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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

It is with no small degree of relief that the compiler of this work now turns from a self-imposed task, involving some years of the closest application, to write a brief preface, not as a necessity, but in justice to the work and the numerous friends who have taken the warmest interest in its progress and final completion.

It is inevitable that in the vast amount of patient and persistent labor in a work of this kind, extending to 1386 pages, and containing 17,257 distinct articles, there should be a few errors, oversights, and inconsistencies, notwithstanding all the vigilance to the contrary.

Condensation has been accomplished where it was possible to do so, and repetition avoided to a great extent by reference, where further information was contained in other articles of this book.

The contributions to the Regimental Library, which afforded the opportunity for this compilation, of standard foreign works, were of infinite value, and many thanks are tendered for them.

To G. & C. MERRIAM, Publishers, for the use of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary; J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co., Publishers, Philadelphia ; D. Van NosTRAND, Publisher, New York; Maj. William A. Marye, Ordnance Department, U.S.A.; Maj. W. S. WORTH, Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; Maj. D. T. WELLS, Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; Lieut. F. A. WHITNEY, Adjutant Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; Lieut. C. A. L. TOTTEN, Fourth Artillery, U.S.A. ; Lieut. C. M. Baily, Quartermaster Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; and Lieut. G. P. SCRIVEN, Third Artillery, U.S.A., the compiler is indebted for courteous assistance in the preparation of this volume.

OCTOBER, 1879.

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.

In submitting this volume to the public it is deemed proper to say that the design of the work is to bring together into one series, and in as compact & form as possible for ready reference, such information as the student of the science and art of war, persons interested in the local or reserve forces, libraries, as well as the editors of the daily press, should possess. In short, it is believed that the work will be useful to individuals of all ranks and conditions,

The compiler has labored under some disadvantages in obtaining the necessary information for this volume, and much is due to the encouragement and assistance received from accomplished and eminent officers, through which he was enabled to undertake the revision of the first issue of this work with greater assurance; and among the officers referred to, Lieut. WILLIAM R. QUINAN, of the Fourth Artillery, U.S.A., deserves especially to be mentioned. It may not be out of place here to state that the compiler takes no credit to himself beyond the labor contributed in the several years of research, and bringing forward to date the matter requiring it, with such changes as the advance of time and improvements demand.

As it was thought best to make this work purely military, all naval references which appeared in the first edition have been eliminated.

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AUTHORITIES CONSULTED IN THE COMPILATION

OF THIS WORK.

66

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN WORKS.
A HANDY DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS-Knollys.
AIDE MEMOIRE TO THE MILITARY SCIENCES—Originally edited by a Committee of the

Royal Engineers in England (Revised and Enlarged).
ANALYTICAL DIGEST OF THE MILITARY LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES-Scott.
A TREATISE ON THE LAW OF EVIDENCE-Greenleaf.
BEETON'S DICTIONARY OF UNIVERSAL BIOGRAPHY.

GEOGRAPHY.
CHAMBERS'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA.
CUSTOMS OF SERVICE FOR NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS OF THE

ARMY-Kautz.
CUSTOMS OF SERVICE FOR OFFICERS OF THE ARMY-Kautz.
CLASSICAL DICTIONARY—Smith.
DIGEST OF OPINIONS OF THE JUDGE-ADVOCATE-GENERAL— Winthrop.
DICTIONARY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY-Gardner.
GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES–Smith.

BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY-Smith.

GEOGRAPHY-Smith.
" ARTS, MANUFACTURES, AND MINES—Ure.
" EVERY DAYS DIFFICULTIES-Shilton.

" SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND ART-Brande. ELEMENTS OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF WAR—Wheeler.

16 MILITARY ARTS AND SCIENCES—Halleck.
ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.
FRENCH AND ENGLISH PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY—Spiers and Surenne.
FIELD EXERCISE (English), 1870.
FIELD-BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION-Lossing.
HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY-Roberts.
HAYDN'S DICTIONARY OF DATES—Payne.

SCIENCE-Payne.

THE BIBLE-Payne.
HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES—Bancroft.

THE WAR IN THE PENINSULA AND IN THE SOUTH OF FRANCE–Napier.
ENGLAND-Knight.

THE REBELLION—Tenney.
INFANTRY, CAVALRY, AND ARTILLERY Tactics, U.S.A.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR FIELD ARTILLERY.
Jomini's Art of WarTranslated from the French by Captains Mendell and Craig-

hill, U.S.A. Jomini's TREATISE ON GRAND MILITARY OPERATIONS, OR A CRITICAL AND MILITARY

HISTORY OF THE WARS OF FREDERICK THE GREAT—Translated by Colonel S. B.

Holabird, U.S.A.
Johnson's New UNIVERSAL ENCYCLOPÆDIA.
JUDGE-ADVOCATE AND RECORDER'S GUIDE-Regan.
Law DICTIONARY–Bouvier.
LIPPINCOTT's PRONOUNCING GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD—Thomas.
MANUAL FOR ENGINEER TROOPS-Duane.
MAXIMS OF WAR–Napoleon.
MILITARY BRIDGES—Haupt.

CATECHISM AND HAND-BOOK-Walshe.
DICTIONARY-Duane.
DICTIONARY_Scott.
ENGINEERING—Mahan.
LAW AND COURT-MARTIAL-Benet.
MISCELLANY-Marshall.

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.

7

MILITARY SCHOOLS AND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION IN THE SCIENCE AND ART OF

WAR-Barnard. NATIVE RACES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE–Bancroft. NAVAL AND MILITARY TECHNICAL DICTIONARY OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE-Burns. ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY-Benton. PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE War or 1812—Lossing. PRACTICAL TREATISE ON ATTACK AND DEFENSE–Jebb. QUEEN'S REGULATIONS AND ORDERS FOR THE ARMY (British). REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, 1870.

THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE, 1878. SHIFTS AND EXPEDIENTS OF CAMP-LIFE-Lord and Baines. THE ARMIES OF EUROPE–McClellan. THE LAST CENTURY OF UNIVERSAL History, 1767–1867—Fiwald. THE MILITARY LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES—Callan. THE SOLDIER'S POCKET-BOOK FOR FIELD-SERVICE-Major-General Sir G. Wolseley. UNITED STATES ARMY REGULATIONS.

BRIDGE EQUIPAGE_Prepared by a Board of Engineer Officers-Lieutenant W. R. Quinan, 4th U. S. Artillery. T'NITED STATES REVISED STATUTES. WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY-G. & C. Merriam.

GERMAN WORKS. DIENST-VORSCHRIFTEN DER KÖNIGLICH PREUSSISCHEN ARMEE-Karl von Helldorff. DIE LEIRE VOM NEUEREN FESTUNGSKRIEG—W. Rüstow. GBUNDZUGE DER TAKTIK DER DREI WAFFEN, INFANTERIE, KAVALLERIE, UND AR

TILLERIE- Dr. H. v. Brandt. HEERWESENOND INFANTERIEDIENST DER KÖNIGLICH PREUSSISCHEN ARMEE-A. v.

Witzleben.
KRIEGSFEUERWERKEREI ZUM GEBRAUCH FÜR DIE KÖNIGLICA PREUSSISCHE ARTIL-

LERIE-A. Bath.
KRIEGSWÖRTERBUCH-Carl Ad. Loehr.
MILITAIR CONVERSATIONS-LEXIKON–Hans Eggert Willibald von der Lühe.

FRENCH WORKS.
ENCYCLOPÉDIE MILITAIRE ET MARITIME.
GÉOGRAPHIC PHISIQUE, HISTORIQUE ET MILITAIRE—Théophile Lava.
LÉGISLATION ET ADMINISTRATION MILITAIRES—M. Léon Guillot.
Stela FORMATION DES TROUPES POUB LE COMBAT-Jomini.

IMPORTANT MAXIMS.

MISFORTUNE will certainly fall upon the land where the wealth of the tax-gatherer or the greedy gambler in stocks stands, in public estimation, above the uniform of the brave man who sacrifices his life, health, or fortune in the defense of his country.

Officers should feel a conviction that resignation, bravery, and faithful attention to duty are virtues without which no glory is possible, no army is respectable, and that firmness amid reverses is more honorable than enthusiasm in success.

It is not well to create a too great contempt for the enemy, lest the morale of the soldier should be shaken if he encounter an obstinate resistance.

It would seom to be easy to convince brave men that death comes more surely to those who fly in disorder than to those who remain together and present a firm front to the enemy, or who rally promptly when their lines have been for the instant broken.

Courage should bo recompensed and honored, the different grades in rank respocted, and discipline should exist in the sentiments and convictions rather than in external forms only.Jomini.

An army without discipline is but a mob in uniform, more dangerous to itself than to its enemy. Should any one from ignorance not perceive the immense advantages that arise from a good discipline, it will be sufficient to observe the alterations that have bappened in Europe since the year 1700. --Saxe.

If the first duty of a state is its own security, the second is the security of neighboring states whose existence is necessary for its own preservation. -Jomini's " Life of Napoleon."

A good general, a well-organized system, good instruction, and severe discipline, aided by effective establishments, will always make good troops, independently of the cause for which they fight. At the same time, a love of country, a spirit of enthusiasm, a sense of national honor, will operate upon young soldiers with advantage.

The officer who obeys, whatever may be the nature or extent of his command, will always stand excused executing implicitly the orders which have been given to him.

Every means should be taken to attach the soldier to his colors. This is best accomplished by showing consideration and respect to the old soldier.

The first qualification of a soldier is fortitude under fatigue and privation. Courage is only the second; hardship, poverty, and want are the best schools for a soldier.

Troops, whether halted, or encamped, or on the march, should be always in favorable position, possessing the essentials required for a field of battle.

Some men are so physically and morally constituted as to see everything through a highly-colored medium. They raise up a picture in the mind on every slight occasion, and give to every trivial occurrence a dramatic interest. But whatever knowledge, or talent, or courage, or other good qualities such men may possess, nature has not formed them for the command of armies or the direction of great military operations.- Napoleon's "Maxims of War."

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