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A Universal Reference Library
COMPRISING THE ARTS AND SCIENCES,
FREDERICK CONVERSE BEACH
GEORGE EDWIN RINES
ASSISTED BY MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND OF THE MOST EMINENT SCHOLARS
Scientific American Compiling Department
225 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK
SIMON NEW CO MB, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc.
JAMES E. CREIGHTON, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University
ROBERT S. WOODWARD, Ph.D., LL.D.
CASSIUS J. KEYSER, M.A., Ph.D. Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia University
ANDREW SLOAN DRAPER, LL.D.r Commissioner of Education, State of New York
DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D.. LL.D. President of Leland Stanford Jr. University
WILLIAM P. TRENT, A.M., LL.D. Professor of English Literature, Columbia University WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, A.M. Professor of English, Columbia University
EDWARD EVERETT HALE, S.T.D., LL.D. Author of " The Man Without a Country"
JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., LL.D.
ARCHITECTURE AND THE FINE ARTS
RUSSELL STURGIS, F.A.I.A.
RELIGION AND THEOLOGY
SYLVESTER BURNHAM, D.D. Dean of Hamilton Theological Seminary, Colgate University
REV. P. A. HALPIN .
ALLAN DOUGLAS RISTEEN, PkD.
GEORGE LETCHWORTH ENGLISH
WILLIAM MAVER, Jr., C.E. Consulting Electrical Engineer, New York
ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY
WILLIAM MOREY, Jr., C.E. Consulting Civil and Mechanical Engineer New York
STEEL ALBERT SAUVEUR, S.B. Professor of Metallurgy, Harvard University
ABRAM S. ISAACS, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Languages, New York University
HISTORY OF THE NATIONS
Andrew c. Mclaughlin, A.m.
Editor of "American Historical Review"
GEORGE McKINNON WRONG, A.M. Professor of History, University of Toronto CHARLES WILLIAM COLBY, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of History, McGill University
ELISHA HOLLINGSWORTH TALBOT Author "Commercial and Industrial Mexico"
HALFORD JOHN MACKINDER, M.A. Director of the School of Economics and Political Science in the University of London GERMANY
HUGO MUNSTERBURG, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Psychology, Harvard University FRANCE
HON. HILAIRE BELLOC M.P. for Salford (Eng.) ; Author of "Danton," "Robespierre," "Paris," etc. ITALY
J. S. KENNARD, Litt.D., D.C.L., L.H.D. Author of " Italian Romance Writers," "StudiDanteschi," "Romanzi e Romanzieri Italiani," "Les Femme dans le Roman Italien," "The Fallen God," etc.
GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, D.D., LLD.
Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Yale University; Lecturer on Philosophy, Western Reserve University; Lecturer on Education in the universities of Japan.
HON. JOHN GREELEY JENKINS Premier of South Australia 1001-75; AgentGeneral in London for South Australia