Affirmative Action and Equal Protection: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-seventh Congress, First Session, on S.J. Res. 41 ... May 4, June 11, 18, and July 16, 1981
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983 - 1414 halaman
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academic admission advance affirmative action amendment applicants Bakke basis believe benefits blacks Civil Rights color Committee Congress consequences constitutional continue contracts criteria decision disadvantaged economic economic inequality educational effects efforts employer employment equal participation established ethnic example Executive fact federal give goals going governmental hiring history of racism important income individual institutions issue Justice legislative less majority matter means merit minority opportunity origin particular past percent persons political position practices preferential present principle problem Professor promotion protection qualified question quotas race racial discrimination racial preference reason recent regard remedy represented respect result Review Sedler Senator HATCH share social social history societal interest society standards statement substantial supra Supreme Court tion treatment United University vote women
Halaman 671 - ... so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit.
Halaman 80 - It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer (1) to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin...
Halaman 741 - ... or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining programs to admit or employ any individual in any such program, on the basis of his religion, sex, or national origin...
Halaman 475 - Congress did not intend by Title VII, however, to guarantee a job to every person regardless of qualifications. In short, the Act does not command that any person be hired simply because he was formerly the subject of discrimination, or because he is a member of a minority group. Discriminatory preference for any group, minority or majority, is precisely and only what Congress has proscribed.
Halaman 643 - It should be noted, to begin with, that all legal restrictions which curtail the civil rights of a single racial group are immediately suspect. That is not to say that all such restrictions are unconstitutional. It is to say that courts must subject them to the most rigid scrutiny.
Halaman 253 - In order to get beyond racism, we must first take account of race. There is no other way. And in order to treat some persons equally, we must treat them differently.
Halaman 503 - When the President takes measures incompatible with the expressed or implied will of Congress, his power is at its lowest ebb, for then he can rely only upon his own constitutional powers minus any constitutional powers of Congress over the matter.
Halaman 392 - ... compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or (2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Halaman 77 - Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law. The humblest is the peer of the most powerful. The law regards man as man, and takes no account of his surroundings or of his color when his civil rights as guaranteed by the supreme law of the land are involved.