-arch of the Wapwallopen valley; that all the coal fields were once united; that the slow erosion of ages has spared to us but a small fraction of the black diamonds which must have once covered far more than the whole area of the State of Pennsylvania." The stupendous force of these eroding ageucies is shown by the presence of the fine striae on Penobscot Knob, which is 2,220 feet high and is only nine miles north of the edge of the terminal moraine. Near the same summit, on the Catskill sandstone, is a large white bowlder of Pottsville conglomerate, measuring 9x6x4£ feet, that was evidently lauded there by a glacier that still towered above that point possibly miles. The phenomena of the glacial age, difficult as they are to read with certainty, are not any more difficult of mterpretation than the deposits of the paleozoic era. The Pottsville conglomerate is the rock cradle which holds the coal. Why is it that this millstone grit at Tamaqua is 1,191 feet thick and at Wilkes-Barre but ninety-six