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HE year 1801 is fraught with a greater number
of important events than any other that has elapsed since the commencement of the Annual Res gister. From the Molucca Islands to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean there was no country or coast that was not a scene of either military preparation or action, or political negotiation.—Across the Atlantic, the agitations in St. Domingo and Gaudaloupe perplexcd France, and alarmed Britain.
The treaties of peace that ensued were many and various : and these, with the new forms of government imposed on states, formerly independent, were certainly not less important than the actions at sea and land, by which they had been preceded.
To the natives and subjects of Great Britain and Ireland the history of 1801 is peculiarly interesting. The meeting of the Imperial Parliament, and the first effects of the union with Ireland in that affembly ; the war in the Baltic with a kindred and hitherto a friendly
[iv] nation; mutual preparation for invasion and for defence on the coasts of France and England; engagements on the French shores, seen or heard from the Cliffs of Dover.-All these objects naturally arouse the attention of the Englidh reader, and may be supposed to occupy, in his imagination, more than their juft proportion in that of a citizen of the world.
To the extraordinary labours of this year, we have added a deduction of the facts and questions that had, for some time, agitated and divided the India-House, and has seriously engaged the attention of the legislature.
For the YEAR 1801.
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H I S T Q R Y
E U UR R O P E.
С НА Р. І.
Meeting of the British Parliament.-Iis Majesty's Speech from the Throne
respecting the high Price of Provisons-and recent Communications from the French Government.--Addresses of Thanks.- Amendments proposed.-Debates.--Proceedings relative to the Dearth of Provisions.---Divers Bills. -Royal Proclamation.-Indufiry and Zeal of the Legijature in devising Means for alleviating the public Distress.
"HĘ riots which had taken place that is, of the great mass of the peo
in many parts of England and ple, and indeed of many who ought Scotland, on account of the high rather to be classed in the middling price of provisions, and which have rank, were so great, that every canalready been noticed in our last vo did mind was less offended at the lume, were neither lo violent nor commotions of the populace, than obstinate as they would have been struck with their förbearance and in countries where there is less mo- patience. There were, indeed, not deration of character in the people, a few men in the enjoyment or exand less confidence in means of con- pectation of places under governftitutional relief. The privations ment, who preferited to the fuffer. and fufferings of the lower orders, ing multitude a frowning and hoftile Vol. XLIII.
aspect, and who shewed a disposi- establishment of regular law and tion rather to maintain the public government. For commotions extranquillity by that mighty armed cited by extreme want, however force which was now on foot, and inconlistent with political order, and distributed in all parts of the united however fraught with future evils, kingdoms, than by the lenient me. have nothing in their nature that thods of due sympathy, confidera- shocks humanity. All questions of tion, and allistance. Among the right, and all presages of future cazealots for strengthening the hands lamities, might have been lost in of gorernment, at all adventures, the general tide of sympathy and by all forcible means, murmurs were compassion; which would have given heard, that it was now high time to the popular fide the force of for all men of property to look well moral, perhaps even religious, sento their own interests; nor did they timent. hesitate to affirm, that the numerous The solicitude that was Mewn by bodies of volunteers in arms, were individuals of all ranks to alleviate fully as necessary for the prevention the sufferings of the poor, and the of internal insurrection, as the re care of government to provide as pulsion of foreign invasion. Sulpi- much, and as speedily as posible cions were entertained by those men, for their wants, gave consolation of the alacrity of common soldiers in and hope to the people. The hand this cause of coercion. They placed of private charity was still, as it had their chief confidence in the volun- been, opened liberally. Asociations, teets: among whom, indeed, there in cities and parishes, were every were not wanting individuals who where torined, and resolutions taken would have been as ready instru- for the relief of those who stood in ments in the hands of the severest most need of assistance, In the government, for the purpose of re- month of October, 1800, petitions Itraining and subiluing their own from the city of London and other countrymen, as for that of repelling places were presented to his ma. external aggression. In mort, there jesty to convene the parliament, were lome symptoms of a tendency without delay, that measures inight to a marked and fatal division bé- be taken for relieving the distrels of tween men of property or of hopes, the people. The king, graciously and men of no property and no intimated that he had already given hopes. And if the vigilance, pru- orders for an early meeting of the dence, and moderation, which was legiNature for the dispatch of busiexercised, in the prevention or quel- nets. The parliament accordingly ling of mobs by the acting magif- aflembled on the 11th of Novem. trates, had not formed a counter- ber. The king, in a speech from balance to the spirit of violence that the throne, declared that it was a was manifesicd, not by government, tender concern for the welfare of but by fome of the retainers, and his subjects, and a sense of the diffiwhat may be termed the expectants culties with which the poorer
classes of government, an afpcof affairs particularly had to struggle, from the might have been suddenly present. present high price of provisions, ed, more terrible than any that has that had induced him to call them menaced this country ance the full together at an earlier period than he