« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
ing the war, they can be organized, armed, any system of infantry tactics that might be equipped, and concentrated at whatever point presented to it, and the superintendent of the military emergency may require. While, there. Military Academy was to give it facilities for fore, the war expenses have been reduced to testing with the battalion of cadets the value the footing of a moderate and economical peace of any system. Besides the system of General establishment, the national military strength Casey, necessarily before the board, two others remains unimpaired and in condition to be were presented: one by Brigadier-General Wm. promptly put forth.”
H. Morris, late U. S. Volunteers; the other by The Military Academy at West Point is now Brevet Major-General Emory Upton, U. S. separated from the Engineer Corps, of which it Army. The system prepared by General Upton formerly constituted a part. The standard of is entirely new, and substitutes wheeling by qualifications for admission has been raised, fours for the facings of other tactics. Among and appointments to cadetships must hereafter the features that distinguish it from all other be made a year previous to the date of admis- systems are, that it simplifies all the movements, sion. The report of the Board of Visitors for and requires less instruction on the part of en1866 shows that the examinations have been listed men; that it ignores inversions, gives creditably conducted, and that the discipline of greatly increased mobility to large bodies of the Academy is good. The board recommend troops, doubles the number of ways of passing that the number of cadets be increased from two troops from the order in column to the order in bundred and ninety-two to four hundred; that battle, and presents always the front rank in the cadets, on graduation, be required to serve front; that it is equally adapted to wooded and at least two years in regiments of the line be- open country; that it presents a new formation fore entering the Engineer or other staff corps for infantry in single rank-a formation emiof the Army; and that the standard of qualifi- nently adapted to the intelligence of the Amercation be raised by some form of competitive ican soldier, and to breech-loading fire-arms, examination. At the last examination tho fast being introduced into all armies; that it corps of cadets numbered 228, and a class of enables a skirmish line to be proinptly doubled, 40 was graduated.
either for offensive or defensive purposes. The The act of July 28, 1866, authorized the systein embraces complete instruction for the President, "for the purpose of promoting soldier, skirmishers, battalion, brigade, division, knowledge of military science among the young and corps, and is in one volume, containing men of the United States.” to detail officers of about one-half the number of pages in the experience to act as professors in institutions three volumes of the present system. of learning having upward of 150 malo students. General Casey's, or the authorized system, It does not appear from the Secretary of War's which was before the board, is based upon the report that application has yet been made by French tactics, or is almost literally a copy any college or university for the services of of them. A modification of this was offered sach officers. Provision is also made in the by General Morris; but they reported favoract of July 28th for the instruction of enlisted ably upon the above system of General Upton, men at any post, garrison, or permanent camp, and, by the order of the President, it has bein the common English branches of education, come the authorized tactics for the Army and and especially in the history of the United the militia. States. Another section directs that " a code ASIA. The progress of the Russians in of regulations for the government of the Army, Central Asia continued without interruption, and of the militia in actual service, which shall and another important tract of land in Indeembrace all necessary orders and forms of a pendent Toorkistan, with the large cities of general character for the perforinance of all Taslıkend and Khojend, was annexed. The daties incumbent upon officers and men in the detailed accounts of the Russian operations military service, including rules for the govern- widely differed, as they were received either ment of courts-martial," shall be prepared and from Russian or British sources, but the anpresented to the Thirty-ninth Congress at its nexation of the above two cities, with a large second session.
territory, seems to be the permanent result of By direction of the Secretary of War, a board the year 1866. The tribes of CentralAsia were of officers, consisting of Brevet Colonel H. B. again reported to have invoked British aid Clitz, 6th U. S. Infantry; Brevet Major-Gen- against Russia. (See Russia.) eral R. B. Ayres, 28th U. S. Infantry ; Brevet In China, rebel movements disturbed the Colonel H. M. Blach, 7th U. S. Infantry; Cap- peace of the empire throughout the whole year, tain J. J. Van Horn, 8th U. S. Infantry, Recor- and in the latter months the Mohammedan der, was assembled at West Point, N. Y., on rebels were reported to be in possession of the the 25th of June, for the purpose of recom whole province of Kansuh. Piracy in the mending such changes in authorized infantry Chinese waters continued to make the greatest tactics as shall make them simple and completo, ravages upon commercial vessels, and the joint or the adoption of any new systein that may be operations of the Chinese and British fleets were presented to it, if such change be deemed ad- unable to subdue it. The relations of China to visable.
foreign powers remained friendly, and a new The board was to examine and report on port was opened in the northern part of the
empire. In the Corea, a dependency of China, improved telescopes bad hitherto not availed two French bishops and seven priests were to show, the constitution of the sun, and the massacred-an outrage which led to a French stars, and the comets, and enables him even to expedition against that country. The Chineso hazard a guess at the material nature of the Government repudiated all responsibility for far-away nebulw. The application of this new the action of the Coreans, and made no objec- and powerful instrument to astronomical intion to the French expedition. (See China and vestigation has given rise to many brilliant Corea.)
speculations, which may have to be discarded The relation of Japan to foreigners becomes hereafter, but it has also added many facts to more and more friendly. The treaties con- our knowledge of the heavenly bodies. Just cluded with the chief foreign nations remained in proportion as the spectrum apparatus is imin force, and further provisions in favor of for- proved from year to year—and there oan be no eign commerce were secured by a new treaty doubt that improvements will continue to be concluded between American, English, French, made indefinitely in a field of inquiry so pracDutch, and Japanese plenipotentiaries on June tical—the burden of mystery which rests upon 25th. A civil war broke out between the Tycoon astronomy will be lifted; and so we may go on and one of the princes, before the termination from one discovery to another, until the splendid of which the Tycoon died. (See Japan.) thought uttered by Mr. Grove, in his address
British India remained free from disturb- at the last annual meeting of the British Asances, the difficulty with Bhootan being fully sociation, may be realized. He said: “We, settled in February. But the country suffered this evening assembled, ephemera that we are, from a terrible famine, which carried off a very have learned by transmitted labor, to weigh as large number of people. On the western border in a balance other worlds larger and heavier of India civil broils continued in Affghanistan than our own, to know the length of their days throughout the year, and in Farther India a rev- and years, to measure their enormous distance olution broke out in Burmah, which, however, from us and from each other, to detect and acwas unsuccessful. (See India and Burman.) curately ascertain the influence they have on
The “Geographical Year-book” of Dr. Brehm the movements of our world and on each for1866 (Gcographisches Jahrbuch, Gotha, 1866, other, and to discover the substances of which pp. 53 to 70) gives the following statements they are composed. May we not fairly hope on the area and population of the several terri- that similar methods of research to those which tories of Asia :
have taught us so much, may give our race fur
ther information, until problems relating not Inhabitants. only to remote worlds, but possibly to organic
and sentient beings which may inhabit them; Russian Dominions..
273,351 9,327,966 problems, which it might now seem wildly Turkish Dominions..
visionary to enunciate, may be solved by proArabia
48,260 4,000,000 Persia..
gressive improvements in the modes of apply. Affghanistan and Herat.
ing observation and experiment, induction and Beloochistan....
7,500 2,000,000 deduction ?" Toorkistan....
30,124 7,870,000 The public interest in astronomy has been China and dependencies. 147,447 477,500,000 Japan.
more than usually stimulated this year by the 7,027
35,000,000 India (incl. of British domin
occurrence of two wonderful phenomena : the ions in Farther India). 73,573 187,694,323 sudden apparition and disappearance of a star, Ceylon....
1,662 1,919,457 perhaps not inferior in size and splendor to our Fartber India.
35,324 21,109,000 East India Islands..
own sun; and the great meteoric shower of 37,598 27,164,729
November (sce METEORs). Events of this kind Total of Asia.. 732,414 | 798,635,504
have a favorable effect upon the science of ASTRONOMICAL PIIENOMENA AND and to make the great body of the people more
astronomy, because they tend to popularize it, PROGRESS. The march of astronomical dis- willing to contribute the necessary funds for covery during the year 1866 has not lagged be- the erection and support of first-class astronomihind that of the other great departments of cal observatories. It is not improbable that, science. To chemistry, astronomy is especially before many years, every important city in the indebted; for there is scarcely a discovery made Union will have an observatory equal to that in the domain of the former science which does recently established by the liberality of the not, or may not, contribute to the solution of citizens of Chicago. some of the enigmas which still abound in the
The Temporary or l'ariable Star in Corona. latter. The spectrum analysis, the original -The most remarkable astronomical event of function of which was to determine the pres- the year was the appearance of a temporary or ence or absence of the earthy elements in the variable star in the constellation of the Crown, chemist's laboratory, is now the familiar guest less than a degree distant from e Coronæ in a of the astronomer in his watchings through S. E. direction. It was seen at the Washington the night, and discloses to him what all his Observatory on the night of May 12th, when * One geographical square mile equal to 21.21 English its size was that of a star of the 2d magnitude.
Its lustre was a pure soft white. On the tol
Time of Obs'n.
May 15. May 19.
9 9 13
lowing night it had apparently sunk from the the gas consisted chiefly of hydrogen. Obser2d to the 3d magnitude. On the night of the vations were also taken on several successive 14th of May it was studied at the Cambridge evenings, during which the continuons spectrum Observatory, and was then reported to be of diminished in brightness more rapidly than the about the 3d magnitude. By the 19th its bril- gaseous spectrum. Messrs. Huggins and Miller liancy had decreased by nearly two magnitudes, suggest, as their explanation of these brilliant and it was then very near the limit of visibility phenomena, that, in consequence of some vast to the naked eye. On the 20th it was no longer convulsion, larger quantities of gas were evolved perceptible to the unaided vision, but could from the star, that the hydrogen present was easily be seen through an opera-glass. The burning in combination with some other elestar had dwindled to the 9th magnitude by the ments, and that the flaming gas hrad heated to 9th of June. The following was the table of vivid incandescence the solid matter of the magnitudes as estimated by Mr. B. A. Gould, photosphere. As the hydrogen was consumed, of Cambridge (American Journal of Science, the phenomena would diminish in intensity and xlii., 124):
the star rapidly wane.' The results of the obser
vations of Messrs. Huggins and Miller were conMag.
firmed by those of Messrs. Stone and Carpenter,
at the Royal Observatory, on the night of May 14..
11 h. 2.9
May 19th. 5.3
Humboldt, in his “Cosmos,” gives the followMay 19.
10 10 10
8.9 8.9 9.0
369 386 389 393
5.9 ing list of temporary stars, which are recorded May .
9! 6.3 in history, with variable degrees of certainty as May 24,
to items: Mas os. Mar 31.
134 B. C., in Scorpio. Jane 9.
123 A. D., in Ophiuchus.
173 in Centauron. One observer in Philadelphia says that he saw on the 23d of September, 1865, a brilliant star in
in Aquilla. Corona, not laid down in the maps. It was
in Scorpio. reported to have been seen in London, Canada 827 in Scorpio. West, about May 1st, when its brilliancy was
945 between Cepheus and Cassiopeia about eqnal to that of a Coronæ, or between
1012 in Aries. the 3d and 4th degrees of magnitude. It was
in Ophiuchus. ssen in Ireland and England on the 12th of 1264 between Cepheus and Cassiopcia. Yay, and in France on the 13th. The descrip 1572 in Cassiopeia. tions of the star given by all the foreign ob
1584 servers at that time agree with those of the
in Scorpio. 1600
in Cygnus. various observers in this country. On the 16th
in Ophiuchus. of May it was observed and subjected to the 1609 spectrum analysis by William Huggins, F. R. S., 1670
in Vulpes. and W. A. Miller, Prof. of Chemistry in King's
1843 in Ophiuchus. College, London, whose applications of that The majority of these stars shone with great new power to the solution of some astronomical splendor when first seen. Only three of the problems have been among the most valuable known variable stars, according to Humboldt, scientific results of the year. At that time the have been less than the 1st magnitude at the inagnitude of the new star was below the 3d. beight of their brilliancy. The star of 389 A. D. In the telescope it appeared to be enveloped in was for three weeks as bright as Venus, and & faint nebulous haze, which extended to a con- then rapidly disappeared from view. That of siderable distance and faded away at the boun- 1572 was seen at mid-day on November 11th, dary. A comparative examination of neighbor- and no longer visible in the following March. ing stars showed that nebularity really existed It was as bright as Sirius, and reached the lustre about it. Its spectrum was unlike that of any of Jupiter. The star of October, 1604, also other celestial body thus far examined. The exhibited great splendor. The stars of 393, light was compound, and had apparently ema- 827, 1203, and 1609, are considered one and nated from two sources. The principal spectrum the same; and a reappearance is predicted in was analogous to that of the sun, evidently 2014-5. The periods of visibility of these stars formed by the light of an incandescent solid or differ greatly. That of 389 was three weeks ; liquid photosphere, which has suffered absorp- of 827 four months; and of 1012 three months. tion by vapors of an envelope cooler than itself. Tycho Brahe's star in Cassiopeia (1572) shone The second spectrum consisted of a few bright for 17 months. Kepler's star in Cygnus was lines, indicating that the light by which it was visible 21 years before it totally disappeared. forted was emitted by matter in the state of It was seen again (as a star in the same posilaminoas gas. To the eye the star appeared tion) in 1655, and was then of the 3d magninearly white; but as it flickered there was seen tude. an occasional preponderance of yellow or blue. The star of 1866 appears to be identified with The lines of the second spectrum indicated that No. 2,765 of Argelander's one + 26° marked
by Argelander as of 9.5 mag. In Wollaston's was at a minimum. All these gradually slide catalogue (1790) an object is noted upon a place into each other, producing at long-distant pewhich, reduced to 1866, accords with that of riods alternations of cold and heat, some of the variable. There is also a nebula marked on which are actually observed in geological recCary's globe, which is near the spot occupied ords. by the new star. This nebula is not on Her- Mr. Croll has calculated ralues of the eccenschel's catalogue. Sir J. Herschel, on the 9th tricity, and longitudes of the perihelion, at in. of June, 1842, marked as visible to the naked tervals of 50,000 years for 1,000,000 years past eve a star whose place agrees so nearly with and 1,000,000 years to come, for the purpose that assigned to the new variable, that he can- of arriving at some better knowledge of these not help believing it to be the same.
secular changes of climate, proved to result These splendid phenomena have occurred so from eccentricity. He has determined the rarely since the time when scientific apparatus values at epochs of 50,000 years because the and methods were introduced into astronomical eccentricity changes so slowly that it is not observation, that but little is known of them. necessary to calculate them at shorter intervals. The spectrum analysis, this year, has probably From these the opinion is deduced that the thrown more light upon the mystery than all glacial epoch of the geologists began about previous investigations.
240,000 years ago, and extended down to about Eccentricity of the Earth's Orbit, and its Re- 80,000 years ago; that the time of the greatest lations to Glacial Epochs.—Mr. James Croll has cold was 200,000 to 210,000 years ago; that the elaborated an ingenious theory in explanation next preceding glacial epoch was about 750,000 of the glacial epoch, evidences of which abound years ago, still another 950,000 years ago, and on the earth's surface. The theory was origi- that a similar condition of things will take place nally propounded by Sir John Herschel more 800,000, 900,000, and 1,000,000 years to come. than 30 years ago, and may briefly be stated This theory has elicited much discussion and as follows: The mean distance of the earth able opposition in the English scientific magafrom the sun being nearly invariable, it would zines. It is claimed by those who dissent from at first be supposed that the mean annual sup- it that, admitting the accuracy of Mr. Croll's ply of light and heat would also be invariable. determination of the values of the eccentricits, Calculations show, however, that this mean such a state of facts alone is not sufficient to annual supply would be inversely proportional account for the glacial epoch known to geoloto the minor axes of the orbit. This would gists. give less heat when the eccentricity of the Sun-Spots.-At a meeting of the Royal Asearth's orbit is approaching toward, or is at tronomical Society, Mr. Huggins presented its minimum. Mr. Croll offers reasons for be- the result of his observations of brighit "gran. lieving that the climate, at least in the circum- ules” on those parts of the sun which are polar and temperate zones, would depend on free from spots. These granules are the whether the winter of a given region occurred same appearances which have been called by when the earth, at its period of greatest eccen- other observers “willow-leaves," "rice-grains," tricity, was in aphelion or perihelion. If in its “shingle-beach,” and “bright nodules," all of aphelion, then the annual average of tempera- which terms convey about the same idea of the ture would be lower; if in its perihelion, the phenomenon. The granules are distributed annual average of temperature would be higher over the whole surface of the sun, excepting than when the eccentricity was less, or ap- those areas which contain spots. When obproached more nearly to a circle. He then served with powers of only 100 diameters, calculates the difference in the amount of heat they present the appearance of rice-grains, at the period of maximum eccentricity to be as but at higher powers, irregular masses may be 19 to 26, according as winter would take place seen, The granules do not appear to be flat when the earth was in its aphelion or perihe- disks, but bodies of considerable thickness
The mean annual heat may be assumed They average about 500 miles in breadth, and to be the same, whatever the eccentricity of the 500 or 600 miles in length; some being sinaller
, orbit, and yet if the extremes of heat and cold and occasionally one appearing of 1,000 or in winter and summer be greater, a colder cli- 1,200 miles in diameter. On many parts of the inate will prevail; for there will be more ice sun they lie in groups, the components being accumulated in the cold winters than the hot separated by small intervals. These groups summers can melt. This result will be produced vary in form, in some places taking the shape by the vapor (aided by shelter from the rays of round or oval cloud-like masses, and are elseof the sun) suspended in consequence of aque- where long, irregularly formed bands. To these ous evaporation. Ilence glacial periods oc- groups, and to the varying brightness of the curred, when the orbit of the earth was at its material between the groups and the granules, greatest eccentricity, on those parts of the is to be attributed the coarse mottling of the earth's surface where it was winter when the sun's surface when observed by low powers. earth was in its aphelion; carboniferous or hot By some theorists they are considered to be reperiods occurred where it was winter when the cently condensed incandescent clouds, and by earth was in its perihelion ; and temperate pe- others as ridges, waves, or hills, on the surface riods when the eccentricity of the earth's orbit of comparatively large luminous clouds.
In a recent essay, M. Chacornan expresses sun-setting, make the complete investigation the opinion that the sun is a liquid incandescent of a star the work of some years. mass, surrounded by a dense and imperfectly Aldebaran (a Tauri): pale-red star—is transparent atmosphere. In this atmosphere strong in the orange, red, and green lines. Nine the solar vapors, raised by evaporation from of its spectra are coincident with certain lines the liquid nucleus, ascend till acted upon by the in the sun-spectrum, indicating the presence of cold of the celestial spaces, when they are con- sodium, magnesium, hydrogen, calcium, iron, verted into luminous crystals. He attributes bismuth, tellurium, antimony, mercury. No the spots to the engulfment of vast areas of coincidence was observed with nitrogen, cothese photospheric crystals, which lose their · balt, tin, lead, cadınium, lithium, and barium. brightness as they sink. Another observer Orionis (Betelgeux)-an orange-tinted speaks of “ several roundish, isolated portions star-shows strong groups of lines, especially or luminons matters (having the appearance of red, green, and blue. The lines are coincident icebergs floating in a black sea) in the centre with those of sodium, magnesium, calcium, of an umbra."
iron, and bismuth. During the year ending August 1, 1866, 282 ß Pegasi-of a fine yellow color-reveals negatives of the sun were takon in 158 days by the presence of sodium, magnesium, and perthe heliograph at Kew. The areas of the spots. haps barium. The absence of hydrogen lines and penumbra were accurately measured, and in this star and also a Orionis, is an observation the heliometric latitude and longitude calcu- of considerable interest. lated,
The spectrum of the brilliant white star Father Secchi has completed the reduction Sirius is intense, but owing to its low altitude, of magnetic observations made during the years the observation of the tiner lines was rendered 1559-05, and of sun-spots during the same difficult by motions of the earth's atmosphere. period. The results show the reciprocal in- Sodium, magnesium, hydrogen, and probably fuence of periodic variations of spots and of iron lines, were found. The hydrogen lines amplitudes of the daily magnetic oscillations: were strong. The white star, a Lyræ, strongly
resembles Sirius through the spectroscope. The spectra of Capella, a white star, and Arcturus
(red), are analogous to the sun. In the lastYEARS.
named star the sodium line was ascertained beyond a doubt. In Pollux, coincidences were remarked with the sodium, magnesium, and
probably the iron lines. Sodium lines are disPiv.
covered in a Cygni and Procyon. 1639.. 164 257
In the moon, no other strong lines are visi7.011
ble than those of the solar spectran, when the 1972,
sun has a considerable altitude. The quantity 193..
9.31 of light from different parts of the moon is 1. 1:35.
very different, but the lives of the spectram are
in every case the same. The result of these exIt will be observed that the minimum of aminations is wholly negative as to the existspots corresponds to the ininimuin of magnetic ence of any lunar atmosphere. Variations.
Lines of orange and red are discovered in the Spectra of some of the Fired Stars, the Moon, spectrum of Jupiter, which are attributed to and Plinets.- Messrs. Huggins and Miller have the modification of solar light before reachspent much time during the past two and a ing our atmosphere, and are therefore due quarter years studying the spectra of the fixed probably to absorption by the atmosphere of stars. Very few nights were favorable for ob- Jupiter. On one night, the moon and Jupiter servations, owing to the ever-changing want being near each other, the opportunity was of homogeneity in the earth's atmosphere. The seized to compare them directly with each light of bright stars is very feeble when sub- other, and these lines were the only perceptijected to the large dispersion necessary to ble difference observed between the two bodies. give certainty and value to the comparison of Similar bands in the orange and red are seen in the dark lines of stellar spectra with the bright Saturn. ines of terrestrial matter. For the purpose of In Mars no lines were detected in the red, these examinations, Messrs. Iluggins and Miller like those in Jupiter and Saturn, with the exinade great improvements in the apparatus ception of two or three strong lines in the exemployed, bringing it to a point of perfection treme red. The spectrum of Venus is of great hitherto unknown. About fifty stars were ex- beauty, corresponding with that of the sun. amined by them, but their principal efforts Comets.—Comet 1, 1866, was an oval nebuWere concentrated upon three or four of the lous mass, surrounding a very minute and not frightest, the spectra of which are as rich in very bright nucleus, which possessed no senlines as the sun. The few really fine nights sible magnitude in the telescupe. Th light Fhich are available whilst a star is well situated of the coma was different from that of the for such observations in respect of altitude and minute nucleus. The latter was self-luminous,
Days of observation of spots.
of magnetic declination.
Variation of the
Div. 8.105 8.025