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equire secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question hall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. Neither ouse, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn or more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses hall be sitting.
Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for heir services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the
United States. They shall, in all cases except treason, felony ompensations and and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their Privileges. attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in
going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or ebate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place. No Senator r Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to ny civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, r the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person olding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during is continuance in office.
Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Repreentatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other
bills. Every bill which shall have passed the House levenue Bills Procedure of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it President's Action.
becomes a law, be presented to the President of the
United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if lot he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have riginated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to econsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to lass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by vhich it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house it hall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both houses shall be determined ny yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall ve entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned ly the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been prelented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless Congress by their adjournment prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a aw. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States, and before the same shall ake effect shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed ny two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and imitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, Imposts ind excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general
welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and General Powers of excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; to borCongress. row money on the credit of the United States; to regulate
commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, und with the Indian tribes; to establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform awg on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; to coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and neasures; to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current oin of the United States; to establish postoffices and postroads; to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and nventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; to constitute ribunals inferior to the Supreme Court, to define and punish piracies and felonies ommitted on the high seas, and offences against the laws of nations; to declare war, Tant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water; to raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall re for a longer term than two years; to provide and maintain a navy, to make rules for he government and regulation of the land and naval forces; to provide for calling forth he militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection and expel invasions; o provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to he States respectively the appointment of the off.cers and the authority of training he militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; to exercise exclusive egislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceedng ten miles square) is may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress become the leat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; ind to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution he foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Governnent of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now xisting shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior
to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax Limitations of Its or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding Powers.
ten dollarg for each person. The privilege of the writ of habeas
corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion Invasion the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto
en nnstoffices and postroads; to para
law shall be passed. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbetore directed to be taken. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in conse quence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding an office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king. prince or foreign state.
Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything
but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass Limitations of any bill of attainjer, ex post facto law, or law impairing the Stato Powers. obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. No State
shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imports laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, pay any Juty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
Tho President and His Powors. Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and,
together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same The Electoral College term, be elected as follows: Each state shall appoint Eligibility,
in such manner as the Legislature thereof may din Succession and
rect, a number of electors, equal to the whole number Compensation.
of Senators and Representatives to which the State
may be entitled to the Congress; but no Senator of Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for and of the number of votes for each: which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greates number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whol number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such a ma jority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives_ shal immediately choose by ballot one of them President, and if no person have a ma jority then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manne choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representatives from each State having one vote: a quorum for this purpos shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majorit of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice o the President, the perscn having the greatest number of votes of the electors shal be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equa votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President. The Congres may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shal give their votes: which day shall be the same throughout the United States. N person except a natural born citizen or a citizen of the United States at the tim of the adoption of this Constitution shall be eligible to the office of President: neithe shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the aged thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. I case of the removal of the President from office. or of his death, resignation d inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said omce, the same shall devolv on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal death, resignation or inability both of the President and Vice-President, declarin what officer shall then act as President and such officer shall act accordingly unt the disability be removed or a President shall be elected. The President shall. stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall be neither increase nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and h shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the Unite States, or any of them. Before he enters on the execution of his once he sha take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or afirm) the I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, an wil to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and detend the Constitution of t United States."
Sec. 2. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy the United States, and of the militia of the several states; when called into
the actual service of the United States, he may require the military, Civil and opinion. in writing of the principal officer in each of the Treaty-makins executive departments upon any subject relating to the Powers.
duties or their respective offices, and he shall have power to
grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United tates, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice ad consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators resent concur, and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of be Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of he Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are ot herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; but the ongress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think roper in the President alone, in the courts of law or in the heads of departments. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess I the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next ession,
Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the late of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he
shall judge necessary and expedient; he may on extraordiLessages and Extra nary occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and Sessions.
in case of disagreement between them with respect to the
time of adjournment he may adjourn them to such time as le shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and the public ministers; he shall ake care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all of the officers t the United States. Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President and all civil officers of the United
States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and Lemoval by Im- conviction of treason, bribery or other high crimes and mispeachment. demeanorg.
Supreme Court and Judicial Powers. Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Pourt and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and stabilsh. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices luring guod behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensaIon which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. 1 Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising inder this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made or which
shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting mits of Judicial ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, to all cases Power.
of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to
which the United States shall be a party; to controversies etween two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between Itizens of different states; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under rants of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof and foreign tates, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers nd consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall ave original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court hall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and nder such regulations as the Congress shall make. The trial of all crimes, except b cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state There the said crime shall have been committed, but when not committed within any tate, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have Irected.
Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war gainst them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No
person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of reason and Its two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open Punishment. court. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment
of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of lood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
Rights of States and Citizens. Section 1. Full talth and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, Ecords and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by eneral laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall proved, and the effect thereot.
Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and imtunities of citizens in the several states. A person charged in any state with
treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and qual Rights of be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executivo Citizens. authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up to be
removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. No perpa held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, hall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service
or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labo may be due.
Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state
nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more state Creation of New or part of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the States.
states concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congre
shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules an regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United State and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims the United States, or of any particular state. Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union
republican form of government, and shall protect each Guarantee of Repub- them against invasion, and on application of the Legislatur lican Government or of the executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened
against domestic violence.
Amendments to Constitution. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessar shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legi
latures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call Action by Congress convention for proposing amendments, which in either ca Ratification. shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of th
Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of thre fourths of the several states, or by convention in three-fourths thereof, as the of or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred al eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equ suffrage in the Senate.
Supreme Authority of Constitution, All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constit
tion as under the confederation. This Constitution and ti Debts and Treaties laws of the United States which shall be made in purs Official Oaths No ance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be mad Religious Test.
under the authority of the United States, shall be ti
supreme law of the land; and the judges in every sta shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to t contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned. a! the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officer both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by path affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be requir as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
Ratification of Constitution.
establishment of this constitution between the states Nine States Suf- ratifying the same. Aicient to Establish. Done in convention by the unanimous consent of t
states present, the seventeenth day of September, in year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the indepe dence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we ha hereunto subscribed our names.
GEO. WASHINGTON, President and Deputy from Virginia, New Hampshire --JOHN LANGDON. NICHOLAS GILMAN. Massachusetts-NATHANIEL GORHAM, RUFUS KING. Connecticut-WM. SAML. JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN. New York - ALEXANDER HAMILTON. New Jersey-WILL. LIVINGSTON, DAVID BREARLY, WM. PATERSON, JON
DAYTON. Pennsylvania-B. FRANKLIN, THOMAS MIFFLIN, ROBERT MORRIS. GE
CLYMER, THOMAS FITZSIMONS, JARED INGERSOLL, JAM
WILSON, GOUV. MORRIS. Delaware-GEO. READ, GUNNING BEDFORD, Jun'r, JOHN DICKINSON, RIC
ARD BASSETT. JACO. BROOM. Maryland-JAMES M'HENRY, DAN. OF ST. THOMAS JENIFER, DANL. CARROI Virginia-JOHN BLAIR, JAMES MADISON, Jun'r. North Carolina-WM. BLOUNT, RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT, HU. WILLIAMSON South Carolina-J. RUTLEDGE, CH'S COATESWORTH PINCKNEY, CHARL
PINCKNEY, PIERCE BUTLER. Georgia-WILLIAM FEW. ABR. BALDWIN.
Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
AMENDMENTS. (The first ten amendments were proposed at the first session of the 1st Cor of the United States, which was begun and held at the city of New York on Mal
1789, and were adopted by the requisite number of states-1 vol. Laws of U. S., p.
They together constitute a Bill of Rights.) The following is the preamble and solution: Congress of the United States begun and held at the city of New York į Wednesday. the 4th day of March, 1789. The conventions of a number of the ates having at the time of their adopting the Constitution expressed a desire, in der to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and strictive clauses should be added; and ag extending the ground of public confidence the government will best insure the beneficent ends of its Constitution,
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of merica, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both houses concurring, That the llowing articles be proposed to the legislatures of the several states as amendments the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which articles, when ratified
three-fourths of said legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes as part I said Constitution, namely:
ARTICLE I.-Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the tess; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government or a redress of grievances.
ARTICLE II.-A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free ate, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE III.-No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house withat the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed y law.
ARTICLE IV.-The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, apers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, nd no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, nd particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be Ized.
ARTICLE V.-No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise inimous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases rising in the land or naval forces or in the militia when in actual service in time I war or public danger, nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be vice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to e a witness against himself: nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due rocess of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just comensation.
ARTICLE VI.-In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the rime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained y law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted ith the witnesses against him; to have cornpulsory process for obtaining witnesses 1 his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence,
ARTICLE VII.-In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall xceed $20. the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury hall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States than according to be rules of the common law.
ARTICLE VIII.-Excessive ball shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, or cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
ARTICLE IX.-The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be onstrued to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
ARTICLE X.-The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, or prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the eople.
ARTICLE XI.-(Proposed by Congress held at Philadelphia, December 2, 1793; atification declared by President, January 8, 1798.) The judicial power of the United tates shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or rosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens r subjects of any foreign state,
ARTICLE XII.-(Proposed at first session of 8th Congress, in Washington. ctober 17, 1803; ratification announced by Secretary of State, September 25, 1804.)
The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by lection of Presi. ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least
dent and shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; Vice-President. they shall name in their ballots the persons voted for as Presi
dent, and in distinct ballots the persons voted for as Viceresident, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, nd of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each; Thich list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the enate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all he certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest umber of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority
the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then rom the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those oted for as President. the House of Representatives shall choose immediately. by allot. the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by tates, the representation from each state having one vote: a quorum for this purObe shall consist of a member or memberg from two-thirds of the states, and a aajority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall de