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made, and annone techedde; evenne soe shulde all odhers beyn recht. Nathe-less " maçonnes hauethe alweys, yn everyche tyme, from tyme to tyme, communycatedde to mannkynde soche of her seçrettes as generallyche myghte be usefulle; they haueth keped back soche allein as shulde be harmfulle yff they comed yn euylle haundes, oder soche as ne myghte be holpynge wythouten the techynges to be joynedde herwythe in the lodge, oder soche as do bynde the freres more stronglyche togeder, bey the proffytte and commodytye comynge to the confrerie herfromme.

Q. Whatte artes haueth the maçonnes techedde mankynde ?

A. The artes" agricultura, architectura, astronomia, geometria, numares, musica, poesie, kymistrye, governmente, and relygyonne.

Q. Howe commethe maçonnes more teachers than odher menne?

A. The hemselfe haueth allein in " arte of ffyndynge neue artes, whyche, arte the ffyrste maçonnes receaued from Godde; by the whyche they fyndethe what artes bem plesethe, and the treu way of techynge the same. What odher menne doethe ffynde out, ys onelyche bey chaunce, and herfore but lytel I tro.

Q. What dothe the maçonnes concele and hyde?

A. Thay concelethe the arte of ffyndynge neue artes, and thatt ys for here owne proffytte, and 15 preise: they concelethe the arte of kepynge 16 secrettes, that soe the worlde mayeth nothinge con

12 Maçonnes haueth communycatedde, &c.] This paragraph hath something remarkable in it. It contains a justification of the secresy so much boasted of by Masons, and so much blamed by others; asserting that they have in all ages discovered such things as might be useful, and that they conceal such only as would be hurtful either to the world or themselves. What these secrets are, we see afterwards.

13 The artes agricultura, &c.] It seems a bold pretence this of the Masons, that they have taught mankind all these arts. They have there own authority for it; and I know not how we shall disprove them. But wbat appears most odd is, that they reckon religion among the arts.

14. Arte of ffyndynge neue artes.] The art of inventing arts, must certainly be a most useful art. My Lord Bacon's Novum Organum is an attempt towards somewhat of the same kind. But I much doubt, that if ever the masons had it, they have now lost it; since so few new arts have been lately invented, and so many are wanted. The idea I have of such an art is, thut it must be something proper to be employed in all the sciences generally, as algebra is in numbers, by the help of which, new rules of arithmetic are, and may be found.

15 Preise.] It seems the Masons have great regard to the reputation as well as the profit of their order; since they make it one reason for not divulging an art in common, that it may do honour to the possessors of its I think in this particular they show to much regard for their own Society, and too little for the rest of mankind.

16 Arte of kepynge secrettes.] What kind of an art this is, I can by no means imagine. But certainly such an art the Masons must have.: for

cele from them. Thay concelethe the arte of wunder-werckynge, and of foresayinge thynges to comme, that so thay same artes may not be usedde of the wyckedde to an euyell ende. Thay also concelethe the" arte of chaunges, the wey of wynnynge the facultye 18 of Abrac, the skylle of becommynge gude and parfyghte wythouten the holpynges of fere and hope ; and the universelle 19 longage of maçonnes.

Q. Wylle he teche me thay same artes ?

A. Yeshalle be techedde yff ye be werthye, and able to lerne.

Q. Dothe all maçonnes kunne more then odher menne?

A. Not so. Thay onlyche haueth recht and occasyonne more then odher menne to kunne, butt manye doeth fale yn capacity, and manye more doth want industrye, that ys pernecessarye for the gaynynge all kunnynge.

Q. Are maçonnes gudder men then odhers ?

A. Some maçonnes are not so virtuous as some odher menne; but, yn the most parte, thay be more gude then they would be yf thay war not maçonnes.

Q. Doth maçonnes love eidhér odher myghtylye as beeth sayde?

A. Yea verylyche, and yt may not odberwise be: for gude menne and true, kennynge eidher odher to be soche, doeth always love the more as they be more gude.

[Here endethe the questyonnes, and awnsweres.]

though, as some people suppose, they should have no secret at all, even that must be a secret, which, being discovered, would expose them to the highest ridicule; and therefore it requires the utmost caution to conceal it.

17 Arte of chaunges.] I know not what this means, unless it be the transmutation of metals.

18 Facultye of Abrac.] Here I am utterly in the dark.

19 Universelle longage ot' maçonnes.] An universal language has been much desired by the learned of many ages. It is a thing rather to be wished than hoped for.. But it seems the masons pretend to have such a thing among them. If it be true, I guess it must be something like the language of the Pantomimes among the ancient Romans, who are said to be able, by signs only, to express and deliver any oration intelligibly to men of all nations and languages. A man who has all these arts and advantagesy is certainly in a condition to be envied : but we are told that this is not the case with all masóns; for though these arts are among them, and all have a right and an opportunity to know them, yet some want capacity, and others industry, to acquire them. · llowever, of all their arts and secrets, that which I desire to know is, “The skylle of becommynge gude and parfyghte;' and I wish it were communicated to all mankind, since there is nothing more true than the beautiful sentence contained in the last answer, 'That the better men are, the more they love one another:' virtue having in itself something so amiable as to charm the hearts of all that behold it.

A Glossary of antiquated Words in the foregoing Manuscript. Albein, only

Myghte, power Alweys, always

Occasyonne, opportunity Beithe, both

Odher, other Commodytye, conveniency Onelyche, only Confrerie, fraternity

Pernecessarye, absolutely necesFaçonnynge, forming

sary Foresayinge, prophesying Preise, honour Freres, brethren

Recht, right Headlye, chiefly

Rechenyngs, numbers Hem plesethe, they please Sonderlyche, particularly Hemselfe, themselves

Skylle, knowledge Her, there, their

Wacksynge, growing Hereynne, therein

Werck, operation Herwyth, with it

Wey, way Holpynge, beneficial

Whereas, where Kunne, know

Woned, dwelt Knnnynge, knowledge

Wunderwerckynge, working miMake gudde, are beneficial

racles Metynges, measures

Wylde, savage Mote, may

Wynnynge, gaining Myddlonde, Mediterranean Ynn, into

SECT. II.

Remarks on the preceding Manuscript, and on the annotations of

Mr. Locké.

This dialogue possesses a double claim to our regard : first, for its antiquity; and next, for the notes added to it by Mr. Locke, who, though not at that time enrolled in the order of Masons, offers very just conjectures on their history, and traditions.

Every reader must feel a secret satisfaction in the perusal of this ancient manuscript, especially the true Mason, whom it more nearly concerns. The recommendation of a philosopher of as great merit and penetration as this nation ever produced, added to the real value of the piece itself, must give it a sanction, and render it deserving a serious examination.

The conjecture of the learned annotator concerning its being an examination taken before King Henry of one of the Fraternity of Masons, is accurate. The severe edict passed at that time against the Society, and the discouragement given to the Masons by the Bishop of Winchester and his party, induced that prince, in his riper years, to make a strict scrutiny into the nature of the masonic institution; which was attended with the happy circumstance of gaining his favour, and his patronage. Had not the

civil commotions in the kingdom during his reign attracted the notice of government, this act would probably have been repealed through the intercession of the Duke of Gloucester, whose attachment to the fraternity was conspicuous.

Page 106. What mote ytt be?] Mr. Locke observes, in his annotation on this question, that the answer imports, Masonry consists of natural, mathematical, and mechanical knowledge; some part of which, he says, the Masons pretend to have taught mankind, and some part they still conceal.— The arts which they have communicated to the world, as particularly specified in an answer to one of the following questions; as are also those which they have restricted to themselves for wise purposes.--Morality, however, might have been included in this answer, as it constitutes a principal part of the Masonic system.

Page 107. Where dyd ytt begynne?] In the annotation to the answer on this question, Mr. Locke seems to suggest, that Masons believed there were men in the east before Adam, which is indeed a mere conjecture. This opinion may be countenanced by some learned authors; but Masons comprehend the true meaning of Masonry taking rise in the east and spreading to the west, without having recourse to the Preadamites. East and west are terms peculiar to their society; and when masonically adopted, are very intelligible', as they refer to certain forms and establish: ed customs among themselves. From the east, it is well known, learning extended to the western world, and gradually advanced into Europe.

Page 107. Who dyd bring ytt westlye ?] The judicions correction of an illiterate clerk, in the answer to this question as well as the next, reflects credit on the ingenious annotator. The explanation is just, and the elucidation accurate.

Page 107. Howe comede ytt yn Engelonde ?] The records of the Fraternity inform us, that Pythagoras was regularly initiated into Masonry; and being properly instructed in the mysteries of the Art, propagated the principles of the Order in other countries into which he travelled.

Pythagoras lived at Samos, in the reign of Tarquin, the lastking of the Romans, in the year of Rome 220; or, according to Livy, in the reign of Servius Tullius, in the year of the world 3472. He was the son of a sculptor, and was educated under one of the greatest men of his time, Pherecydes of Syrus, who first taught the immortality of the soul. On the death of his patron, he determined to trace science to its source, and to supply himself with fresh stores in every part of the world where these could be obtained. Animated by a desire of knowledge, he travelled into Egypt, and submitted to that tedious and discouraging course of prepatory discipline, which was requisite

! And behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the East. Ezek. xliii. 2.

to obtain the benefit of Egyptian initiation. When he bad made himself a thorough master of all the sciences, that were cultivated in the sacerdotal colleges of Thebes and Memphis, he pursued his travels through the east, conversing with the Magi and Indian Brachmans, and mixing their doctrines with those he had learnt in Egypt. He afterwards studied the laws of Minos at crete, and those of Lycurgus at Sparta. Having spent the earlier part of his life in this useful manner, he returned to Samos well acquainted with every thing curious either in nature or art in foreign countries, improved with all the advantages proceeding from a regular and laborious course of learned education, and adorned with that knowledge of mankind which was necessary to gain the ascendant over them. Accustomed to freedom, he disliked the arbitrary government of Polycrates, then tyrant of Samos, and retired to Crotona in Italy, where he opened a shool of philosophy; and, by the gravity and sanctity of his manners, the importance of his tenets, and the peculiarity of his institutions, soon spread his fame and influence over Italy and Greece. Among other projects which he used, to create respect, and gain credit to his assertions, he concealed himself in a cave, and caused it to be reported that he was dead.

After some time he came abroad, and pretended that the intelligence which his friends gave him in his retreat, of the transactions of Crotona, was collected during his stay in the other world among the shades of the departed. He formed his disciples, who came from all parts to put themselves under his direction, into a kind of republic, where none were admitted till a severe probation had sufficiently exercised their patience and docility. He afterwards divided them into esoteric and exoteric classes : to the former he entrusted the more sublime and secret doctrines, to the latter the more simple and popular. This great man found himself able to unite the character of the legislator to that of the philosopher, and to rival Lycurgus and orpheus in the one, Pherecedes and thales in the other; following in this particular, the patterns set him by the Egptian priests, his instructors, who were not less celebrated for settling the civil than the religious economy of their nation. In imitation of them, Pythagoras gave laws to the republic of Crotona, and brought the inhabitants from a state of luxury and dissoluteness, to be eminent for order and sobriety. While he lived, he was frequently consulted by the neighbouring republics, as the composer of their differences, and the reformer of their manners: and, since his death, (which happened about the fourth year of the 70th Olympiad, in a tumult raised against him by one Ceylon,) the administration of their affairs has been generally intrusted to some of his disciples; among whom to produce the authority of their master for any assertion was sufficient to establish the truth of it without further inquiry.

The most celebrated of the philosophical notions of Pythagoras are those concerning the nature of the Deity, the transmigration

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