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receive any of the Presbyteries of the Associate licentiates. In 1862, tho church seemed quite Reformed Church upon the same conditions, favorable to the union; but a decided change and, to make the way to union easier, resolved has taken place since, and at the session of the that fifty Psalms of “Rouse's Version” be in- synod at Fayetteville, Tenn., a majority of the corporated in the new psalm and hymn book delegates declared against it. Some of the about to be published.* A delegate from the ministers have consummated the union for Cumberland Presbyterian Church appeared in themselves individually, and a few others may the Assembly, and, though without authority to do so hereafter. make any overtures for a union of two bodies, VII. Great Britain.-The Church of Scothe expressed the opinion that the time had land had, in 1866, 16 synods, 84 presbyteries, arrived when some movement should be made and 1,243 congregations (including, parish in this direction.” Upon this hint the Assem- churches and quoad sacra chapels). The Free bly acted, passing a resolution favorable to a Church of Scotland has 16 synods, 71 presbyunion, and, at a later stage, appointed a com- teries, 846 churches, 3 colleges for the educamittee to confer with a similar committee from tion of students for the ministry. The United the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Presbyterian Church had 31 presbyteries in Assembly had a long and important debate, as England and Scotland, 584 ministers, 592 to the future status of the colored race in their churches, and 172,752 members. The Reformed ecclesiastical connections. Dr. Atkinson con- Presbyterian Synod (“Cameronians,” “Covetended that there was nothing in Scripture nanters ") has 6 presbyteries, 45 churches, and or the standards of the church to prohibit 40 ministers. The Synod of the United Origicolored persons from holding the office of nal Seceders was dissolved in 1852, and united deacon, ruling elder, or minister of God, and to the Free Church; 25 congregations, howthat in their church sessions and assemblies, ever, refused to join that church, and still conthey are entitled to a treatment of perfect tinue a separated body, divided into 4 presbyequality. Ile contended that it was through teries. The Presbyterian Church in England the Gospel that caste and prejudice would be has now 7 presbyteries and 105 churches. broken down, and that any thing that stood in The General Assemblies of the Free and the way of the Gospel should be destroyed. United Presbyterian Churches again discussed Others contended that innovations would surely the union question, and both bodies resolved to result in miscegenation and negro equality. send the report of the joint committee down The resolutions adopted by the General Assem- to the presbyteries, and to instruct the commitbly recommend the spiritual wants of the tee to review what suggestions they had to colored race to the particular attention of the make and report to the next general assemblies. Church. The report on domestic missions In the General Assembly of the Church of showed the receipts to be $34,746, and the Scotland the question of innovations came up, whole number who received aid from the sus- upon overtures from numerous synods and tentation fund, including sixteen families of presbyteries, some praying to rescind, and othdeceased ministers, is upward of two hundred ers to correct and explain the legislation of last and twenty. It was ascertained that between year. In 1865 the Assembly passed a strong ninety and one hundred church edifices were declaration against innovations in public woreither seriously injured or entirely destroyed ship, and calling upon presbyteries to take during the progress of the war, about one half particular cognizance of any cases within their of which were in the Synod of Virginia. The bounds of departure from the law and usage committee reported that not less than $50,000 of the Church in reference thereto. Dr. Pirie would be needed for Presbyterial missions, sus- moved the adoption of an act declaring "that tentation, and church erection the coming year. the right and duty of maintaining and enThe report on education showed that $200 had forcing the observance of the existing laws been contributed to the funds of the executive and usages of the Church in the particular committee and one candidate received. The congregations or kirks within their bounds, publication committee reported receipts by do- in matters connected with the performancó nations and sales, $18,174; and a balance in of public worship and the administration treasury of $2,299. The next Assembly is to of ordinances, belong to, and are incumbent meet in the First Presbyterian church, in Nash-, upon the presbyteries of the church, subject ville, on the third Thursday of November, 1867, always to the review of the superior church " or whenever or wherever it may orderly be courts; ” and further declaring it to be the duty called.” The Assembly adjourned on Novem- of presbyteries, on becoming aware of any inber 28th.

novation being introduced or contemplated, VI. Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church " either to enjoin the discontinuance, or proin the South.—The Synod of the Associate Re- bibit the introduction of such innovation or formed Presbyterian Church in the South, held novel practice, as being, in their opinion, inconin 1866, declared against a union with the sistent with the laws and settled usages of the Southern Presbyterian Church, and all nego- church, a cause of division in the particular tiations on the subject were, consequently, congregation, or as being unfit from any cause abandoned. This denomination has nine pres- to be used in the worship of God, either in byteries, sixty-six ordained ministers, and eight general or particular kirk, or to find that no

VOL. VI.-40





case has been stated to them calling for their 3,000,000 of the inhabitants, about 2,000,000 interference.” Dr. Lee moved that the act of of whom are Poles, and 170,000 Danes (in 1865 be rescinded. After a debate which lasted Schleswig). a whole day, the assembly divided, when the The revenue in the year 1865 (exclusive of vote for Dr. Pirie's motion was 207; for Dr. the newly-annexed territory) amounted to 173,Lee's 94—majority, 113.

934,739 thalers; the expenditures to 169,243.VIII. British Colonies.-The union of the 365; surplus, 4,691,374. The public debt, in Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces 1866, amounted to 280,820,427. of British North America and the Presbyterian The Prussian army in time of peace nuChurch of New Brunswick, took place in the bered at the beginning of the year 1866, about city of St. John, N. B., on the evening of Sep- 212,000 men, and in time of war, inclusive of tember 2d. The Synod of the Presbyterian the landwehr of the second call, 742,498. The Church of the Lower Provinces was made up fleet consisted of the following vessels : 49 of the two bodies known by the names of the steamers (276 guns), 8 sailing vessels (140 guns), Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia and the 36 rowing vessels (68 guns). Total, 84 Far Free Church. Six years ago the union took Vessels, with 484 guns. The movement of shipplace between these two bodies, and they have ping was, in 1865, as follows: been since known by the name of the Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces. The


CLEARED. ministers belonging to it amounted to between ninety and one hundred, diffused throughout Prussia.

5,262 427,411 5,181 Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Foreign... 5,165 424,678 &187 Island, and Newfoundland, and one or two in

10,427 852,099 10,368 New Brunswick. The Synod of New Brunswick consisted of between twenty and thirty The merchant navy, in 1865, consisted of ministers, chiefly in the Province of New 1,200 vessels, of a total burden of 180,821 lasts. Brunswick. The name of the now united The disagreement of Prussia with Austria in body is the Presbyterian Church of the Lower the Schleswig-Holstein and the Federal-German Provinces—the designation of the larger body questions, assumed, soon after the beginning of before the union.

the year 1866 a threatening aspect (see ATSTEL. PRUSSIA, a kingdom in Europe. Reigning GERMANY, and the GERMAN-ITALIAN WAR), and king, William I. , born March 22, 1797; suc- led, in June, to the outbreak of a great war

, ceeded his brother, Frederic William III., on and the withdrawal of Prussia from the Gere January 2, 1861. Heir-apparent, Prince Fred- man Confederation. The success of Prussia in eric William, born October 18, 1831. (For a the war exceeded the boldest expectations. full account of the Constitution of Prussia, see The ability of the generals, the bravery of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1865.) The year 1866 troops, and the efficiency of the needle-gun, aswill be memorable for the large increase of the tonished the world. After a brief and decisive area, population, and power of the kingdom. campaign, Prussia dictated the terms of a treaty In consequence of the German Italian war, the of peace with Austria and the South German Government of Prussia annexed the States of States, by which Austria renounced all conHanover, Hesso-Cassel, Nassau, and Frankfort, nection with the German Confederation, COLthe Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, and sented to the construction of a new German some districts ceded by Bavaria and Hesse- confederation under the leadership of Prussia, Darmstadt. Thus the area of Prussia rose from and ceded to Prussia her claims to Schleswig 108,212 English square miles to 135,662 ; and and Holstein, which accordingly were incorpo the population from 19,304,843 to 23,590,543. rated with the Prussian monarchy. The Gor

As regards the religion of the inhabitants, ernment of Prussia by right of conquest also the relation of Protestant, Roman Catholic, and annexed (by decrees dated September 20th) the other denominations, is as follows:

Kingdom of Hanover, the Electorate of Hesse Cassel, the Duchy of Nassau, and the Free City of Frankfort, and formally took possession of

them on October 8th. Small districts were Prussia proper::

also ceded to Prussia by Bavaria and HesseThe former Principalities of 110

'Darmstadt. (See BAVARIA and HESSE-Daryhenzollern.. The Territory of Yahde.

STADT.) The annexed states are provisionally Lauenburg.

to remain under a separate administration, unSchleswig-Holstein... Hanover

til the preparations for the introduction of the Hesse-Cassel..

Prussian Constitution and their conversion into Nassau... Frankfort

Prussian provinces shall have been completed. Hesse-IIomburg,

Ministerial orders introduced, however, in NoDistricts ceded by Hesse-Darm

vember the system of general liability to milistadt..... Districts ceded by Bavaria.

tary service. The aggrandizement of Prussia

led to a demand on the part of France for the In whole of Prussia......

cession of some Prussian territory. The demand To nor-German nationalities belong nearly met with a firm refusal, and was consequently




All others.




1.89 €4.74 99.91 99.87 87.49 82.82 52.11 69.87 77.70

96.81 7.06 0.06 0.20 11.75 14.68 46.27 21.51 18.08

1.80 6.20 0.08 0.54 0.76 2.60 1.62 8.62 4.22








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