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sions to suit the strains imposed upon them. on account of the situation. The upper surThis variation is made necessary by the great face of the bottom chord and the lower surlength of the span, which could not be reduced face of the top chord are curved therefore, in
BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, comprising than the pressure of the United States internal Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, New- revenue tax: Grain, flour, and breadstuffs of foundland, and Prince Edward Island. His Ex- all kinds; animals of all kinds; fresh, salted, and cellency Right Hon. Charles Stanley, Viscount smoked meats; cotton, wool, seeds, and vegeMonck, Governor-General of British North tables; undried fruits, dried fruits; poultry, America, and Captain-General and Governor- eggs; stone or marble, slate; butter, cheese, in-chief in and over the Provinces of Canada, tallow, lard ; timber and lumber of all kinds; Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Island of pelts and wool; dyestuffs ; flax, hemp, and towi Prince Edward, and Vice-Admiral of the same, unmanufactured tobacco; woollen rags; burr etc. Denis Godley, Governor-General's Secre- and grind stones, wrought. tary; Lieut.-Col. Hon. Richard Monck, Military There were three other points embraced in Secretary; Capt. Pemberton, 60th Rifles, aide- the proposition from the House committee. de-camp; Lieut.-Col. Irvine, Provincial aide-de- First, the mutual use of the waters of Lake camp; Lieut. Col. Bernard and Lieut.-Col. F. Michigan and the St. Lawrence. Second, the Cumberland, Extra Provincial aides-de-camp. free transit of goods under bond between the The Canadian Cabinet.-Sir_N. F. Belleau, Re
two countries, and in that connection the aboceiter-General and Premier; Hon. A. J. Fergusson lition of the free ports existing in Canada. Blair
, President of the Council; John A. Macdonald, Third, the concession of the right of fishing in Attorney-General for Upper Canada, and Minister of provincial waters. Militia; George E. Cartier, Attorney-General for Lower Canada; w. P. Howland, Acting Minister of delegates, stated their objections to the propo
The Hon. Mr. Galt, on behalf of the Colonial Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Minister of Agriculture and sition with frankness and ability. He thought Immigration; A. Campbell, Commissioner of Crown that all the articles on the free list of the reciLands; W, P. Howland, Postmaster-General; J. C. procity treaty, and such others as might be Chapais , Minister of Public Works; James
Cock: agreed on, should be dealt with on the basis of burn, Solicitor-General for Upper Canada ; Hector E. Langevin, Solicitor-General for Lower Canada. imposing custom duties as heavy as the internal
Nova Scotia.-His Excellency Lieutenant-General taxes of the United States. With reference to
that no new arrangements were required. Asto
under bonds should be reduced to the form of a Prince Edward Island. His Excellency Anthony law, and there seemed to be no reason why a Musgrave, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor.
uniform system should not be adopted. With The Reciprocity Treaty between Canada and reference to the assimilation of duties between the United States. This was the subject of a the two countries, he said that it would be the conference between a delegation from the Colo- desire of the Colonial delegates to unite with nial Government of Canada and the Committee the committee in making the duties upon of Ways and Means of the United States House spirits, beer, tobacco, and cognate articles afof Representatives, in January, 1866. The in- fected by the excise duties upon them, such as terviews took place at the Treasury Depart might be determined to be the best revenue ment, Washington, with the approval of Hon. standard. As to other articles, the Colonial Mr. McCulloch, Secretary of the Treasury. The Government was disposed to make mutual arColonial delegates were the Hon. Messrs. Galt rangements on a satisfactory footing. Mr. Galt and Howland (Canada); Henry (Nova Scotia); expressed the hope that the time would come and Smith (New Brunswick); and the Congres- when the policy of the United States would not sional committee, Messrs. Morrill
, of Vermont; be as restrictive as now. With regard to the Hooper, of Massachusetts; Brooks, of New navigation of the internal waters, it would seem York; Garfield, of Ohio; Wentworth, of Illinois; to be advantageous to both sides to have the Conkling, of New York; Moorhead, of Penn- trade free. He also expressed the willingness sylvania ; Allison, of lowa, and Hogan, of Mis- of the Canadian authorities to assimilate their souri.
patent laws to those of the United States. After a general discussion upon the subject On the 6th of February, all the questions inof reciprocal trade, Mr. Morrill submitted, on volved having been discussed at numerous sitbehalf of the committee, the following list of tings, the Colonial delegates rejected the Amerarticles which he thought should be admitted to ican proposition as a whole, and expressed a the United States with no higher duty than the feeling of disappointment at the unsuccessful pressure of the United States internal revenue termination of the conference. Mr. Galt stated tax: Fish of all kinds; products of fish; hides, that the Canadian Government were prepared to furs, skins, and tails, undressed; horns, ma- let the present trading facilities continue withbures; pitch, tar, turpentine; ashes; coal, fire- out asking for any further security from the Food; plants, shrubs, and trees; fish-oil; rice, United States, or giving any assurances on the bark; gypsum, unground; burr and grind stones, part of Canada. The question of the fisheries unwrought; rags, except woollen, unwrought. they would leave, as it would be left at the termi
The articles mentioned below he thought nation of the treaty, to be dealt with by the sev. should be made to bear a higher import duty eral Legislatures of the United States on the one
hand, and of the British Provinces on the other,
WASHINGTON, February 1, 1866 as they might please. On the subject of fisher- To His Excellency Sir Frederick Bruce, K. İ. B., str. : ies, Mr. Henry (representing Nova Scotia) said lency that the renewal of our negotiations for recipthat it was one upon which, above all others, rocal trade with the United States have terminated the population of Nova Scotia were divided in unsuccessfully. You have been informed from time opinion, as to whether they were not the losers to time of our proceedings, but we propose briefly to under the present condition of things. He con- recapitulate them. sidered, at all events, that to yield the right of excellency, we addressed ourselves, with your sane
On our arrival here, after consultation with your fishing within the prescribed limits is a very tion, to the Secretary of the Treasury, and we were large bounty given for the opening of the United by him put in communication with the Committee States market for the single article of mackerel. of Ways and Means of the House of Representatives. Before the treaty, the duty on mackerel was taining
that no renewal or extension of the existing about $2 per barrel, and the United States now treaty would be made by the American authorities, proposed that on condition of giving up the ex- but that whatever was done must be by legislation, we clusive right of the fishing, mackerel should be submitted as the basis upon which we desired aradmitted with no higher rate of duty than the rangements to be made the enclosed paper (marked
A). pressure of the United States internal revenue tax; but this would amount to $1.50 in gold, committee, of which a copy is enclosed (B). And
'In reply, we received the memorandum from the or about $2 in currency. The question was, finding, after discussion, that no important modifitherefore, really on the same footing as before cations in their views could be obtained, and that the treaty. Under that treaty also a good deal we were required to consider their proposition as a of cheese and butter were admitted into the clining it, which was done by the memorandum also United States, free; but under the proposed enclosed (C). new tariff these would now be taxed. The It is proper to explain the grounds of our final people of Nova Scotia would therefore feel on action : all accounts that, in acceding to the proposal sions of the expiring treaty relating to the free in
It will be observed that the most important proviof the committee, they would be giving up a terchange of the products of the two countries were decided advantage without any equivalent what- entirely set aside, and that the duties proposed to ever. Mr. Henry stated, as the opinion of him- be levied were almost prohibitory in their character. self and associates, that the object of the com- The principal object for our entering into negotiamittee was apparently not merely to devise a to consider
whether the minor points were such as plan for collecting revenue from the Canadian to make it desirable for us to enter into specific entrade, but to put in force the principle of pro- gagements. tection.
These points are three in number. Mr. Morrill replied that the rates on the part of the waters of Lake Michigan and the St. Lawrence
With regard to the first-the proposed mutual use of the United States were fixed with a view to
-we considered that the present arrangements were revenue only.
sufficient, and that the common interests of both After a further general conversation, the countries would prevent their disturbance. We were conference broke up, and, on the next day, the not prepared to yield the right of interference in the following memorandum, embodying the views imposition of tolls upon our canals. We believed, of the delegates, was presented by them to the States of'navigating the waters of the St. Lawrence
moreover, that the privilege allowed the United committee:
was very much more than an equivalent for our use WASHINGTON, February 6, 1866. of Lake Michigan. Memorandum.-In reference to the memorandum Upon the second point-providing for the free received from the Committee of Ways and Means, transit of goods under bond between the two coun. the Provincial delegates regret to be obliged to state tries-we believe that in this respect, as in the former that the proposition therein contained, in regard to case, the interests of both countries would secure the commercial relations between the two countries, the maintenance of existing regulations. Connected is not such as they can recommend for the adoption with this point was the demand made for the aboliof their respective Legislatures. The imposts which tion of the free ports existing in Canada, which we it is proposed to lay upon the productions of the were not disposed to concede, especially in view British Provinces on their entry into the markets of of the extremely unsatisfactory position in which the United States, are such as, in their opinion, will it was proposed to place the trade between the two be in some cases prohibitory, and will certainly se countries. riously interfere with the natural course of trade. On both the above points we do not desire to be The imposts are so much beyond what the delegates understood as stating that the existing agreements conceive to be an equivalent for the internal taxa- should not be extended and placed on a more pertion of the United States, that they are reluctantly manent basis, but only that, taken apart from the brought to the conclusion that the committee no more important interests involved, it did not appear longer desire the trade between the two countries to to us at this time necessary to deal with them excepbe carried on upon the principle of reciprocity. With tionally. the concurrence of the British minister at Washing With reference to the third and last point-the ton they are, therefore, obliged respectfully to decline concession of the right of fishing in provincial waters to enter into the engagements suggested in the mem- -we considered the equivalent proposed for so very orandum, but they trust the present views of the valuable a right to be utterly inadequate. The adUnited States may soon be so far modified as to per- mission of a few unimportant articles free, with the mit of the interchange of the productions of the two establishment of a scale of high duties as proposed, countries upon a more liberal basis.
would not, in our opinion, have justified us in yield
ing this point. The delegates also submitted the following re While we regret this unfavorable termination of port to the British ambassador at Washington : the negotiations, we are not without hope that, at 10
distant day, they may be resumed with a better pros- tails of information, and offered the following pect of a satisfactory result. We have the honor to be your excellency's most
suggestions: obedient servants,
1. To establish promptly a line of steamers suitable A. T. GALT, Minister of Finance, Canada. for the carriage of mails, passengers, and freight, W. P. HOWLAND, Postmaster-Gen'l, Canada.
between Halifax, Nova Scotia, and St. Thomas, in W. A. HENRY, Attorney-Gen'l, Nova Scotia.
the West Indies, touching (until the completion of A. J. SMITH, Attorney-Gen'l, New Brunswick.
the Intercolonial Railway) at Portland, in the United
States, so as to insure regular semi-monthly comCanadian Trade with the West Indies, Bra- munication between the ports mentioned. zil
, and Mexico.-When it became evident that 2. To make a convention or agreement with the the reciprocity treaty between the United postal authorities of the United States for the prompt States and Canada wonld be abrogated, a con
transmission of letters, etc., from Canada and the
maritime Provinces, by every United States mail federate council of trade was held in Quebec which
leaves the ports of Boston or New York for September, 1865, at the suggestion of the Im- the West Indies, Brazil, Mexico, etc., and also for perial authorities, and a committee appointed the transmission through United States mails of corto investigate the trade of the West Indies, respondence
originating in those countries. Brazil, and Mexico, with a view to obtain new Montreal and Halifax, and to complete as soon as
3. To establish a weekly line of steamers between commercial advantages for Canada. This com- possible the Intercolonial Railway. mittee, which proceeded on its mission in De 4. To procure, by reciprocal treaties or otherwise, cember of that year, was composed as follows: a reduction of the duties now levied on flour, fish, From Canada, Hon. William McDougall, M. of British
North America, in the West Indies, and
lumber, pork, butter, and other staple productions P.P., Provincial Secretary; Hon. Thomas Ryan, especially in Brazil and the colonies of Spain. M. L. O.; J. W. Dunscoinbe, Esq., Collector of 5. To obtain, if possible, from the Spanish and Customs for Quebec, and A. M. Delisle, Esq., Brazilian authorities a remission of the heary dues Collector for Montreal; from Nova Scotia, . now.chargeable on the transfer of vessels
from the Hon. James McDonald, M. P. P., Financial British to the Spanish and Brazilian flags. Secretary, and Hon. Isaac Levisconte; M. P.P.; thorities, an assimilation of the tariffs of the British
6. To procure, by negotiation with the proper aufrom New Brunswick, William M. Smith, Esq., West India colonies in respect to flour, lumber, fish, Collector of Customs at St. Johns; from Prince and the other staple products of British North Edward Island, Hon. Wm. H. Pope, M.P.P., America, a measure which would greatly facilitate Colonial Secretary. The party sailed for view of the assimilation about to be made in the St. Thomas, West Indies, and there divided tariffs of Canada and the maritime Provinces. into two; Messrs. Dunscombe, Levisconte, and 7. To promote by prudent legislation, and a sound Pope going to Brazil, and the others visiting fiscal policy, the rapid development of the great natthe West Indies. The services of a war-steamer inces, and to preserve as far as it lies in their power, were placed at the disposal of the latter body the advantage which they now possess, of being able by the admiralty. The commissioners were to produce at a cheaper cost than any other country, instructed to report “the nature and extent of most of the great staples
which the inhabitants of the productions of the respective countries they the tropics must procure from Northern ports. visited," and particulars as to their “trade, Fenian Disturbances. The colonies were tariffs, and all other burdens imposed upon much agitated at times during the year by raids, commerce, the ordinary prices current,” etc., actually made or expected to be made, by Fe. and to offer suggestions tending to remove ob- nians upon their soil. A concerted and forstructions to the rapid increase of direct trade midable attack from that mysterious organibetween British America and tropical regions. zation was anticipated on St. Patrick's day.
In the West Indies, the commissioners made Fourteen thousand volunteers responded to the an agreement with the Governors of Demerara, call of the Canadian Government within twentyTrinidad, the Windward Islands, the Leeward four hours. The towns and villages along the Islands, and Jamaica, that "customs, duties, frontier were strongly garrisoned. The United and port charges on the produce and shipping States authorities acted promptly to prevent an of the respective colonies, should be levied invasion across the Maine boundary. The day, solely for revenue purposes, and for the main- which was awaited with much anxiety on both tenance of indispensable establishments; and sides of the line, passed off without any hostile that the several governments will be prepared demonstration. The volunteers were gradually to consider, in a liberal spirit, any complaint hav- sent home. On the 1st of June, however, an ining reference to imposts that may be preferred 'vasion of Fonians really took place. A band by another government, on the ground that of between 1,000 and 1,500, under General such imposts are calculated to obstruct trade.” O'Neil, crossed in canal-boats near Buffalo They also made a conditional agreement to aid and took possession of Fort Erie. Volunteers in the establishment of improved postal com- from various portions of Canada were burried monication. In Brazil the commissioners hast- forward to meet threm; and on the 2d of June ened the throwing open of the coasting trade the battle of Limestone Ridge was fought, in of the empire, and other concessions were which nine Canadian volunteers were killed, and promised, to follow, in due tiine, the close of a large number wounded. The volunteers rethe war with Paraguay. On their return, the treated, and the Fenians, after remaining a commissioners submitted to the Provincial short time in possession of the field, fell back, Parliament a report containing the desired de- and, rereiving no reënforcements, for the most
part recrossed the river into the United States. was defeated; and Mr. Galt, the finance min. A barge filled with Fenians was captured by ister, who had framed the bill, felt therefore the United States steamer Michigan, which had bound to resign. With regard to the local been stationed off Black Rock to intercept constitutions, provision was made against althem, but they were soon afterward released. tering the boundaries of counties returning General Grant, U. S. Army, was at Buffalo at English-speaking members without their own this time, on his way westward, and took steps consent. The new civil code of Lower Canada to prevent any more Fenians crossing. Major- was passed, and went into force on the 1st of General Meade, U. S. Army, proceeded to Og- August. densburg, and exerted himself to prevent reën On the 15th of August, Parliament was proforcements or arms from entering Canada from rogued. If the course of his address to the that direction. On the 7th of June the Fe- Governor-General on that occasion, the Speaker nians, reported from 1,000 to 1,200 strong, of the Legislative Assembly said: under General Spear, crossed the line from
Immediately upon the opening of the present scsFranklin, Vt., to St. Armand, and proceeded to sion, the attention of the Legislature was directed by plunder the surrounding country. They were your excellency to the outrages which had been driven out on'the 9th by the Canadian volun- committed upon the soil of Canada by a lawless band teers, and fifteen of their number captured. of marauders, who had crossed the frontier at various In the mean time, President Johnson had issued lives and property of our peaceable citizens. The a proclamation for the maintenance of neutral- formidable aspect of this invasion had compelled ity; General Sweeney and staff had been ar- your excellency, by the advice of your ministers, rested by the United States authorities at St. to call out for active service a large portion of the Albans, Vt., Roberts
, the Fenian President, in volunteer militia force of the Province, and to incur New York, and three Fenian colonels in Buf- aggression. No sooner had we returned from your falo, Two car-loads of Fenians,
on their way excellency's presence, than, with an alacrity and North, were put off the train at Watertown by unanimity unprecedented in the history of Parliaorder of General Meade. No other Fenian in- ment, the bills were passed through all their stages, vasion occurred during the year. The trial of for dealing summarily with all those misguided per; a number of Fenian prisoners took place in sons who had been or might be hereafter concerned Toronto, in October. `About half of the pris- in the senseless movement which is known by the oners had already been set free, the evidence name of Fenianism, and empowering the Governas to identity being insufficient. 'Two of those ment to act with the utmost promptness in the main
tenance of law and order throughout the land. tried-Lynch and McMahon--were sentenced
In view of the approaching change in the political to death, but afterward respited. Other trials condition of British North America, our attention were held in Sweetsburg, in December. Three has been seriously directed to the formation of the were sentenced to death, and three to seven local governments of Upper and Lower Canada to months' imprisonment. The prisoners reaped the maritime Provinces. Resolutions embodying
be connected hereafter by a federative union with the advantage of the fact that the law applying the opinions of the Legislature upon this momentou: to foreign invaders was only passed on the
8th question have
been matured, agreed upon, and trans. of June, and nearly all the acts of a warlike mitted to your excellency, to be forwarded for the nature occurred in the two previous days. gradual but decided change of public
opinion in New
consideration of the Imperial Government. The After indictment, therefore, the Governor-Gen- Brunswick and Nova Scotia on behalf of a closer allieral instructed the crown-officer to enter a ance with Canada, the favor with which the scheme nolle prosequi against those indicted for acts of confederation has been received by the most emi. performed on the 6th and 7th. (See FENIans.) nent statesmen in the mother
country, and the satisThe Canadian Parliament.--Early in the faction
evinced throughout these Provinces at the session acts were pašsed to facilitate the trial ready so nearly
connected with us by ties of interest
prospect of political union with those who are alof the Fenians in Lower Canada, by extending and friendly intercourse, agree in encouraging the an Upper Canada act respecting foreigners in- hope that we are about to enter upon a new era, vading the country to the eastern Province, wherein the British colonies in North America will and also to facilitate arrests of any seditious ing the closer to the parent state because of the freepersons by the suspension of the
habeas corpus dom we enjoy under the beneficent rule of our boact. (The Parliament of New Brunswick also loved queen. suspended that act on the first day of its session after the general election.) The indemnity alluded to several of the most important events
Lord Monck, in his speech from the throne, asked by the Government for the unauthorized of the half year, as follows: expenditures for the militia was readily voted. A proposition by the finance minister to assim It must be a source of satisfaction to you to feel ilate the tariff in some respects to those of the that the credit of the Province will be strengthened, Lower Provinces, and in other respects to that the changes which have been made in the duties on
and her commercial operations will be extended by of Great Britain, was, in its principal recom- imports, and other financial alterations tending to mendations, approved and adopted. A bill re- reduce the cost of living in Canada. lating to education in Lower Canada, designed We may confidently expect that the effect of the to secure to the Protestants of that Province tariff which you adopted will be to provide for the
public wants without opening new sources of taxnecessary instruction apart from the Catholics, ation, and to increase the available resources of the who were a majority in the local Legislature, country by enlarging the markets for the industry