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of souls into different bodies (which he borrowed from the Brachmans,) and the system of the world. He was the first who took the name of philosopher, that is, a lover of wisdom. His system of morality was admirable. He made unity the principle of all things, and imagined that between God and man there were various orders of spiritual beings, who administered to the divine will. He believed in the doctrine of the metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls; and held that God was diffused through all parts of the universe, like a kind of universal soul, pervading every particle of matter, and animating every living creature, from the most contemptible reptile to mankind themselves, who shared a larger portion of the Divine spirit. The metempsychosis was founded on this maxim, that as the soul was of celestial origin, it could not be annihilated; and therefore, upon abandoning one body, it necessarily removed into another, and frequently did penance for its former vicious inclinations in the shape of a beast or an insect, before it appeared again in that of a human creature. He asserted that he had a particular faculty given him by the gods, of remembering the various bodies his own soul had passed through, and confounded cavillers by referring them to his own experience. In his system of the world, the third doctrine which distinguishes his séct, was a supposition that the sun was at rest in the centre, and that the earth, the moon and the other planets moved round it in different orbits. He pretended to have great skill in the mysterious properties of numbers, and held that some particular ones contained a peculiar force and significance. He was a geometrician, and admitted only those to the knowledge of bis system, who had first undergone a probation of five years silence. To his discovery is attributed the 47th proposition of the first book of Euclid', which in geometrical solutions and demonstrations of quantities, is of excellent use; and for which, as Mr. Locke observes, in the joy of his heart, he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb. His extraordinary desire of knowledge, and the pains he took to propagate his system, have justly transmitted his fame to posterity.

The pupils who were initiated by him in the sciences and study of nature at the Crotonian school, brought all their goods into a common stock, contemned the pleasures of sense, abstained from swearing and ate nothing that had life. Steady to the tenets and principles which they had imbibed, they dispersed abroad, and taught the doctrines of their preceptor in all the countries through which they travelled.

Page 108. Dothe maçonnes discouer here artes unto odhers ?] Masons, in all ages have studied the general good of mankind.

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2 THEOREM.] In any right-angled triangle, the square which is described upon the side subtending the right angle, is equal to the squares described upon the sides which contain the right angle. Euclid, lib. i. prop. 47.

Every art which is necessary for the support of authority and good government, or which could extend science, they have cheerfully communicated to the world. ,Points of no public utility, as their peculiar tenets, mystic forms, and solemn rites, they have carefully concealed. Thus Masons have been distinguished in various countries for disseminating learning and general knowledge, while they have always kept the privileges of their own Order sacred and inviolable


themselves. Page 109. Whatte artes haueth the maçonnes techedde mankynde ?] The arts which the Masons have publicly taught, are here specified. It appears to have surprised the learned annotator, that religion should have been ranked among the arts taught by the Fraternity; but it may be observed, that religion is the only tie which can bind men; and that where there is no religion, there can be no Masonry. Among Masons, however, it is an art which is calculated to unite for a time opposite systems, without perverting or destroying those systems. By the influence of this art, the purposes of the institution are effectually answered, and religious animosities happily terminated,

Masons have ever paid due obedience to the moral law, and inculcated its precepts with powerful energy on their disciples. Hence the doctrine of a God, the creator and preserver of the universe, has been their firm belief in every age; and under the influence of that doctrine, their conduct has been regulated through a succession of years. The progress of knowledge and philosophy, aided by Divine revelation, having enlightened the minds of men with the knowledge of the true God, and sacred tenets of the Christian faith, Masons have readily acquiesced in a religion so wisely calculated to make men happy; but in those countries where the Gospel has not reached, or Christianity displayed her beauties, they have inculcated the universal religion of nature; that is to be good men and true, by whatever denomination or persuasion they are distinguished; and by this universal system, their conduct has always been regulated. A cheerful compliance with the established religion of the country in which they live, is earnestly recommended in the assemblies of Masons; and this universal conformity, notwithstanding private sentiment and opinion, is the art practised by them, which effects the laudable purpose of conciliating true friendship among men of every persuasion, while it proves the cement of general union.

By Masonry we are taught not to deviate from the line of instruction in which we have been educated, or disregard the principles of religion that we have originally imbibed. Though it is our rule to suit ourselves to circumstances and situation in the character of Masons, we are never to forget the wise maxims of our parents, or desert the faith in which we have been nurtured, unless from conviction we may be justified in making the change; and in effecting that change, Masonry can have no share.

No 6, Vol. XII.

tenets of the institution, therefore, interfere with no particular faith, but are alike reconcilable to all. Religious and political disputes never engage the attention of Masons in their private seminaries: those points are left to the discussion and determiination of other associations for whom the theme is better calculated; it being a certain truth, that the wisest systems have been more frequently injured than benefitted by religious cavil.

Notwithstanding the happiest events have arisen in many' periods of the history of the world, from the efforts of a wise, pious, learned, and moderate clergy, seconded by the influence and authority of religious princes, whose counsels and example have always had a commanding power, by enabling them to do good with a facility peculiar to themselves, it must be observed with a generous concern, that those efforts have not been sufficient to extinguish the unhappy spirit of fanaticism, of whose deplorable effects almost every age has exhibited a striking picture. Enthusiastical sects have been perpetually inventing new forms of religion in various countries, by wosking on the passions of the ignorant and unwary, and deriving their rules of faith and manners from the fallacious suggestions of a warm imagination, rather than from the clear and infallible dictates of the word of God. One set of men has covered religion with a tawdry habit of type and allegory, while another has converted it into an instrument of dissention and discord. The discerning mind, however, may easily trace the unhappy consequences of departing from the divine sim plicity of the Gospel, and loading its pure and heavenly doctrines with the inventions and commandments of men. The tendency of true religion is, to strengthen the springs of government, by purifying the motives and animating the zeal of those who govern; to promote the virtues which axalt a nation, by rendering its inhabitants good subjects and true patriots, and confirming all the essential bonds and obligations of civil society. The enemies of religion are the enemies of mankind; and it is the natural tendency of infidelity and licentiousness to dissolve the most sacred obligations, to remove the most powerful motives to virtue, and, by corrupting the principles of individuals, to poison the sources of public order and tranquility.

Such are the mischiefs arising from zeal and enthusiasm carried to excess; but when the principles of Masonry are better understood and practised, the Fraternity will be found to be the best correctors of misguided zeal and unrestrained licentiousness, and the ablest supporters of every well regulated government.

Page 109. Howe commethe Maçonnes more teachers than odher menne?) The answer implies that Masons, from the nature and government of their association, have greater opportunities than other men to improve their talents, and therefore are allowed to be better qualified to instruct others.

Mr. Locke's observations on Masons having the art of finding new arts is judicious, and his explanation just. The Fraternity have always made the study of the arts a principal part of their private amusement; in their assemblies, nice and difficult theories have been canvassed and explained, new discoveries produced, andt hose already known illustrated. The different classes established, the gradual progression of knowledge communicated, and the regularity observed throughout the whole system of their government, are evident proofs, that those who are initiated into the mysteries of the Masonic art, may discover new arts; and this knowledge is acquired by instruction from, and familiar intercourse with men of genius and ability, who have, in their masonic disquisitions, an opportunity of displaying their talents to advantage on almost every important branch of science.

Page 110. What dothe the Maçonnes concele and hyde?) The answer imports, the art of finding new arts, for their profit and praise; and then particularises the different arts they carefully conceal. Mr. Locke's remark, “That this shews too much regard for their own society, and too little for the rest of mankind, is rather

severe, when he has before admitted the propriety of concealing from the world what is of no real public utility, lest, by being converted to bad uses, the consequences might be prejudicial to society. By the word praise is here meant, that honour and respect to which Masons are entitled, as the friends of science and learning, and which is absolutely necessary to give a sanction to the wise doctrines they propagate, while their fidelity gives them a claim to esteem, and the rectitude of their manners demands veneration.

Of all the arts which the Masons practise, the art of secrecy particularly distinguishes them. Taciturnity is a proof of wisdom, and is allowed to be of the utmost importance in the different transactions of life. The best writers have declared it to be an art of inestimable value; and that it is agreeable to the Deity himself, may be easily conceived, from the glorious example which he gives, in concealing from mankind the secrets of his providence. The wisest of men cannot pry into the arcana of heaven; nor can they divine to-day, what to-morrow may bring forth.

Many instances might be adduced from history, to shew the high veneration which was paid to the art of secrecy by the ancients. Pliny informs us, that Anaxarchus, being imprisoned with a view to extort from him some secrets with which he had been entrusted, and dreading lest exquisite torture might induce him to betray his trust, bit his tongue in the middle, and threw it in the face of Nicocreon the tyrant of Cyprus.- No torments could make the servants of Plancus betray the secrets of their master; they encountered every pain with fortitude, and strenuously supported their fidelity amidst the most severe tortures, till death put a period to their sufferings. The Athenians bowed to a statue of brass, which was represented without a topgue to denote secrecy. - The Egyptians worshipped Harpocrates, the god of silence, who was always represented holding his finger at his mouth. - The Romans had their goddess of silence, named Angerona, to whom they offered worship.-Lycurgus the celebrated lawgiver, as well as Pythagoras, the great scholar, particularly recommended this virtue; especially the last, who, as we have before observed, kept his disciples silent during five years, that 'they might learn the valuable secrets he had to commūnicate unto them. This evinces that he deemed secrecy the rarest as well as the noblest art'.

3 The following story is related by a Roman historian (Auluş Gellius); which, as it may be equally pleasing and instructive, we shall insert at full length.

The senators of Rome bad ordained that during their consultations in the senate house, each senator should be permitted to bring his son with him, who was to depart, if occasion required ; but this favour was not general, being restricted only to the sons of Noblemen; who, in those days, were tutored from their infancy in the virtue of secresy, and thereby qualified, in their riper years, to discharge the most important offices of government with fidelity and wisdom. About this time it happened, that the senators met on a very important case, and the affair requiring mature deliberation, they were detained longer than usual in the senate-house, and the conclusion of their determination was adjourned to the following day; each member engaging, in the mean time, to keep secret the proceedings of the meeting. Among other noblemen's sons who attended on the occasion, was the son of the grave Papyrus; a family of great renown and splendor. This youth was no less remarkable for the extent of his genius, than for the prudence of his deportment. On his return home, his mother, anxious to know what important case had been debated in the senate that day, which had detained the senators so long beyond the usual hour, intreated him to relate the particulars. The noble and virtuous youth told her, it was a business not in his power to reveal, he being solemnly enjoined to silence. On hearing this, her importunities were most earnest, and her inquiries more minute. By fair speeches and intreaties, with liberal promises, she endeavoured to break open this little casket of secrecy; but these proving ineffectual, she adopted rigorous measures, and had recourse to stripes and violent threats ; being determined that force should extort what lenity could 'not effect. The youth, finding his mother's threats to be very harsh, but her stripes more severe, with a noble and heroic spirit, thus endeavoured to relieve her anxiety, without violating his fidelity :

• Madam, you may well blame the senate for their long sitting; at least, for presuming to call in question a case so truly impertinent; except the wives of the senators are allowed to consult on it, there can be no hope of a conclusion. I speak this only from my own opinion; I know their gravity will easily confound my juvenile apprehensions; yet, whether nature or duty instructs me to do so, I cannot tell. It seems necessary to them, for the increase of people, and the public good, that every senator should be allowed two wives; or otherwise, their wives two husbands. I shall hardly incline, to call, under one roof, two men by the name of father; I would rather with cheerfulness salute two women by the name of mother. This is the question, Madam, and to-morrow it is to be determined.'

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