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Aachen. See AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. ing the front of a line or column by break

Aar. A river in Switzerland, flows into ing off a division, subdivision, or files, in the Rhine opposite and near Waldshut, in order to avoid some obstacle. Aargau. Prince Charles, while crossing the Abencerrages. A Moorish tribe which river, August 17, 1799, was repulsed by the occupied the kingdom of Granada. Granada French generals Ney and Heudelet. was disturbed by incessant quarrels between

Aarau. A city in Switzerland. Peace this tribe and the Zegris from 1480 to 1492. was here declared, July 18, 1712, ending the They were finally extinguished by Abouwar between the cantons Zurich and Berne Abdoullah, or Boabdil, the last Moorish on one side, and Luzerne, Uri, Schuyz, king of Granada, and the same who was Unterwalden, and Zug on the other. dethroned by Ferdinand and Isabella in

Abad (Abadides). A line of Moorish 1492. kings who reigned in Seville from 1026 to Abensburg. A small town of Bavaria, 1090.

on the Abens, 18 miles southwest of RatisAbaisse. In heraldry, when the fesse or bon. Here Napoleon defeated the Austrians, any other armorial figure is depressed, or April 20, 1809. situated below the centre of the shield, it is Aberconway, or Conway. A maritime said to be abaisse ("' lowered').

city of the Gauls in England, fortified by Abandon. In a military sense, used in William the Conqueror, and taken by Cromthe relinquishment of a military post, dis- well in 1645. trict, or station, or the breaking up of a Abet. In a military sense it is a grave military establishment. To abandon any crime to aid or abet in mutiny or sedition, or fort, post, guard, arms, ammunition, or excite resistance against lawful orders. colors without good cause is punishable. Abgersate. Fortress of the Osrhoene, in

Abase, To. An old word signifying to Mesopotamia. The Persians took it by aslower a flag. Abaisser is in use in the sault in the year 534. French marine, and both may be derived Abii. A Scythian tribe which inhabited from the still older abeigh, to cast down, to the shores of the Jaxartes, to the northeast humble.

of Sogdiana. They were vanquished by Al. Abatement. In heraldry, is a mark placed exander the Great. orer a portion of the paternal coat of arms, Abipones. A tribe of Indians living in indicating some base or ungentlemanly act the Argentine Confederation, who were foron the part of the bearer.

merly numerous and powerful, but are now Abatis, or Abattis. A means of defense reduced to a small number. formed by cutting off the smaller branches Able-bodied. In a military sense applies to of trees felled in the direction from which one who is physically competent as a soldier, the enemy may be expected. The ends of Ablecti. . Ancient military term applied the larger branches are sharpened and the to a select body of men taken from the exbutts of the limbs or trees fastened by crochet traordinarii of the Roman army to serve as picket, or by imbedding in the earth, so that a body-guard to the commanding general they cannot be easily removed. Abutis is or the consul. The guard consisted of 40 generally used in parts of a ditch or in- mounted and 160 dismounted men. trenchment to delay the enemy under fire. Abo. A Russian city and seaport, on the Abblast. See ARBALEST.

Aurajoki near its entrance into the Gulf of Abblaster. See ARBALIST.

Bothnia. It formerly belonged to Sweden, Abdivtes. A piratical people descended but was taken with the whole of Finland by from the Saracens, who lived south of Mount the Russians in the war begun by Sweden in Ida (Psilorati), in the island of Crete (Can- 1741. By a treaty of peace concluded here dia), where they established themselves in in 1743 the conquered possessions were re25.

stored to Sweden. They were ceded to Rus. Abduction (Fr.). Diminution; diminish- sia in 1809.

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nen: *1-0 I is the space in which Aboc-grzeb. site et trrer Erotit sisi. Tric astepts have been were ne French leteaid she is a male a leter ses inte experimentally 11

V vidi iferen: rest 53. Robins esti. Aboukit une (1993. Are ce Iatai the press on the square inch at Ezt n 1 crimen at the I *013 Ieres. Had at 1800, and Eram - rear of the same 23.Der Count Biziri as high as 100.000 atmosnorr.cast of Alexandra Is be tar a peres. We Bia. by experiments arin teated the Perc st. 121.117 Ipca nas iipashe s, verified the IT of Bis

ruas, he found the French 26- S

is stinse of bere was greatly in sactie of these" lasia Bus ers.e. eoring to Rudman the pressure in excesitan under sko Raiza berrechy accrernaceis 11.000 atmospheres. Dr. la det at Arsczr. cd care tee ruce Wohniye aster Azerican philosopher atrs ar obtinate and a runiy eccit ad igrantz. bas bew: that, ired in small with the Frenco March. Here is

qaatite sense of guspowder does not Tukan army of 15.1** mee was detecci by exceed 600 achberes. This agrees 5010 Prench 'ander Bonapar-. Joiss,1741. e: sex with the coceasion arrived at by

Aboumand. Viage of Upper E To the Esath Cocnittee on Explosives, near the river Sie ubere the French Sáwc feued ibat erer in large guns the fought the Araba in 1799.

forre did 206 elseed 4 tons. About. A terhnical word to espress the Absorokas. A tribe of North American movement he which a body of troops or ar Indians See (Brws. tillery carriage charge front.

i Absterdam Projectile. See PROJECTILE. Abraham, Heights of. Sear Quebec, Abydus. An ancient city of Mysia on Iwwer Canada. In the memorable engage the Heiepeat nearly opposite Sestus on the ment which took place here Sep:ember 13. European shore. Near this town Xerxes 17:39, the French' under Gen. Montealm pisced the bridge of beats by which his wipe defrated by the English under Gen. troops were correred across the channel to Wolfe, who was killed in the moment of the town of Sestus, 480 B.C. victory.

Abyssinia. A country of Eastern Africa, Abri (Fr.). Shelter, cover, concealment; 'forming an elevated table-land and containarm-shed in a camp secure from rain, dust, ing many fertile valiers. Theodore II., the etc.; place of security from the effect of king of this country, having maltreated and shot, shells, or attack.

i imprisoned some English subjects, an expeAbsence, Leave of. The permission ! dition under Lord Sapier was sent against which officers of the army obtain to absent him from Bombar in 1867. On April 14, themselves from duty. In the C. S. service 1938, the mountain fortress of Magdala was an office is entitled to 30 days' leave in stormed and taken with but little trouble, Emrh year on full pay. This time be may and Theodore was found dead on the hill, promit to accumulate for a period not ex having killed himself. The country is at coeding 4 years. An officer, however, may present governed by Emperor John of Ethienjoy 6 months' continuous leave on full opia, who was crowned in 1872. jmy, provided the fifth month of such leave Academies, Military. See MILITARY ja wholly distinct from the four-year period ACADEMIES. within and for which the 4 months' absence Accelerator. A cannon in which several with full pay wax enjoyed. An officer on charges are successively fired to give an lenve over thiy time is entitled to half-pay increasing velocity to the projectile while only.

moving in the bore. See Multi-CHARGE Absent, Atorin used in military returns Gux. in sccounting for the deficiency of any given Accessible. Easy of access or approach. number of officers or soldiera, and is usually A place or fort is said to be accessible when distinguished under two beads, viz. : Absent it can be approached with a hostile force by with leare, such as officers with permission,

land or sea. or onlinted men on furlough. Absent with Accintus. A word in ancient times sigout leare ; men who desert are sometimes nifying the complete accoutrements of a reported absent without leare, to bring their soldier. crimes under cognizance of regimental, gar Accolade. The ceremonious act of conrinon, or field-officers' court# ; thus, under ferring knighthood in ancient times. It mitigating circumstances, trial by general consisted of an embrace and gentle blow court-martinl is a voided. Absence without with the sword on the shoulder of the person Jonve entuils forfeiture of pay during such on whom the honor of knighthood was being aluence, unless it is excused as unavoidable. conferred. An ufficer absent without leave for three Accord. The conditions under which a months may be dropped from the rolls of fortress or command of troops is surrenthe army by the President, and is not eligi dered. ble to roappointment.

Accoutre. To furnish with accoutrements.





Accoutrements. Dress, equipage, trap- picion, or whatever devolves upon a person pings. Specifically, the equipments of a as a charge or duty; an, the court acquits soldier, except arms and clothing.

the accused. This word has also the reflexive Accused. In a military sense, the desig- signification of "to bear, or conduct one's nation of one who is arraigned before a mil- self;" as, the soldier acquitted himself well itary court.

in battle. Acerra (now Acera). A city in the Acquittance Roll. In the British service, kingdom of Naples, taken and burned by a roll containing the names of the men of Hannibal in 216 B.C. In 90 B.C. the Romans each troop or company or regiment, showdefeated under its walls the allied rebels ing the debts and credits, with the signature commanded by Papius.

of each man, and certificate of the officer Acerræ. A city of the Gauls, taken by commanding it. Marcellus in 222 B.C.

Acre, or St. Jean d'Acre. A seaport Achæan League. A confederacy which town of Palestine (in ancient times the celeexisted from very early times among the brated city of Ptolemais), which was the twelve states of the province of Achaia, in scene of many sieges. It was last stormed the north of the Peloponnesus. It was and taken by the British in 1840. - Acre was broken up after the death of Alexander the gallantly defended by Djezzar Pacha against Great, but was set on foot again by some of Bonaparte in July, 1798, till relieved by Sir the original cities, 280 B.c., the epoch of its Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the rise into great historical importance; for French, between March 16 and May 20, from this time it gained strength, and finally 1799. spread over the whole Peloponnesus, though Acre, or Acre-fight. An old duel fought not without much opposition, principally on by warriors between the frontiers of Engthe part of Lacedæmon. It was finally dis- land and Scotland, with sword and lance. solved by the Romans, on the event of the This dueling was also called camp-fight. The two most celebrated leaders of this the ancients to warlike races, such as the league were Aratus, the principal instru- Parthians and Armenians, who shot arrows ment of its early aggrandizement, and Phil. from a long distance. opemen, the contemporary and rival, in Acropolis. In ancient Greece, the name military reputation, of Scipio and Hanni- given to the citadel or fortress of a city, bal.

usually built on the summit of a hill. The Achern. A city in the grand duchy of most celebrated was that of Athens, remains Baden, on the river Acher. Near this place of which still exist. a monument marks the spot where Marshal Acs. A village in Hungary on the right Turenne was killed by a random shot in bank of the Danube, noted as the scene of 1675.

several battles in the Hungarian revolution, Acheron. A small stream in ancient that of August 3, 1849, being the most imBruttium. In 330 B.C., Alexander, king of portant. Epirus, was killed while crossing it.

Acting Assistant Surgeons. See SURAcinaces. A short sword used by the GEONS, ACTING ASSISTANT. Persians.

Action. An engagement between two Aclides. In Roman antiquity, a kind armies, or bodies of troops. The word is of missile weapon with a thong tixed to it likewise used to signify some memorable act. whereby it might be drawn back again. done by an officer, soldier, detachment, or

Acoluthi. In military antiquity, was a party. title given in the Grecian empire to the cap Actium (now Azio). A town of ancient tain or commander of the body-guards ap Greece in Arcanania, near the entrance of pointed for the security of the emperor's the Ambracian Gulf.' It became famous for palace.

the great naval engagement fought near Aconite. A poisonous plant. Several here in 31 B.C. between Octavius and Antony, ancient races poisoned their arrows with an in which the former was victorious. extract from this plant.

Active Service. Duty against an enemy; Acontium. In Grecian antiquity, a kind operations in his presence. Or in the presof dart or javelin resembling the Roman ent day it denotes serving on full pay, on spiculum.

the active list, in contradistinction to those. Acquereaux (Fr.). A machine of war, who are virtually retired, and placed on the which was used in the Middle Ages to throw retired list. stones.

Activity. In a military sense, denotes Acqui. A walled town of the Sardinian attention, labor, diligence, and study. Flates on the river Bormida in the division Acto, or Acton. A kind of defensive of Alessandria. It was taken by the Span- | tunic, made of quilted leather or other strong iards in 1745, retaken by the Piedmontese material, formerly worn under the outer in 1746 ; it was dismantled by the French, dress and even under a coat of mail. wbo defeated the Austrians and Piedmontese Act of Grace. In Great Britain, an act bere in 1794.

of Parliament for a general and free pardon Acquit. To release or set free from an to deserters from the service and others. obligation, accusation, guilt, censure, sus Actuarius. A name given by the Ro




mans to officers charged with the supplying in all his operations. The principal staffof provisions to trops.

officer of the U. S. army. The principal Adacted. Applies to stakes, or piles, staff-officers of generals of lower rank are driven into the earth by large malls shod called assistant adjutant-gen rals. with iron, as in securing ramparts or pon Adjutant-General's Department. In the tons.

United States, consists of 1 adjutant-genAdda. A stream in Italy. The Romans eral with the rank of brigadier-general; 2 defeated the Gauls on its banks in 223 B.C. assistant adjutant - generals, colonels; 4

Addiscombe Seminary: An institution lieutenant-colonels, and 10 majors; also near Croydon, Surrey, England, for the about 400 enlisted clerks and messengers. education of young gentlemen intended for The officers are generally on duty with genthe military service of the East India Com- eral officers who command corps, divisions, pany : closed in 1861.

departments, etc. “ They shall also perform Aden. A free port on the southwest cor the duties of inspectors when circumstances ner of Arabia. It was captured by Eng. require it.” The lowest grades must be seland in 1839, and is now used as a coal lected from the captains of the army. depot for Indian steamers.

Administration. Conduct, management; Aderbaidjan (Fr.). A mountainous prov- in military affairs, the execution of the duince of Persia, celebrated for raising the ties of an office. finest horses in the province for army pur Administration, Council of. A board of poses.

officers periodically assembled at a post for Adige (anc. Athesis). A river in North the administration of certain business. ern Italy formed by numberless streamlets Admissions. In a military sense, the from the Helvetian Alps. In 563 the Ro- judge-advocate is authorized when he sees mans defeated the Goths and Franks on its proper to admit what a prisoner expects to banks. Gen. Massena crossed it in 1806. prove by absent witnesses.

Adis. A city in Africa. Xantippe, chief Adobe (Sp.). An unburnt brick, dried in of the Carthaginians, defeated under its walls the sun, made from earth of a loamy charthe Romans commanded by Regulus. acter, containing about two-thirds fine sand

Adit. A passage under ground by which mixed intimately with one-third or less of miners approach the part they intend to clayey dust or tine sand. sap.

Adour. A river in the southwest of Adjeighur. A fortress in Bundelcund, France, which Lord Wellington, after drive which was captured in 1809 by a force under ing the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte across the command of Col. Gabriel Martindell. the Pyrenees, passed in the face of all op

Adjourn. To suspend business for a time, position, on the 26th of February, 1814. as from one day to another; said of military Adrana. A river in Germany, at present courts. Adjournment without day (sine die), called Eder. Germanicus defeated the Gerindefinite postponement.

mans on its bank in 15. Adjutant (from adjuvo, " to help'). A Adrianople. A Turkish city named after regimental staff-officer with the rank of lieu- the Emperor Adrian; unsuccessfully betenant, appointed by the regimental com- sieged by the Goths in the 4th century; mander to assist him in the execution of all the army of Murad I. took the city in 1361; the details of the regiment or post. He is unconditionally surrendered to the Russians the channel of official communication. It in August, 1829; peace was declared in this is his duty to attend daily on the command- city between Russia and Turkey, September ing officer for orders or instructions of any 14, 1829, and the city relinquished to the kind that are to be issued to the command, Turks. and promulgate the same in writing after Adrumetum, or Hadrumetum. An anmaking a complete record thereof. He has cient African city, now in ruins, situated on charge of the books, files, and men of the the Mediterranean, southeast from Carheadquarters ; keeps the rosters ; parades and thage. The Moors took this city from the inspects all escorts, guards, and other armed Romans in 549, but it was retaken soon parties previous to their proceeding on duty. | after by a priest named Paul. He should be competent to instruct a regi Advance. Before in place, or beforehand ment in every part of the field exercise, in time; used for advanced; as, advanceshould understand the internal economy of guard, or that before the main guard or his corps, and should notice every irregular- | body of an army; to move forward. ity or deviation from the established rules Advanced Covered Way. Is a terre or regulations. He should, of course, be an plein on the exterior of the advanced ditch, officer of experience, and should be selected similar to the first covered way. with reference to special fitness, as so much Advanced Ditch. Is an excavation bedepends upon his manner and thoughtfulness yond the glacis of the enciente, having its in the exercise of the various and important surface on the prolongation of that slope, duties imposed upon him. Unexceptionable that an enemy may find no shelter when in deportment is especially becoming to the the ditch. adjutant.

Advanced Guard. A detachment of Adjutant-General. An officer of distinc- troops which precedes the march of the tion selected to assist the general of an army main body.




Advanced Guard Equipage. See Pon Affidavit. In military law is an oath TONS.

duly subscribed before any person authorAdvanced Lunettes. Works resembling ized to administer it. In the U. S. service, bastions or ravelins, having faces or flanks. ) in the absence of a civil officer any comThey are formed upon or beyond the glacis. missioned officer is empowered to administer Advanced Works. Are such as are con

an oath. structed beyond the covered way and glacis, Afforciament. An old term for a forbut within range of the musketry of the tress or stronghold. main works.

Afghanistan. A large country in Central Advancement. In a military sense, sig- Asia, at war with England 1838, and 1878– nifies honor, promotion, or preferment in 79, the army, regiment, or company.

Afrancesados (Sp.). Name given to the Advantage Ground. That ground which Spaniards who upheld the oath of allegiance affords the greatest facility for annoyance or to king Joseph Bonaparte; also called Joresistance.

sephins (in the Peninsular war). Adversary. Generally applied to an ene Aga. Rank of an officer in the Turkish my, but strictly an opponent in single com army; the same as a general with us. bat.

Age. In a military sense, a young man Advising to Desert. Punishable with must be 14 years old before he can become death or otherwise, as a court-martial may an officer in the English army, or be entered direct. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, as a cadet at Woolwich, in the English 51.

military academy. For admission to the Advocate, Judge-.See JUDGE-ADVOCATE. military academy at West Point, U. S., the

Adynati. Ancient name for invalid sol age is from 17 to 22 years. Men are enlisted diers receiving pension from the public treas for soldiers at from 17 to 45 in the English ury.

army, and in the U. S. army at from 18 to Ægide (Æges). A name, according to 35. Officers in the U. S. army may be reHomer, for a protecting covering wound tired, at the discretion of the President, at around the left arm in the absence of a 62 years of age. shield; used by Jupiter, Minerva, and Agema (Gr.). In the ancient military Apollo

art, a kind of soldiery, chiefly in the MaceÆgolethron (Gr.). A plant. This word donian army. The word is Greek, and demeans goat and death. It was believed by notes vehemence, to express the strength the ancients that this plant would kill goats and eagerness of this corps. only, if eaten by them. Xenophon reports Agen. Principal place of the department that the soldiers of the army of the " Ten Lot-et-Garonne, France, on the right bank Thousand" tasted of some honey prepared of the river Garonne, which has a city of from this plant which caused them to be the same name, and was the scene of many affected with hallucinations.

battles. Ægospotamos ("Stream of the Goat”). Agency. A certain proportion of money A small river flowing into the Hellespont, which is ordered to be subtracted from the in the Thracian Chersonese; is famous for pay and allowances of the British army, for the defeat of the Athenian fleet by the transacting the business of the several regiLacedæmonians under Lysander, which put ments comprising it. an end to the Peloponnesian war, and to the Agent, Army. A person in the civil depredominance of Athens in Greece, 405 B.C. partment of the British army, between the

Æneatores. In military antiquity, the paymaster-general and the pay master of the musicians in an army, including those who regiment, through whom every regimental sounded the trumpets, horns, etc.

concern of a pecuniary nature is transacted. Ærarium Militare. In Roman antiquity, Agger. In ancient military writings, dethe war treasury of Rome, founded by Au- notes the middle part of a military road gustus ; in addition to other revenues, the raised into a ridge, with a gentle slope on one-hundredth part of all merchandise sold each side to make a drain for the water, and in Rome was paid into it.

keep the way dry; it is also used for a miliÆro. A basket used by the Roman sol- tary road. Agger also denotes a work or diers to carry earth in to construct fortifica- fortification, used both for the defense and tions.

attack of towns, camps, etc., termed among Ærumnula. A wooden pole or fork, in the moderns, lines. Agger is also used for a troduced among the Romans by Consul bank or wall erected against the sea or some Marius. Each soldier was provided with great river to confine or keepit within bounds, one of these poles, wbich had attached and called by modern writers, dam, sea-wall. thereto a saw, hatchet, a sack of wheat, and Agiades. In the Turkish armies are a baggage; and he was compelled to carry it kind of pioneers, or rather field engineers, on a march.

employed in fortifying the camp, etc. Affair. An action or engagement, not of Agiem-clich. A very crooked sabre, sufficient magnitude to be termed a battle. rounded near the point; an arm much in

Affamer (Fr.). To besiege a place so use in Persia and Turkey. closely as to starve the garrison and inhab Agincourt, or Azincourt. A village of

France, celebrated for a great battle fought


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