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IT. ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAX.

35

V. THE NORTHERN COAST.

VI. MOHAMEDAN KINGDOMS OF CENTRAL SOUDAX.

2,660

AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL

CHURCH. (See METHODISTS.)
Geog. sq.
Miles.

AGRICULTURE. The year 1866 was not a
Population.

very favorable one for agricultural productions. Cape Verde Islands..

77.62 89,310 The spring and early summer were cold and St. Thomas and Principe.

21.36 12,250 backward, and after a short period of intense Fernando Po and Annobon.. 23.00

5,590 heat in July, there was, throughout the latter Ascension

1.8

part of that month, the whole of August, and St. Helena.

2.2

6,860 Tristan da Cunha..

2.1

the early part of September, a more frequent

and copious rainfall than usual, accompanied by Total......

128.08 | 114,045 a low temperature, with frost in many sections

on September 21st. The long rain and early frost injured the Indian-corn crop in many sec

tions, and caused the wheat to grow after being Geanta 99. Population. stacked. In the region of the Ohio River and

its tributaries a destructive flood, about the Morocco..

12,200 2,750,000 middle of September, injured and in many Algeria.

12,150 2,999,124 Tunis

2,150

counties nearly ruined the crops. This flood

600,000 Tripoli..

16,200 750,000 was the result of the excessive rains which, for Egypt.

31,000 7,465,000 seventy-five days, had fallen almost constantly.

Other sections were also visited by floods, but Total...

73,700 14,564,124 not with such destructive effect. Sahara .....

114,600 4,000,000

Of the cereals, the wheat crop was estimated by the Agricultural Department at 160,000,000 bushels for the States east of the Rocky Moun

tains, of which 143,000,000 was the product of Galties: Population. the twenty-two Northern States (of which sta

tistics were given in 1865), about 5,500,000 Darfoor

5,000 5,000,000 bushels less than the previous year in those Vadai.

4,730 5,000,000 Baghirmi.

States, a decrease which was supposed to be

1,500,000 Bornoo..

2,420 5,000,000 fully made up by the superior qnality of the Sokota and Adamaua.

7,960 12,000,000 grain in 1866. The crop of the eleven SouthGando.....

3,880 5,800,000 ern States was nearly 17,000,000 bushels, a little Massina

3,330

4,500,000 less than one-half that of those States in 1859, Fellatah kingdoms together.. 14,870 22,300,000

the latest date in which there has been any Total......

44,850 61,100,000 complete return of their crops.

The yield of wheat on the Pacific coast is in.

creasing rapidly. The California crop alone is Geog. sq.

estimated at over 14,000,000 bushels, of which,

Population. it is said, 12,000,000 bushels will be exported. Yorooba...

2,330 3,000,000

Oregon and Washington Territory, and NevaEgbah (capital Abbeokoota).

100,000

da and Utah also produce some wheat. The Dahomey..

188 150,000 entire crop of the country may safely be put Ashantee (with the tributary

down at 180,000,000 bushels, or fully five bushProvinces and the Gold Coast) 3,447 4,500,000 els to each inhabitant. Liberia..

250,000 French Senegambia.

145,800

The rye crop varies but little from year to Portuguese Possessions in Sen

year. It is not a very important crop, and egambia...

1,687 1,095 during 1866, aside from the Pacific States, Dutch Colonies on the Coast of

where but little is grown, is estimated at, Guinea..

500

120,000 21,029,950 bushels. Sierra Leone.

41,806 Tombo

The barley crop is also very nearly stationary.

2,040 Mossi...

1,550

The crop, exclusive of the Pacific States, in Independent portion of Gurma..

1866 was 11,465,653 bushels, while that of 1859 Total.......

was 11,146,695 bushels. Only 110,773 bushels 13,114 8,308,701

are reported as given in the eleven Southern VIII. EQUATORIAL TERRITORY.

States in 1866.

The oat crop is said to have been the largest Geog: sq. Population.

ever grown in this country. The estimate for Miles.

1866 is 271,712,695 bushels, an increase of a Territory of the Shilluk.

500,000 little more than one hundred millions of bushels Nuer

929 400,000 since 1860. This increase is alınost universal, Bor..

10,000 Wisconsin being the only Northern State rcElyab...

8,000 Unknown negro countries on

porting less than last year, and the yield of the both sides of the equator..... 70,000 42,000,000 Southern States being nearly or quite up to the

amount of 1860. This large aggregate does Total...

71,564 | 42,918,000 not include the crop in the Pacific States.

VII. THE TERRITORY OF WESTERN SOUDAX.

Miles,

450

22

SSO

526

40
69

The hay crop was not equal to last year; in States. The production of yarns and of the the Northern States east of the Mississippi it coarser qualities of cotton goods is already, in was about one-fifth less; the Trans-Mississippi spite of the many difficulties it has to encounter, States and the South report a fair amount. It rapidly increasing in the South. does not vary much from 21,000,000 tons. But to return to the crop statistics of 1866.

The corn crop is put down as 880,000,000 The potato crop, always an important one, was bushels, of which 185,000,000 bushels are cred- throughout most of the Northern and some of ited to the eleven States not hitherto reported, the Southern States a full average; in some of against 274,000,000 bushels in 1859. The de- them, as in Maine, New Hampshire, Connecti. crease in the Northern States from the crop of cut, and Pennsylvania (all States yielding large1865 is about 25,000,000 bushels, and the de- ly of this crop), it was from 10 to 20 per cent. crease in quality is equivalent to 75,000,000 in advance of last year, and in Texas it was unbushels, making an aggregate decrease of feed- usually large and fine in quality. The only ing value, as compareil with the great crop of States in which the crop was seriously below 1865, of about 100,000,000 bushels. As, how- the average, were South Carolina, Louisiana, ever, the crop of 1865 was an excessive one, 22.7 Missouri, and Wisconsin. The crop of 1859 per cent. above the average, this reduction only was 110,571,201 bushels, and until the present brings the crop of 1866 to about a fair average, year there has been no return which included or a little above it.

the eleven Southern States. The crop in The cotton crop was estimated from the best twenty-two Northern States east of the Rocky data, at the close of December, at 1,750,000 Mountains was, in 1863, 98,965,198 bushels; in bales.of 400 pounds cach. As the actual bales 1864, 96,532,029 bushels; and in 1865, 101,032,are now nearly 500 pounds each, this would be 095 bushels. The production of the omitted equivalent to a million and a half of such bales. States in 1860 was about 8,000,000 of bushels, so The cotton-planters had expected, early in the that the entire crop of 1866 could not have season, a much larger crop; but owing to bad varied materially from that of 1859. seed, ignorance on the part of many of the best The tobacco crop was about eleven-twelfths wethod of cultivation, a very wet spring fol- of an average crop, and in the twenty-two lowed by a dry early summer, and heavy, States reported in 1865 it was in advance of drenching rains in August and September, and that crop, which however was not a large one. over extensive sections the ravages of the cot- In Kentucky and Tennessee it was above tho ton or army worm, the crop was less than average; in Virginia slightly and in Missouri half what was expected. In Louisiana there materially below the average, and as these four was alded extensive flooding of the cotton- are the States of largest production, it early lands from the breaking of the levees. Of the became evident that the figures of the crop of Sea Island or long-staple cotton, the quantity 1859, 429,390,771 lbs., would not be reached. raised is about 20,000 bales, less than half the The Agricultural Department estimate the crop average before the war.

of 1866 at 350,000,000 lbs. We have elsewhere It is hardlly probable that this crop will ever (see Tobacco) given a full account of the culture again reach the production of 1860, 4,664,417 of this crop, which is one of great importance bales, or if it should, that so large a portion will to our commerce. ever be exported as was of that crop. There Buckwheat was a fair average crop, about are several causes which will prevent this. 18,000,000 of bushels. Among these are, the deterioration of the soil Sorghum, though affected in some districts in much of the cotton-growing region, which, by the heavy rains and the premature frost of unless cultivated for a time in other crops, and September 22d, was about nine-tentlis of an restored to its fertility by abundant manure or average crop, being smallest in the extremo seeding down to clover, and ploughing in that northern and southern tiers of States, while in crop, will not yield one-fourth as much as it the middle tier and in Texas it was above the would eight or ten years ago. Then there will average. The crop has increased rapidly within be a lack of efficient laborers for the cotton- the past five or six years. fields ; the negroes, no longer compelled to labor The amount of domestic live stock in the in the'n will, in many cases, prefer mechanical United States is a matter of great interest not employment, and labor less severe than that of only to the farmer but to all our population; the cotton-tield in hoeing and picking time, and for upon it depends the supply of meat for our other crops, fruits, vines, the silk culture, etc., tables, as well as of draught cattle for locomoetc., will givo a better return, for less labor, tion, the transportation of produce and freight, than cotton. If, however, under higher and and the operations of the farmer. Until near the more efficient cultivation, the exceptional crop close of 1866 it has not been possible to deterof 1860 should be reached or surpassed, there mine with any considerable accuracy the agwould be a far larger proportion of it consumed gregate number of horses, mules, cattle, sheep, at home than in any of the years before the and hogs in the United States. War bad made war, not only from the increase of cotton manu- such extraordinary destruction of horses and factories at the North, but from the tendencies mules, and the great armies had consumed and of a free and enterprising people to manufac- destroyed such quantities of beef and pork, tare their raw material largely in the Southern that the census of 1860 afforded but a poor

NUMBER OF LIVE STOCK IN THE UNITED STATES FOR THE YEARS 1860 AND 1966.

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140

9

119

105
2,078
7,497
13,915
10,553

2,280
59,752
7,539

699
21,878
50,899
52,127

1,956
14,036

789
2,490
1,243
67,012
39,450

6,573
60,641
54,139
63,112
33,916
35,567
69,499
60,167
28,710

376,933
264,467
370,450
279,914

39,105
241,907
1,973,174

238,794
1,419,493
253,241

57,721
836,059
1,634,740

479,844
1,069,384
1,553,813
1,168,984

521,860
540,088
119,257
93,455
37,197
773,396
567,799

388,060
1,005,882

516,807
729,909
763, $10
506,776

764,730
3,535,768
1,044,467

292,432
189,148
305,760
214,173

40,995
252,236
1,964,013

220,960
1,319,743
210,468

49,358
546,876
1,375,596

515,895

925,727
1,446,635

698,544
660,088
8R4,432
222,297
202, 303

85,251
409,934
232,797
256,119
583,411
227,059
401,4-19
496,476
315,201

382,365
3,111,475

543,122

452,472
810,534
752,201
114,829

32,624
117,107
2,617,855

135,228
1,631,5-10
155,765

18,857
938,990
3,516,767
1,271,743

991,175
769,135
937,445
332,954
259,041
13,044
17,569

2,355
370,156
202,753

30,158
512,618
181,253
352,632
546,749
233,509
773,317

753,363
1,043,269

1,041,724

677,571
1,377,296
210,036

35,854
188,308
5,117,148

181,096
3,230,440

202,576

17,500
864,068
6,568,052
3,473,075
2,783,367
2,446,081

830,999
1,260,900
1,950,752

97,496
82,662
13,766
307,229
93,266

0,031
884,463

90,626
252, 105
399,126
270,$SO
510,389
904,035
761,736

54,783
51,935
52,512
73,949
17,478
75,120
910,178

236,089
1,031,266
357,756

47,848
2,330,595
2,251,653

372,396
3,099,110
2,502,308
2,354,425

334,055
934,820
101,371
139,224

25,369
1,749,321
1,171,630

271,742
2,036,116

634,525
1,532,769
1,883,214

965,779
2,347,321
1,371,532
1,599,919

35, 355
31,333
32,908
45,549
11,690
52,356
671,994
192,630
892,032
869,396

32,098
1,794,556
1,838, 451

351,017
2,261,780
1,976,208

988,857

357,668
1,423,568
127,701
95,429
35,280
909,127
316,340

108,696
1,425,281

272, 8:15

812,367
1,261,753

482,889
1,079,707
1,193,233

959,951

829,227 75,405

24,197,234 4,766,744

19,534,376 7,401,240

20,419,007 3,358,078

36,705,533 4,545,119

32,946,496 22,439,125 4,034,276 6,405,878

HORSES.

MULES.

STATES.

1860.

1866.

1860.

1866.

. . . . . .

Maine
New Hampshire.
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island.
Connecticut
New York..
New Jersey:
Pennsylvania
Maryland.
Delaware
Kentucky
Ohio
Michigan
Indiana
Illinois.
Missouri
Wisconsin.
Iowa.
Minnesota,
Kansas
Nebraska Territory.
Alabama
Arkansas
Florida.
Georgia..
Louisiana.
Mississippi
North Carolina.
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia.

Total.
Adding Pacific States.

Grand Total...:

60,637
41,101
69,071
47,766

7,121
33,276
503,725

79,707
437,654
93,406
16,562
355,704
625,346
136,917
520,677
563,736
361,574
116,180
175,089
17,065
20,314

4,413
127,063
140,195

13,416
180,771

78,703
117,571
150,661

81,125
290,892
32,3,6,93
257,579

50,844
34,719
47,751
45,509

6,828
38,009
408,763

79,599
396,623
83,334
15,523
209,136
520,498
171,956
377,215
574,205
235,375
174,608
312,136
39,500
32,469
11,339
82,591
79,913

7,5530
71,921
83, 812
67,015
99,436
48,675
226,857
293,128
172,547

104
10
43
103
10

82
1,553
6,362
8,832
9,829

2,294
117,634
7,194

330
29, 593
33,539
89,941
1,030
5,734

377
1,496

469
111,657
57,358
10,910
101,069

91,762
110,723
51,388
56,456
126,345
63,334
41,015

6,031,123

81,335

4,082,507 1,421,405

1,133,911

184,023

6,115,458

5,503,912

1,317,934

903,632

28,963,028

26,935,662

23,977,085

41,253,652

36,980,772 28,845,003

guide to the speculations on this topic in of the Agricultural Department for the whole which the agricultural papers indulged. It country, premising that the latter may be too was not difficult to approximate nearly to the large in horses and mules. numbers of live stock in the Northern States It is a matter of interest to compare these east of the Rocky Mountains, and this was at- returns with those of the principal countries tenpted from year to year; but the data in re of Europe at a recent date: We have no very gard to the Pacific States were small, and for recent statistics of the number of horses in the estimates of the numbers in the Southern European states, and the war of 1866 would States, entirely wanting.

render them inaccurate, if we had. About During the summer and autumn of 1866, 300,000 is to be deducted from the number of however, sufficient returns were obtained from cattle reported in the United Kingdom, and the Southern States to enable us to make a 75,000 from those in Holland for loss from catFery close estimate for the whole country. We tle plague. The following table gives the numgire in the foregoing table the numbers of live ber of cattle, sheep, and swine, at the dates stock for each of the States and Territories this mentioned, in the several nationalities of side the Rocky Mountains, and the estimates Europe :

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Crited Kingdom..

1865–66.. 29,070,932 3,296,308 5,030,652 8,316,960 25,795,708 3,802,399 Rassia.. 1859-'03.. 74,139,394

25, 2:14,000 45,130,800 10,097,000 Denmark, Schleswig, and Holstein..

1861

2,646,051 1,172,895 626,252 1,799,147 2,279,513 471,193 Sweden

1860. 3,859,728 1,112,941 803,714 1,916,655 1,641,156 457,991 Prossia,

1862 18,491,220 3,352,703 2,251,797 5,634,500 17,428,017 2,709,709 Hanover, Saxony, Wurtem

berg, and Grand Duchies.. 1552 to '63 9,395,738 1,728,224 1,273,029 4,170,275 5,323,223 1,855, 114 Holland

1954

3,618,459 943,214 390,673 1,333,557 930,136 294,636 Belgium.

1856.
4,529,461

1,257,619 593,435 458,419 France

1852. 37,386,313 5,781,465 8,415,895 14,197,360 33, 281,592 5,246,403 Spain 1865. 15,653,531

2,904,598 22,054,967 4,264,817 Austria

1863. 36,267,648 6,353,081 7,904,030 14,257,116 16,964,236 8,151,608 Bararia

1863.. 4,807,440 1,530,625 1,655,350 3,185,652 2,058,638 926,522

ALABAMA. The recess taken by the Legis- Northern States of the Union, of the disposition of lature of Alabama, in December, 1865, closed on

the people of Alabama toward the Government at January 15, 1866. Upon the reassembling of

Washington, will operate injuriously upon the con

dition of our people, and postpone a restoration of tais body, the Governor laid before the mem

the State, in consequence of a misapprehension, upon bers a brief message congratulating them that, the part of the Federal authorities, of the disposition during their recess, the Provisional Governor of the people for the full and complete establishment had been relieved, and his authority was exer

of order: Therefore, cised by the Governor elect. He recapitulated ring), That a committee of five be appointed by the

Resolved (the House of Representatives concurthe condition of the State debt, urged the im- presiding ollicers of cach House to inquire, so far as portince of a law staying judicial proceedings may be, into the dispositions of the people of the difin the collection of debts, the necessity of

ferent counties in the matter referred to, and report making the system of education uniform by the result of their investigations by resolution or

otherwise. allowing the proceeds of land-sales to be used in any county without regard to the location An act was passed authorizing the issue of of the land sold, called their attention to the twenty-year bonds for the payment of arrears great destitution of the people in the northern of interest on the State debt; also another, to par: of the State, and the immediate necessity provide, at the State expense, artificial limbs of an efficient military organization. He also for every maimed indigent person, a citizen or returned, without his signature, a bill to regu- resident of the State in 1861. late contracts with freedmen, on the ground

The views of the Legislature on the relation that the general laws on contracts were ade of the State to the Federal Union were exquate. The Legislature passed a large number pressed by the unanimous adoption, on Februof bills chiefly devoted to local affairs; also one ary 22d, by both IIouses, of the following report to provide for the payment of the land-tax and resolution, presented by a joint committee: levied by Congress in August, 1861; another, When the cause, for which the people of Alabama repairing the State banks to resume payment have endured sacrifices without parallel in history, on April 1, 1868. In the Senate, on February was lost by the surrender of her heroic armies, the Sth, the following resolution was adopted :

result was accepted as final and conclusive. Al

though compelled, by the verdict of the sword, to Morens, There is reason to apprehend that un abandon an institution which was so thoroughly in. friendly representations at Washington and in the terwoven with every thread of ber social fabric, tha

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it could not be suddenly torn asunder without learn policy adopted by the President, with all the energy ing everywhere deep and painful wounds, the sur- and power we can devote to that object. render has been made without a murmur. Alabama 2. "That the above declaration expresses the senti. turned once more to the Government against wbich ments and purposes of our people, and we denounce she had been arrayed in arms, and in solemn conven- the efforts of those who represent our views and in. tion obliterated from her records the ordinance of tentions to be different, as cruel and criminal assaults secession, and, as far as in her power, retraced her on our character and our interests. It is one of the steps to the point of her departure. Additional misfortunes of our present political condition that guaranties of sincerity were required at her hands, we have among us persons whose interests are temand the General Assembly responded to the call of porarily promoted by such false representations; but the President of the United States, by ratifying the we rely on the intelligence and integrity of those who Constitutional Amendment prohibiting slavery with. wield the power of the United States Government for in her borders forever, and, by legislative enactment, our safeguard against such, malign influences. securing protection to the freedipan in all his per- 3. That involuntary servitude, except for crime, sopal rights, and opening the courts of the State in is abolished, and ought not to be reěstablished, and his behalf. Having thus cheerfully complied with all that the negro race among us should be treated with the conditions demanded as a prerequisite for resto- justice, humanity, and good faith, and every means ration to her rights as a State in the Union, the peo- that the wisdom of the Legislature can devise should ple of Alabama waited anxiously, yet bappily, for be used to make them useful and intellig the meeting of Congress, and the admission of her bers of society. Representatives.

4. That Alabama will not voluntarily consent to Prostrated and impoverished, as she has been, by change the adjustment of political power, as fired the war-with her fields devastated and her homes by the Constitution of the United States, and to con. laid waste-and with her relations to a large class of strain her to do so in her present prostrate and helpher population radically changed-the people came less condition, with no voice in the councils of tre up manfully to the duties of the hour, and with im- nation, would be an unjustifiable breach of faith; plicit reliance upon the magnanimity and good faith and that her earnest thanks are due to the President of the Northern people and the General Government for the firm stand he has taken against amendments -endeavored to adapt themselves as best they could of the Constitution, forced through in the present to this new condition, and were rapidly advancing in condition of atiairs. the pursuits of peace. But it became, ere long, pain. fully evident that unknown persons were busily dis

A stay law was also passed at this session, seminating reports prejudicial to the honor and wel- applicablo to suits brought since May 1, 1865, fare of our people.

to mortgages and deeds of trust, with power of Kindly sympathy is manifested by the whites, with sale when the mortgagor or trustee is in posrelations to each other are being gradually adjusted session. Its operation was so to delay proin a manner satisfactory to both. Contracts hare ceedings as to postpone execution, except on been made for labor, upon just and equitable terms, debts due the State, for two years, and then to and the freedmen are generally at work. Nothing give the party one year longer in which to pay more is apparently now required for the restoration off the debt in threo equal instalments. A new of law and order in our midst than the withdrawal penal code was also adopted at this session, of Federal bayonets from the State.

Believing, then, as your committee must, from the making no distinction on account of color, evidences before them, that the falsehoods propa- abolishing whipping and branding, and subgated in the North and in Congress are the offspring stituting " hard labor.” Under the authority of deliberate malice and design, and circulated only of the Legislature, the Governor, on February us, as the representatives of the people, to denounce 12, 1866, issued a proclamation, granting parthe authors as wilful culumdiators and slanderers, and don and amnesty to all persons who had ben, to solemnly protest against their statements being re. or were liable to be, indicted for offences ceived and accepted as the truth.

against the State, committed between April

. In conclusion, your committee feel this to be the 13, 1861, and July 20, 1865, the crimes cf proper occasion for a renewed expression of the sentiments wbich pervade the public heart toward the rape and murder excepted. The session closed President of the United States and his policy. The about February 20th, by an adjournment to the following resolutions, similar in language and pur- annual session. This commenced on November port to those recently passed by the Legislature of the old Commonwealth of Virginia, are respectfully to improve the finances of the State had been

12th ensning. The measures previously devised submitted, with the recommendation that they be adopted, and that a copy be transmitted to his ex- very successful. Temporary loans had been cellency President Johnson, with the accompanying contracted and paid, and State bonds had been report. W. GARRET,

hypothecated, instead of being sold below par, Chairman of Com, on the part of the Senate. JOSHUA MORSE,

and ample funds thus secured. This, however, Chairman on the part of the House.

added to the debt $363,572, making, on Novem

ber 12th, as follows: Joint Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Alabama on the state of the Union.

Original bonded debt, partly extended 23,445,000 Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives Amount of funded interest on the 5 of the State of Alabama, in General Assembly con- and 6 per cent, bonds...

687,990 vened, That the people of Alabama, and their repre. Eight per cent. bonds sold for supplies sentatives here assembled, cordially approve the and transportation..

48,500 policy pursued by Andrew Johnson, President of the Eight per cent. bonds advanced to InUnited States, in the reorganization of the Union. sanc Hospital.....

5,000 We accept the result of the late contest, and do not desire to renew what has been so conclusively deter- Total present bonded debt... $4,186,490 mined; nor do we mean to permit any one subject to To which add amount of loan due, in. our control to attempt its renewal, or to violate any cluding interest and commission... $363,572 22 of our obligations to the United States Government. We mean to coöperate in the wise, firm, and just Total......

$4,550,063 22

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