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tive daring, but by the nobler motives of virtuous energy. He who with steady aim pursues the course which wisdom recommends and justice consecrates can cheerfully meet the hour of trial, smile at impending danger and contemn every sordid or unworthy motive, which would deter or seduce him from the path of duty; whilst fearing God alone, he knows no other fear, and dares do all that does become a man, ever remembering, that he who dares do more is none.

Q. I will thank you to illustrate Prudence ?

A. Prudence may justly be defined the clear and distinct perception of the several relations between our actions and the purposes to which they are directed. In this view, it deserves to be considered as the first neat principle of human wisdom, and justly has the Roman moralist declared, that where prudence rules the mind, fortune has no influence. The prudent man, before he engages in any enterprize, maturely reflects on the consequences which may probably result from it, balancing with steady deliberations the several probabilities of good and evil, extending his views into futurity and revolving in his mind every circumstance of doubtful event affecting the end which he has in view or the means which he purposes to use.

He decides not hastily, and when he has decided, commits nothing to chance; but comparing the three great periods of time with each other, from the reflection of the past regulates the present and provides for the future, by which means, he neither wastes his energies improvidently, nor meets the occurrences in life incautiously.

Q. I will thank you to illustrate Justice?

A. As prudence directs us in the selection of the means most proper to attain our ends, so Justice teaches us to propose to ourselves such ends only as are consistent with our several relations to society, rendering to all without distinction those dues which they are respectively entitled to claim from us, bending with implicit obedience to the will of our creator and being scrupulously attentive to the sacred duties of life, zealous in our attachments to our native country, exemplary in our allegiance to the government under which we reside, treating our superiors with reverence, our equals with kindness, and to our inferiors extending the benefit of admonition, instruction and protection.

Q. Is there any symbolical reference to be derived from these points ?

A. The speculative mason beholds a symbolical allusion to the four great rivers which flowed out of the garden of Eden.

Q. I will thank you to illustrate them?

A. In Pison, our first parents revered the fountain of Prudence. In Glhon they beheld the sacred stream of Justice. The rapid and irrisistible torrent of Hiddekel denotes fortitude. And the Phrath or Euphrates, the mild but steady current of Temperance. Happy was their state, while these sacred dictates were impressed

upon their minds, and happy may be our future lot, if we, through life, observe the lessons which they inculcate. Instructed by Prudence, guided by Justice, strengthened by Fortitude, and by Temperance restrained.

MORAL. Here, brethren, we close the fourth section of our lecture. This section may, with strict propriety, be called didactical or preceptive. The assertion is fully made out, that morality is the great subject with which Free niasonry is conversant. Hence it follows, that the virtuous mason, after he has enlightened his own mind by those sage and moral precepts, is the more ready to enlighten and enlarge the understanding of others.

LECTURE ON THE TRACING BOARD. The usages and customs of masons have ever corresponded with the ancient Egyptians to which they bear a near affinity. Their philosophers, unwilling to expose their mysteries to vulgar eyes, concealed their particular tenets and principles of polity and pbilosophy under heiroglyphical figures, and expressed their notions of government by signs and symbols, which they communicated to their priests or magi aloue, who were bound by oath not to reveal them. Pythagoras seems to have established his system on a similar plan, and many orders of a more recent date have copied their example. But, masonry, however, is not only the most ancient, but the most moral institution that bas ever existed, as every character, figure and emblem depicted in the lodge has a moral tendency and tends to inculcate the practice of virtue.

Let me first call your attention to the form of the lodge which is of an oblong square : in the length from east to west, in breadth between north and soutb, in depth from the surface of the earth to the centre, and even as high as the heavens* The reason, that a Freemasons lodge is represented of this vast extent is, to show the universality of the science, and that a 'Mason's cbarity should know no bounds sàve those of prudence. Our lodge stands on holy ground; because, the first lodge was cousecrated on account of three grand offerings thereon made, which met with divine approbation : first, the ready compliance of Abrabam to the will of God, in not refusing to offer up his son Isaac as a burnt offering, when it pleased the almighty to substitute a more agreeable victim in his stead; second, the many pious pray* How high are the Heavens ?

R, C.

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ers and ejaculations of king David, which actually appeased the wrath of God and stayed a pestilence, which then raged among bis people, owing to his inadvertantly having had them numbered : and thirdly, the many thanksgivings, oblations, burot sacrifices and costly offerings, wbich Solomon king of Israel, made at the completion, dedication and consecration of the temple at Jerusalem to God's service. Those three, did then, have siuce, and, I trust, ever will render the ground work of masonry holy. Our lodge is situated due east and west; because all places of divine worship, as well as mason's regular, well-formed. and constituted lodges are, or ought to be, so situated : for which we assigo three masonic reasons: first, the sun, the glory of the Lord, rises in the east and sets in the west: second, learning originated in the east and from thence spreads its bevigo influence to the west: a third, last and grand reason, wbich is too long to be entered upon now, is explained in the course of our lectures, wbich you will have many opportunities of hearing.

Our lodge is supported by three graud pillars. They are called wisdom, strength, and beauty. Wisdom to contrive, strength to support, and beauty to adorn. Wisdom to conduct us in-all our undertakings; strength to support us under all our difficulties and beauty to adorn the inward

The universe is the temple of the Deity whom we serve: wisdom, strength and beauty are about his throne, as pillars of his works: for his wisdom is infinite, bis strength omniponent, and beauty shines through the whole of the creation. In symmetry and order, the heavens he bas stretched forth as a canopy; the earth he has planied as bis footstool; he crowns his temple with stars, as with a diadem, and his bands extend their power and glory. The sun and the moon are messengers of bis will and all his law is concord. The three great pillars supporting a mason's lodge are emblematical of those divine attributes and further represent solomon, king of Israel, Hiram king of Tyre, and Hiram, A biff. Solomon, king of larael, for his wisdom in building, completing and dedicating the temple at Jerusalemn to God's service. Hiram, king of Tyre, for bis strength in supporting him with men and materials. And Hiram A biff, for his curious and masterly workmanship, in beautifying and adorning the same. As there are no noble orders in architecture known by the name of wisdom, strength and beauty, we refer them to the three most celebrated-the Doric, Tonic, and the Corinthian The covering ofa Freemason's lodge is a celestial canopy



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of divers colours, even as the heavens. The way by whicb,
We, as masons, bope, to arrive at it is, by the assistance of a
ladder, in scripture, called Jacob's ladder. It is composed of
many staves or rounds wbich point out as many moral vir-
tues. Three are principle ones-faith, hope, and charity:
Faith in the great architect of the universe; hope in salvation;
and to be in charity with all men. It reaches to the heavens
and rests on the volume of the sacred law; because, by the
doctrines contained on that holy book, weare taught to believe
in the wise dispensations of divine providence, which be-
lief strengthens our faith and enables us to ascend the first
step. This faith naturally creates in us a bope of becoming
partakers of the blessed promises therein recorded, which
hope enables us to ascend the second step. But the third
and last being charity comprehends the whole, and the ma-
son who is possessed of that virtue, iu its most ample sepse,
may justly be deemed to have attained the suminit of his
profession. figuratively speaking, an ethereal mansion veiled
· from mortal eye by the starry firmament; emblematically
depicted here by seven stars, which have an allusion to as
many regularly made masons, without which number no
lodge is perfect, nor can any candidate be legally initiated
into the order.

The interior of a Freemasons lodge is composed of ornainents, furniture and jewels. The ornaments of the lodge are the mosaic pavement, the blazing star, and the indented or tesselated border. The mosaic pavement is the beautiful flooring of a Freemasons lodge: the blazing star, the glory in the centre : and the indented or tesselated border, the skirt work round the same. The mosaic pavement may justly be deemed the beautiful flooring of the lodge, by reason of its being variegated and chequered. This points out the diversity of objects which decorate and adoro the creation, the animate as well as the inanimate parts thereof The blazing star or glory, in the centre refers us to that grand luminary the sun, which enlightens the earth, and, by its benigo influence, dispenses its blessings to mankind in general. The indented or tesselated border refers us to the planets wbicb, in their various revolutions, form a beautiful border of skirt work round that grand luminary the sun, as the other does round that of a freemasons Indge.-The furpiture of the lodge is the volume of the sacred law, the compasses and square,

The sacred writings are to govern our faith.

On, them we obligate our candidates for Masonry. So are the compasses and square when united to regulate

No. 2, Vol. XII.

our lives and actions. The sacred volume is derived from God to man in general. The compasses belong to the Grand Master in particular, and the square to the whole craft.

The Jewels of the lodge are three moveable, and three immoveable. The moveable Jewels are the square, level, and plumb rule. Among operative Masons, the square is to try and adjust all irregular corners of buildings and to assist in bringing rude matter into due form : the level, to lay levels and prove horizontals: and the plumb-rule to try and adjust all uprights wbile fixed on their proper bases. Among free and accepted Masons, the square teaches morality, the level equality, and the plumb-rule justness and uprightness of life and actions. They are called moveable jewels ; because they are worn by the master and his wardeos, aud are transferable from them to their successors on nights of installation. The master is distinguished by the square; the senior warden by the level, and the junior warden by the plumb-rule. The in moveable jewels are the tracing board, and the rough and perfect ashlers. The tracing-board is for the master to lay lines and to draw desigos on. The rough ashler for the entered apprentice to work, mark and indent on. and the perfect asbler for the experienced craftsman to try and adjust bis jewels on. They are called immoveable, because, they lie open for the brethren to moralize upon. As the traceing board is for the master to lay lines and draw designs on, the better to enable the brethren to carry on the intended structure with regularity and propriety, so the volume of the sacred law may justly be deemed the spiritual tracing board of the great architect of the universe, in which are laid down such divine laws and moral plans that were we conversant therein and adherent thereto, they would bring us to an ethereal mansion not built by hands, but eternally in the heavens. The rough ashler is a stone rough and unhewn as taken from the quarry, till by the industry and ingenuity of the workmen, it is modelled, wrought into due form, and rendered fit for the intended building. This represents the mind of man in its jufant or primitive state, rough and unpolished as that stone, till by the kind care and attention of his parents or guardians, in giving him a liberal and virtuous education, his mind becomes cultivated and he is thereby rendered a fit member of civilized society. The perfect ashler is a stone of a true die, square, and fit only to be tried by the square and compasses. This represents the mind of

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