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THE

AMERICANA

A Universal Reference Library

COMPRISING THE ARTS AND SCIENCES,
LITERATURE, HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY,
GEOGRAPHY, COMMERCE, ETC.,
OF THE WORLD

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

FREDERICK CONVERSE BEACH

MANAGING EDITOR

GEORGE EDWIN RINES

ASSISTED BY MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND OF THE MOST EMINENT SCHOLARS
AND AUTHORITIES IN AMERICA AND EUROPB

ILLUSTRATED

Scientific American Compiling Department

225 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK

Copyright 1912

HY

FREDERICK CONVERSE BEACH

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ASTRONOMY

SIMON NEW CO MB, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc.

PHILOSOPHY

JAMES E. CREIGHTON, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University

PHYSICS

ROBERT S. WOODWARD, Ph.D., LL.D.
President of Carnegie Institution

PURE MATHEMATICS

CASSIUS J. KEYSER, M.A., Ph.D. Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia University

EDUCATION

ANDREW SLOAN DRAPER, LL.D.r Commissioner of Education, State of New York

ZOOLOGY

DAVID STARR JORDAN, Ph.D.. LL.D. President of Leland Stanford Jr. University

ENGLISH LITERATURE

WILLIAM P. TRENT, A.M., LL.D. Professor of English Literature, Columbia University WILLIAM T. BREWSTER, A.M. Professor of English, Columbia University

AMERICAN LITERATURE

EDWARD EVERETT HALE, S.T.D., LL.D. Author of " The Man Without a Country"

CLASSICAL LITERATURE

JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., LL.D.
Chancellor of Vanderbilt University

ARCHITECTURE AND THE FINE ARTS

RUSSELL STURGIS, F.A.I.A.
Author of "Dictionary of Architecture"

RELIGION AND THEOLOGY

SYLVESTER BURNHAM, D.D. Dean of Hamilton Theological Seminary, Colgate University

REV. P. A. HALPIN .
Saint Angela's College, New Rochelle, N. Y.

MEDICINE
SMITH ELY JELLIFFE, M.D., Ph.D.
Editor Medical News."

CHEMISTRY

ALLAN DOUGLAS RISTEEN, PkD.
Hartford, Conn.

MINERALOGY

GEORGE LETCHWORTH ENGLISH
New York

LAW
HENRY M. EARLE
New York

ELECTRICITY

WILLIAM MAVER, Jr., C.E. Consulting Electrical Engineer, New York

ENGINEERING AND MACHINERY

WILLIAM MOREY, Jr., C.E. Consulting Civil and Mechanical Engineer New York

STEEL ALBERT SAUVEUR, S.B. Professor of Metallurgy, Harvard University

JUDAISM

ABRAM S. ISAACS, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Languages, New York University

HISTORY OF THE NATIONS

TOITED STATES

Andrew c. Mclaughlin, A.m.

Editor of "American Historical Review"
CANADA

GEORGE McKINNON WRONG, A.M. Professor of History, University of Toronto CHARLES WILLIAM COLBY, A.M., Ph.D. Professor of History, McGill University

MEXICO

ELISHA HOLLINGSWORTH TALBOT Author "Commercial and Industrial Mexico"

GREAT BRITAIN

HALFORD JOHN MACKINDER, M.A. Director of the School of Economics and Political Science in the University of London GERMANY

HUGO MUNSTERBURG, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Psychology, Harvard University FRANCE

HON. HILAIRE BELLOC M.P. for Salford (Eng.) ; Author of "Danton," "Robespierre," "Paris," etc. ITALY

J. S. KENNARD, Litt.D., D.C.L., L.H.D. Author of " Italian Romance Writers," "StudiDanteschi," "Romanzi e Romanzieri Italiani," "Les Femme dans le Roman Italien," "The Fallen God," etc.

JAPAN

GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, D.D., LLD.

Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Yale University; Lecturer on Philosophy, Western Reserve University; Lecturer on Education in the universities of Japan.

AUSTRALIA

HON. JOHN GREELEY JENKINS Premier of South Australia 1001-75; AgentGeneral in London for South Australia

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