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General Terms in each judicial district. Any Justice of the Supreme Court may hold Special Terms and Circuit Courts, and may preside in Courts of Oyer and Terminer, in any county.

SEC. 8. No Judge or Justice shall sit, at a General Term of any court, or in the Court of Appeals, in review of a decision made by him, or by any court of which he was at the time a sitting member. The testimony in equity cases shall be taken in like manner as in cases at law; and except as herein otherwise provided, the Legislature shall have the same power to alter and regulate the jurisdiction and proceedings in law and equity that they have heretofore exercised.

Sec. 9. When a vacancy shall occur, otherwise than by expiration of term, in the office of Justice of the Supreme Court, the same shall be filled, for a full term, at the next general election happening not less than three months after such vacancy occurs; and until any vacancy shall be so filled, the Governor by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, if the Senate shall be in session, or if not in session, the Governor may appoint to fill such vacancy. Any such appointment shall continue until and including the last day of December next after the election at which the vacancy shall be filled.

SEC. 10. The Judges of the Court of Appeals, and the Justices of the Supreme Court, shall not hold any other office or public trust. All votes for any of them, for any other than a judicial office, given by the Legislature or the people, shall be void.

SEC. 11. Judges of the Court of Appeals, and Justices of the Supreme Court, may be removed by concurrent resolution of both houses of the Legislature, if two-thirds of all the members elected to each house concur therein. All judicial officers, except those mentioned in this section, and

except Justices of the Peace and Judges and Justices of inferior courts not of record, may be removed by the Senate, on the recommendation of the Governor, if two-thirds of all the members elected to the Senate concur therein. But no removal shall be made, by virtue of this section, unless the cause thereof be entered on the journals, nor unless the party complained of shall have been served with a copy of the charges against him, and shall have had an opportunity of being heard. On the question of removal, the yeas and nays shall be entered on the journal.

* SEC. 12. The Superior Court in the city of New York, the Court of Common Pleas for the city and county of New York, the Superior Court of Buffalo, and the City Court of Brooklyn, are continued with the powers and jurisdiction they now severally have, and such further civil and criminal jurisdiction as may be conferred by law. The Superior Court of New York shall be composed of the six Judges in office at the adoption of this article, and their successors; the Court of Common Pleas of New York, of the three Judges then in office, and their successors, and three additional Judges; the Superior Court of Buffalo, of the Judges now in office and their successors; and the City Court of Brooklyn, of such number of Judges, not exceeding three, as may be provided by law. The Judges of said courts, in office at the adoption of this article, are continued until the expiration of their terms. A Chief Judge shall be appointed by the Judges of each of said courts, from their own number, who shall act as such during his official term. Vacancies in the office of the Judges named in this section, occurring otherwise than by expiration of term, shall be filled in the same manner as vacancies in the Supreme Court. The Legislature may provide for detail

* Sections 12 and 13, amended by vote of the people, November 2, 1880.

ing Judges of the Superior Court and Court of Common Pleas of New York, to hold Circuits and Special Terms of the Supreme Court in that city, and for detailing Judges of the City Court of Brooklyn to hold Circuits and Special Terms of the Supreme Court in Kings county, as the public interest may require.

* SEC. 13. Justices of the Supreme Court shall be chosen by the electors of their respective judicial districts. Judges of all courts mentioned in the last preceding section shall be chosen by the electors of the cities respectively in which said courts are instituted. The official terms of the said Justices and Judyes who shall be elected after the adoption of this article, shall be fourteen years from and including the first day of January next after their election. But no person shall hold the office of Justice or Judge of any court longer than until and including the last day of December next, after he shall be seventy years of age. The compensation of every Judge of the Court of Appeals and of every Justice of the Supreme Court, whose term of office sball be abridged pursuant to this provision, and who shall have served as such Judge or Justice ten years or more, shall be continued during the remainder of the term for which he was elected.

Sec. 14. The Judges and Justices hereinbefore mentioned shall receive for their services a compensation to be established by law, which shall not be diminished during their official terms. Except the Judges of the Court of Appeals and the Justices of the Supreme Court, they shall be paid, and the expenses of their courts defrayed, by the cities or counties in which such courts are instituted, as shall be provided by law.

SEC. 15. The existing County Courts are continued, and the Judges thereof in office at the adoption of this article

* As amended by vote of the people, November 2, 1880.

shall hold their offices until the expiration of their respective terms. Their successors shall be chosen by the electors of the counties, for the term of six years. The County Court shall have the powers and jurisdiction they now possess, until altered by the Legislature. They shall also have original jurisdiction in all cases where the defendants reside in the county and in which the damages claimed shall not exceed one thousand dollars; and also such appellate jurisdiction as shall be provided by law, subject, however, to such provision as shall be made by law for the removal of causes into the Supreme Court. They shall also have such other original jurisdiction as shall, from time to time, be conferred upon them by the Legislature. The County Judge, with two Justices of the Peace, to be designated according to law, may hold Courts of Sessions, with such criminal jurisdiction as the Legislature shall prescribe, and he shall perform such other duties as may be required by law. His salary, and the salary of the Surrogate when elected as a separate officer, shall be established by law, payable out of the County Treasury, and shall not be diminished during his term of office. The Justices of the Peace shall be paid, for services in Courts of Sessions, a per diem allowance out of the County Treasury. The County Judge shall also be Surrogate of his county; but in counties having a population exceeding forty thousand, the Legislature may provide for the election of a separate officer to be Surrogate, whose term of office shall be the same as that of the County Judge. The County Judge of any county may preside at Courts of Sessions, or hold County Courts, in any other county, except New York and Kings, when requested by the Judge of such other county.

Sec. 16. The Legislature may, on application of the board of supervisors, provide for the election of local officers, not to exceed two in any county, to discharge the duties of County Judge and of Surrogate, in cases of their inability, or of a vacancy, and to exercise such other powers in special cases as may be provided by law.

SEC. 17. The Legislature shall provide for submitting to the electors of the State, at the general election in the year eighteen hundred and seventy-three, two questions, to be voted upon on separate ballots, as follows: First, “ Shall the offices of Chief Judge and Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, and of Justice of the Supreme Court, be hereafter filled by appointment?”* If a majority of the votes upon the question shall be in the affirmative, the said officers shall not thereafter be elective, but, as vacancies occur, they shall be filled by appointment by the Governor by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; or if the Senate be not in session, by the Governor; but in such case, he shall nominate to the Senate when next convened, and such appointment by the Governor alone shall expire at the end of that session. Second, “Shall the offices of the Judges mentioned in sections twelve and fifteen of article six of the Constitution, be hereafter filled by appoint. ment ?"* If a majority of the votes upon the question shall be in the affirmative, the said officers shall not thereafter be elective, but, as vacancies occur, they shall be filled in the manner in this section above provided.

SEC. 18. The electors of the several towns shall, at their annual town meeting, and in such manner as the Legislature may direct, elect Justices of the Peace, whose term of office shall be four years. In case of an election to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of a full term, they shall hold for the residue of the unexpired term. Their number and classification may be regulated by law. Jus

*Submitted to vote of the people, November 4, 1873 — pursuant to chapter 314, Laws of 1873,- and determined in the negative.

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