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the monument. A committee was appointed, of whom Col. John Franklin was a member, to solicit subscriptions; of the entire committee of seventy-five members, only three were living July 3, 1878, viz.: Henry Roberts, aged eighty-seven; Abram Honeywell, of Dallas, aged eighty-six, and John Gore, of Kingston, aged eighty-three. Steuben Butler, editor of the paper in which the proceedings were published of this first meeting, was then aged ninety. He died August 12, 1881. But little more was done to push the monument along until July 3, 1832, when a large meeting convened at the battle-ground to pay tribute to the heroes. Rev. James May delivered an address. Among other things he said: "The grave containing their bones is uncovered before you. You see for yourselves the marks of the tomahawk and scalping knife on the heads which are here uncovered, after having rested for more than fifty years." A part of his audience were some of the survivors of the battle—fifty-four years preceding.

Another speaker, Rev. Nicholas Murry ("Kirwan"), made a few remarks on the occasion and holding up a skull to the view of the audience, asked them to look at the cruel marks of the tomahawk and scalping knife on it, using this gruesome token as an incentive to help build the monument to the memory of the "murdered."

July 3, 1833, was laid the corner-stone of the Wyoming monument with great pomp and ceremony. Hon. Chester Butler, grandson of Col. Zebulon Butler, delivered an eloquent oration.

The enterprise now lingered and but little was done to advance it until 1839, when a new committee, Gen. William Ross, Hezekiah Parsons and Charles Miner, went to Connecticut and asked the legislature to appropriate $3,000 to help complete the work. Their petition was favorably reported, but again that mother state failed to succor the memory of her choicest heroes. The monument and grounds remained in a neglected condition until 1842, when the matter was taken up by the "Ladies' Monumental Association," fairs were held, dinners given and in a short time a small fund was raised, and the stone work resumed and carried to completion, but the grounds were still neglected. Nothing of importance was done until 1864. The " Wyoming Association" had been incorporated, and the matter was brought before the Historical and Geological society and subscriptions called for. And thus the funds to improve the grounds were secured.

The stone column is sixty-two feet six inches high from the ground surface, rectangular in form and fs solid and graceful in appearance—four equal sides. The northwest face bears the appropriate inscription by Edward G. Mallery, the greatgrandson of Col. Zebulon Butler:

"Near this spot was fought,
On the afternoon of Friday, the third day of July,J1778,
The Battle Of Wyoming,
in which a small band of patriotic Americans,
chiefly the undisciplined, the youthful and the aged,
spared by inefflcency from the distant ranks of the Republic,
led by Col. Zebulon Butler and Col. Nathan Denison,
with a courage that deserved success,
boldly met and bravely fought
a combined British, Tory and Indian force
of thrice their number.
Numerical superiority alone gave success to the invader
and wide-spread havoc, desolation and ruin
marked his savage and bloody footsteps through the valley.
This Monument,
commemorative of these events
and of the actors in them,
has been erected over the bones of the slain
by their descendants and others, who gratefully appreciate
the services and sacrifices of their patriot ancestors."

On the southwest and northeast sides of the monument are the names of the slain so far as they could be ascertained at the time of the erection of the monumeut . Much care and pains were taken in making the list; everyone was consulted whom it was supposed could throw any light on the subject. A list had been printed in Mr. Miner's history and for a long time, while it was known it was not complete, yet it was not believed that it could be added to. He had recovered 130 names and published this in the belief that it was all that was ascertainable, but when it was known that the names were to be engraved on the stone, public attention was directed to the matter, the list revised and new names added. But the long list of the slain remained very incomplete, although to Mr. Miner's list were added forty-two names, making a total of 172, and yet it was well known the honored roll was not complete. The difficulty arose from the fact that many of them had just rushed in and there was no time to attempt an enrollment. They hurriedly came and hurriedly shouldered a gun and took their places in the line, and only answered "present" at the roll call of the recording spirit of heaven, a melancholy evidence of the oft-repeated fact that this was in no sense an organized force, but mostly a gathering of the people to defend their homes and families. This fact should forever disarm all carping criticism; a trouble of some minds ignorant of essential facts, added to that wide disposition to adversly criticise all defeats, and brag on all victories. These people were defeated, no question now but that they erred in going out to give battle, but the numerical proportion they left starkening on the battle-field, with but few parallels in the history of wars, tells the answer more eloquently than human speech can ever utter.

The committee to make a correct list for engraving on the stone performed their task laboriously, from which is copied the following, with such additions as it has been possible to obtain:

Officers: Lieutenant-colonel, George Dorrance; major, Jonathan Waite Garrett.

Captains: James Bidlack, Jr., Aholiab Buck,Robert Dnrkee, Rezin Geer, Dee Hewitt, Wdliam McKarrachen, Samuel Ransom, Lazarus Stewart, James Wigdon, Asaph Whittlesey.

Lieutenants: A. Atherton, Aaron Gaylord, Perrin Ross, Lazarus Stewart, Jr., Flavins Waterman, Stoddart Bowen, Timothy Pierce, Elijah Shoemaker, Asa Stevens, James Wells.

Ensigns: Jeremiah Bigford, Silas Gore, Jonathan Otis, Asa Gore, Titus Hinman, William White. •

Privates: Jabez Atherton, Christopher Avery, — Ackke, A. Benedict, Jabez Beers, Samuel Bigford, David Bixby, Elias Bixby, John Boyd, John Brown, Thomas Brown, William Buck, Joseph Budd, Amos Bullock, Asa Bullock, Henry Bush, Eson Brockway, John Caldwell, D. Denton, Anderson Dana, Conrad Davenport, George Downing, James Levine, Levi Dunn, William Dunn, — Ducher, Benjamin Finch, Daniel Finch, John Finch, Elisha Fish, Cornelins Fitchett, Eliphalet Follett, Thomas Faxon, John Franklin, Stephen Fuller, Thomas Fuller, Joshua Landon, Daniel Lawrence, William Lawrence, Francis Ledyard, James Lock, Conrad Lowe, Jacob Lowe, William Lester, C. McCartee, Nicholas Manville, Nero Matthewson, Alexander McMillan. Job Marshall, Andrew Millard, John Murphy, Robert McIntire, Joseph Ogden, Josiah Carman, Joseph Cary, Joel Church, William Coffin, James Coffin, Samuel Cole, Isaac Campbell, — Campbell, Robert Comstock, Kingsley Comstock, — Cooks (three brothers), Christopher Courtright. John Courtright, Anson Corey, Jenks Corey, Rufus Corey, Joseph Crocker, Samuel Crocker, Jabez Darling, Darins Spofford, James Spencer, Joseph Staples, Rufus Stevens, James Stevenson, Nailer Sweed, Gamaliel Truesdale, Ichabod Tnttle, Abram Vangorder, G' orge Gore, — Gardner, — Green. Benjamin Hatch, William Hammond, Silas Harvey, Samuel Hutchinson. Cypria, Hebard, Levi Hicks, John Hutchins, James Hopkins, Nathaniel Howard, Zipporah Hubbard, Elijah Inman, Israel Inman. Samuel Jackson, Robert Jameson, Joseph Jennings, Henry Johnson, John Van Wie, Eliha Waters, Jonathan Weeks. Bartholomew Weeks, Philip Weeks, Peter Wheeler, Stephen Whiton, Eben'Wilcox, Elisha Williams, Jr., Rufus Williams, Abel Palmer, Silas Parke, William Parker, John Pierce, Henry Pencil. Noah Pettebone, Jr., Jeremiah Ross, Jr., Elisha Richards, William Reynolds, Elias Roberts, Timothy Rose, Abram Shaw, James Shaw, Constant Searle, Abel Seely. Levi Spencer, Eleazer Sprague, Aaron Stark, Daniel Stark, Josiah Spencer, Eson Wilcox, John Williams, John Ward, John Wilson, William Woodring, Aziba Williams, — Wade, Ozias Yale, Gershom Prince (colored).

Lieut. Boyd was executed by court martial by the British, after the surrender, as a deserter and spy.

On the southeast face of the monument is inscribed the list of the known (supposed) survivors. It was ascertained, however, that there were names omitted that should have been inscribed. Mr. Jenkins' and the committee's attention was called to this; it was intended to fill out these names on the monument, but so far it has not been done, and the omission is here as fully supplied as possible. Our attention was called to this by Mr. G. W. Gustin, of Plains, who kindly supplied the names as indicated over their insertion below.

Colonels: Zebulon Butler, Nathan Denison.

Lieutenants: Daniel Gore, Timothy Howe.

Ensigns: Daniel Downing, Mathias Hollenback.

Sergeants: Jabez Fish, Phineas Spafford, — Gates.

Privates: John Abbott, Gideon Baldwin, Zora Beach, Rufus Bennett, Solomon Bennett, Elisha Blackman, Nathan Carey, Samuel Carey, George Cooper, Joseph Elliott, Samuel Finch, Roswell Franklin, Hugh Forsman, Thomas Fuller, John Garrett, Samuel Gore, Lemuel Gnstin, James Green, Lebbeus Hammond, Jacob Haldron, Elisha Harris, Ebenezer Heberd, William Hebert, Richard Inman. David Inman, John Jamison, Henry Lickers, Joseph Morse, Thomas Neill, Josiah Pell, Phineas Pierce, Abraham Pike, John M. Skinner, Giles Slocum, Walter Spencer, Edward Spencer, Amos Stafford, Roger Searle, Cherrick Westhrook, Eleazer West Daniel Washburn.

List of killed on the approach of the invaders: William Crooks, Miner Robbins, Benjamin Harding, Stukely Harding, James Hadsall, James Hadsall, Jr., William Martin, Quoco (colored).

Prisoners from Wyoming: John Gardner, Daniel Carr, Samuel Carey, Daniel Wallen, Daniel Rosencrans, Elisha Wilcox and — Pierce.

Reflections.—Time and calm investigation have punctured some of the bloodcurdling stories that first went out to the world as eye-witnessed scenes of that day. It is pretty generally now conceded that the story of Queen Esther and the "Bloody Rock" were without foundation; that the "Queen" was not there at all. Curiously enough, while both sides, for a long time, asserted that the Indian Brant was there in command of the savages, yet he was not at the battle at all. Again, Steuben Jenkins concedes, indirectly, that there was no massacre of the surrendered, or in the fort; yet, in enumerating the number of scalps, he estimates many of them were taken from the murdered fugitives as they were fleeing toward the Delaware. Until recent years Col. John Butler was never mentioned, except with a shudder—a monster savage, fit only to lead just such a horde of brutes as was his army. Time has changed much of this high-colored picture. On this subject Dr. Harry Hakes has well said:

"Before Col. John Butler took possession of the fort he learned that there was a large quantity of whisky there, and ordered Col. Denison to throw the whole of it into the river before his army should come down to the fort. It has already been remarked that soon after the battle and massacre monstrous falsehoods concerning some portions of the transactions became published and are handed down in some histories. While there is certainly enough of truth to make one of the blackest pages in the history of modern warfare, it is doing but simple justice to put down the truth at this late day. To illustrate the manner in which indefinite ideas of the enormity of the crimes then perpetrated have gained an irresistible hold of those who have never carefully searched for the truth, or those who have felt themselves interested or justified in coloring the account with too much red or black, I quote from a History of the United States, by S. G. Goodrich, edition of 1871, for use of schools and families, pages 245-6: "There was a beautiful settlement at Wyoming so thickly peopled, according to some statements, it had already furnished 1,000 men to the continental army. Early in July 400 Indians, with more than twice that number of tories and half-blood Englishmen, came upon the settlement and destroyed it. They were headed by Brant, a cruel half-breed Indian, and John Butler, a tory. The colonists, in their apprehension of what might happen, had built a few small forts, and gathered their families and some of their effects into them. The savages and savage-looking whites now appeared before one of the forts, which was commanded by a cousin of Butler, and demanded its surrender. They persuaded its commander to come out to a spot agreed upon in the woods, for the purpose, as they said, of making peace. He accordingly marched to the spot with 400 men, but not a tory or an Indian was to be found there. They pressed on through the dark paths of the forest, but still no one was to be found. At last they saw themselves suddenly surrounded by the enemy. The savages were in every bush, and sprang out upon them with terrible yells. All but sixty of these 400 men were murdered in the most cruel manner. The enemy went back to Kingston, and, to strike the Americans in the forts with as much fear as possible, hurled over the gates to them the reeking scalps of their brothers, husbands and fathers. The distressed people now inquired of Butler, the leader of the tories, what terms he would give them. He answered only, "The hatchet!" They fought as long as they were able, but the enemy soon enclosed the fort with dry wood and set it on fire. The unhappy people within—men, women and children—all perished in the fearful blaze. The whole country was then ravaged, and all the inhabitants who could be found were scalped.' This certainly is bloody enough to satisfy the most desperate tory hater or his remotest posterity; but that such an account should be published as late as 1871 for instruction in schools and the edification of families, is an unmitigated, unpardonable outrage. The Hon. Stewart Pearce demonstrated, more than twenty years ago, that Brant was not in the battle. The Hon. H. B. Wright, also, in his History of Plymouth, after a correspondence with the historian, Bancroft, says Brant was not in the battle. After the signing of the articles of capitulation there was no personal injury done any one. The Indians did plunder the women, and even the men, of some, if not most, of their clothing and provisions. The inhabitants—men, women and children—fled from the valley in different directions and encountered very great suffering in their flight. The Indians roamed over the valley and burned nearly every hut not belonging to a loyalist or tory. The enemy took off horses and perhaps cattle.that were left or abandoned by the inhabitants. The enemy left the valley by the Lackawanna path three or four days after the battle. The valley seems to have been entirely deserted by both friend and foe, and our dead lay unburied for four months on the battle-field. It will be observed that the terms of the capitulation were violated upon the part of the enemy, in plundering the people of clothing, provisions, in cattle and horse stealing, and in the burning of the dwellings. Col. Denison remonstrated with Col. Butler against the plundering, but Butler replied that it was not in his power to prevent it, and such has been generally conceded. We soon had an armed force again in the valley, and under their protection the inhabitants began to return in the fall of the same year. The tories, however, never availed themselves of the terms of the capitulation "to be allowed to remain in undisturbed possession of their farms and to trade without molestation." The undoubted fact is that for fifty years after the battle and until the state-

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