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104th meridian, and so much of Montana as after such appointment, the office should be lies contiguous to the new road from Fort Lar- come vacant, the act should cease to be in force. amie to Virginia City, Montana. Headquar- The President nominated for General, Lieutenters at Omaha. Second regiment of cavalry, 10 ant-General Grant, and to fill the vacant lieucompanies; Third regiment of artillery, 1 light tenant-generalship, Major-General W. T. Sherbattery; Thirteenth regiment of infantry, 10 Both nominations were promptly concompanies; Eighteenth regiment of infantry, firmed by the Senate toward the close of the 10 companies; Twenty-seventh regiment of in- first session. fantry, 10 companies; Thirty-sixth regiment of The principal movements of troops during the infantry, 10 companies.
year have been in Texas, on the Mexican and 11. The Department of Dakota, Brigadier Canadian frontiers, and in the Territories. Genand Brevet Major General A. II. Terry to com- eral Grant, in his annual report, states that "it mand, to embrace the State of Minnesota and has been deemed necessary to keep a military all the Territories of Dakota and Montana not force in all the lately rebellious States, to insure embraced in the Department of the Platte. the execution of law, and to protect life and Headquarters at Fort Snelling. Tenth regiment property against the acts of those who, as yet, of infantry, 10 companies; Twenty-second regi- will acknowledge no law but force. This class ment of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-first has proved to be much smaller than could have regiment of infantry, 10 companies.
been expected after such a conflict. It has, 12. The Department of California, Brig: however, been sufficiently formidable to justity adier and Brevet Major General Irvin McDowell the course which has been pursued." Military to command, to embrace the States of Califor- movements have also been directed with a view nia and Nevada, and the Territory of Arizona. , to the protection of emigrants, on their way to Headquarters at San Francisco. First regiment the more distant Territories, against attacks by of cavalry, 8 companies; Eighth regiment of hostile Indians, which have somewhat dimincavalry, 12 companies; Second regiment of ar- ished with the expiration of the rebellion. But tillery, 2 light batteries and 6 companies; Ninth with a frontier constantly extending and enregiment of infantry, 10 companies; Fourteenth croaching upon the hunting-grounds of the regiment of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty- Indian, Lostilities must frequently occur. To second regiment of infantry, 10 companies. meet these, and to protect the emigrant on his
13. The Department of the Columbia, way to the mountain Territories, General Major-General Frederick Steele to command, Grant reports that troops have been distributed to embrace the State of Oregon and the Terri- over a wide area of the western frontier. Few tories of Washington and Idaho. Headquar- places are occupied by more than two, and ters at Portland. First regiment of cavalry, 4 many by but a single company. During the companies; Second regiment of artillery, 4 sammer of 1806, inspections were made by companies; Twenty-third regiment of infantry, Generals Sherman, Pope, Ingulls, Sackett, and 10 companies.
Babcock, with a view to determine the proper The Departments of the Arkansas, the Mis- places to occupy for the protection of travel and souri, the Plat and Dakota constitute the Mil- settlements, and the most economical method itary Division of the Missouri, of which Lieu- of furnishing supplies. In the course of 1867 tenant-General W. T. Sherman has command, permanent buildings will have to be erected on with headquarters at St. Louis, Missouri. The these sites. Departments of California and the Columbia, The total estimate of the Secretary of War constitute the Military Division of the Pacific, for military appropriations for the fiscal year of which Major-General H. W. Llalleck has ending June 30, 1968, is $25,205,669.60, which command, with headquarters at San Francisco. is less by $8,608,792.23 than the appropriation
The tifteen military bands provided for by required for the previous year. the act of July 28, 1866, have been assigned as The disbursements of the Paymaster-General follows: West Point, New York; Fort Colum- during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1866, bus, New York harbor; Fort Adams, Rhode were $259,374,317, of which $248,943,313 were Island; Richmond, Virginia; Charleston, South paid to disbanded volunteers, and $10,431,004 Carolina; Louisville, Kentucky; Nashville, to the Army and the Military Academy. In Tennessee; Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; Fort back and extra pay and in bounties the DepartLeavenworth, Kansas; Little Rock, Arkansas; ment disbursed $7,662,736, and on Treasury New Orleans, Louisiana; San Antonio, Texas; certificates for arrears to dead soldiers, etc., Harbor of San Francisco, California; Fort Van- $16,189,247. Among the charges entailed upon couver, Washington Territory; Fort Monroe, the Department were those growing out of an Va.
act passed by the Thirty-ninth Congress, giving The Thirty-ninth Congress passed an act re- three months' pay proper to all officers of volunviving the grade of “General of the Army of teers who were in the service on March 3, 1865, the United States,” to be filled, by appointment and whose resignations were presented and acby the President, * from among those officers cepted, or who were mustered out at their own in the military service of the United States request, or otherwise honorably discharged from most distinguished for courage, skill, and abil- the service after April 9, 1865.
The pay ity.” It was also provided that whenever, proper of a colonel of infantry is $95, of a
lieutenant-colonel $80, major $70, captain $60, for two years, and who are entitled to a Govfirst lieutenant $50, second lieutenant $45 per ernment bounty of fifty dollars, under existmonth. The financial summary of the pay de- ing laws, are to get, under the like conditions, partment exhibits
an additional bounty of fifty dollars. Al A balance on hand at the beginning
though doubts were entertained whether, in of the fiscal year.....
$120,107,999 32 consequence of defective wording of these Received from Treasury and other
sections, the legislation respecting the equalizasources during the year...... 163,426,228 97
tion of bounties was not inoperative, a board Total.......
of officers was appointed by the War Depart. Accounted for as follows:
ment to prepare rules and regulations for the
payment of the authorized bouuties. But up Disbursements to Ar
to October 20, 1866, no payments of the extra my and Military Academy.... $10,431,004 42
bounty had been made. The Paymaster-GenDisbursements to vol.
eral says that the muster and pay rolls, “alunteers.. 248,943,313 36
ready mucii worn and defaced, would be reUnissued requisitions
duced to illegible shreds before a tithe of the in Treasury. 10,750,000 00 Id bands of paymas.
cases arising under this law could be disposed ters, June 30....... 13,408,910 51
of, if taken up separately.” It is therefore
$283,533,228 29 proposed to classify the claims filed, by regiThe total disbursements of each class during ments and battalions. This plan, though imthe fiscal year are as follows:
posing delay at the outset, will prove in the end To troops on muster out..
the quickest and best. The payment, however, To troops in service...
will not begin till the six months' limitation To referred claims..
7,662,736 00 has passed. The disbursements will amount to To payment of Treasury certificates. 16,189,247 00 nearly $80,000,000, about a third of the sum
contemplated by the original bill, and will be Total......
divided among upward of a million persons. The estimated appropriations of the pay de- To the same board the subject of bounties to partment amount to $17,728,500 for pay of the colored soldiers was also referred, with a view Army for the next fiscal year.
to provide additional checks against the deEarly in the first session of the last Con- mands of fraudulent assignees, to secure the gresa a bill was introduced to pay a bounty to bounty to the rightful claimants, and to protect the volunteers of 1861 and 1862 equal to the the Treasury against frauds. highest bounty paid to the volunteers of 1863 The grand aggregate of individuals on the and 1864, eqnalizing the bounty according to pension-rolls of the United States was, on June the time of service; to pay three-months men 30, 1866, 126,722, of whom 123,577 were army a bounty of $100, deducting from said bounty invalids or their widows or other representaany sum heretofore paid; and to pay $33.33 to tives. Nearly ninety per cent. of this number, the one-year men, to complete the payment of comprising all classes of pensioners, have arisen the $100 promised them. As the sum required out of the late war. The remainder now on for this equalization of bounties would, at a the rolls, but rapidly dropping away, are from moderate computation, considerably exceed the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the $200,000,000, which, in the then embarrassed various Indian wars. But one Revolutionary financial condition of the country, conld be ill- pensioner now remains, Samuel Downing, of spared from the national Treasury, the project Edinburgh, Saratoga County, N. Y., who was was strenuously opposed, and failed to become a native of, and enlisted from New Hampshire, a law in the shape in which it was originally and is now over a hundred years old. There proposed. Its friends succeeded, however, in are, however, still on the pension-rolls 931 widengrafting it, in a very modified form, upon the ows of revolutionary soldiers, of whom only Civil Appropriation Bill, in which connection two were married previous to the termination it was passed by Congress on the last day of of the War of Independence. The aggregate the session. The sections of the bill relating of annual pension money due for the fiscal year to bounties enact that every soldier who en- ending June 30, 1866, was $11,674,474.13. listed after the 19th of April, 1861, for a period The Commissioner of Pensions says: “In not less than three years, and who, after having view of the large number of applications which serred his time of enlistment, has been honor- continues to be received, on account of casualably discharged, and who has received, or is ties in the late war, it is manifest that the agentitled to receive, from the United States, un- gregate annual amount of pensions will conder existing laws, a bounty of one hundred dol- tinue to swell for some years to come." He lars, and no more; and every such soldier honor- also says that the $11,674,474.31 requisite to ably discharged on account of wounds, and the pay the 126,722 now on the rolls will, for the widow, minor children, or parents of such fiscal year, ending June 30, 1867, be increased soldiers who died in service, or from disease or to a sum exceeding $33,000,00 This is owing Wounds contracted in the service in the line of partly to the law of last session increasing the daty, shall be paid an additional bounty of one rate of pension. The estimated amount requihandred dollars. The soldiers who enlisted site to pay pensions the next fiscal year is more
than one-third of the entire sum paid for pen- termaster's department of the Army consists of sions from the beginning of the Government one quartermaster-general, six assistant quarterup to the fiscal year ending after the war be- masters-general
, ten deputy quartermastersgan, which was $90,668,521.06. In that fiscal general, fifteen quartermasters, and forty-four year the amount was $790,384.76. The num- assistant-quartermasters. The duties formerly ber of bounty land warrants issued froin time devolving upon this department have been só to time amounts to hundreds of thousands in much curtailed since the conclusion of the war, number; but counting them at $1.25 per acre, that no further appropriations for its support the entire quantity of land so granted, the are needed for the next fiscal year, the balances commissioner says, does not exceed $83,000,- now available and the sums received and to be 000.
received from the sale of material being deemed By the act of July 28, 1866, the Bureau of sufficient. Among the items realized by the Military Justice is made to consist of one judge- sale of material since May, 1865, may be enaadvocate-general and one assistant judge-advo- merated the following: cate-general, with ten judge-advocates, to be
Horses and mules.... selected from among those in office when the Barracks, hospitals, and other buildings..
447,973 act was passed, and to discharge their appro- Clothing,
902,770 priate duties until the Secretary of War shall Transports, steamers, and barges. 1,152,895 decide that their services can be dispensed Railroad equipment, cash sales.
credit sales.. with. During the past year 8,148 records of
7,444,073 courts-martial and military commissions were No change has been made by the act of July received, reviewed, and filed in this bureau, 28, 1866, in the organization of the subsistence and 4,008 special reports made as to the regu- department of the Army. A joint resolution larity of judicial proceedings, the pardon of of July 25, 1866, made it the duty of this demilitary offenders, etc., including letters of in- partment to pay commutation of rations to struction upon military law and practice to those United States soldiers who had been held judge-advocates and reviewing officers. The as prisoners of war. The total amount disbusiness of the bureau, which reached its mini- bursed by the department during the last fiscal mum about the time of the adoption of the year was $7,518,872.54, and the amount disnew Army act, has since very much increased. bursed during the fiscal years of the war was: “The fact," says the Secretary of War, “ that, in From July 1, 1961, to June 30, 1862.. $48,799,521 14 a large number of important cases command- From July 1, 1862, to June 30, 1963.. 69,537,582 773 ers of departments and armies are not author- From July 1, 1863, to June 30, 1864.. 98,666,918 50 ized to execute sentences in time of peace, and From July 1, 1864, to June 30, 1865.. 144,782,969 41 that such cases can no longer be summarily dis- From July 1, 1865, to June 30, 1866.. 7,516,872.54 posed of without a reference to the Executive,
- $369,305, 864 37 will also require from the bureau a very considerable number of reports which heretofore From available balances and sums received have not been called for. Its aggregate will, it from the sale of subsistence stores, the departis thought, not be reduced in proportion to the ment is amply provided for the fiscal year, endreduction of the military force." The new Army ing June 30, 1867, and will need no further apact provided for the discontinuance of the Pro- propriation. vost-Marshal-General's Bureau on August 28, The medical department under the new Army 1866. The records of its offices in the various organization consists of one surgeon-general, States are to be transferred to the Adjutant- one assistant surgeon-general, one chief medical General's office in Washington, to which, also, purveyor, and four assistant medical purveyors, the settlement of the undetermined questions sixty surgeons, one hundred and fifty assistant and unfinished business pertaining to the bureau Surgeons, and five medical storekeepers. The has been referred. From various causes arising funds at the disposal of the department during out of the unsettled state of the Army, there the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1866, were was a large number of desertions at the close $5,386,064.24, of which $1,161,181.24 were the of the war. To check this evil, recruiting balance of unexpended appropriations for the officers were instructed to apprehend and send preceding year, and $4,044,261.59 were derived to military posts for trial all deserters who from the sale of old or surplus medical and hoscould be found in the vicinity of their stations, pital property, leaving a balance in the treasury and lists were sent from companies, with a de- for the next fiscal year of $2,546,457.14. The scription of deserters, to facilitate their arrest. rednction of the Army has enabled the departThe number apprehended under this system ment to dispense with the system of general from February 1, 1866, to October 1, 1866, is hospitals, hospital transports and trains, ambu1,029. As an inducement to return to their lance corps, and also a number of purveying duty, the President published an offer of pardon depots. There were, at the close of the year, to all who would report themselves at a military one hundred and eighty-seven post hospitals in post by the 15th of August, 1866. Three hun- operation, with a capacity of ten thousand eight dred and fourteen availed themselves of this hundred and eighty-one beds. The contraction act of clemency.
of the business of the department is forcibly Under the new Army organization the quar illustrated by the fact that of 64,438 patients
remaining in general hospitals, June 30, 1865, eral conclusion on the subject. The casualties and admitted during the year following, on the in the regular and volunteer medical staff during 30th of June, 1866, only ninety-seven remained the war, number 336; of these, 29 were killeci under treatment. One hundred and seventeen in battle ; 12 by accident; 10 died of wounds; 4 surgeons and assistant surgeons of volunteers, in Confederato prisons; 7 of yellow fever; 3 of and 1,733 acting assistant surgçons, have been cholera ; 271 of other diseases. During the war, mustered out during the year, and but 264 of also, 35 medical officers were wounded in battle. the latter grade remained in July last; a corre- The Surgeon-General announces in his annual sponding diminution has been made of hospital report that the first volume of the “Medical stewards. Of the 98 applicants for positions and Surgical llistory of the War” is nearly in the army medical staff in September, 1865, ready for publication. In connection with this only 19 passed.
work is a large and valuable pathological muAn important part of the business of the year seum, which is to be classitied and suitably has been the selection and distribution of arti- arranged in a building in Washington specially ficial limbs for maimed soldiers. Twenty-three appropriated for its reception. models hare been approved, and 6,410 limbs, Under the new organization the Engineer of all kinds, have been given out. About one Corps consists of one chief of engineers, six colothousand are still to be supplied. In consequence nels, twelve lieutenant-colonels, twenty-four of many instances of fraud, it is recommended majors, thirty captains, and twenty-six first and that hereafter the applicant shall receive the ten second lieutenants; and the five companies of established money value of the limb instead of, engineer soldiers previously prescribed by law as at present, an order upon the manufacturer. now constitute a battalion, officered by officers During the past year the Government has paid of suitable rank detailed from the corps of engreat attention to soldiers' graves and ceme- gineers. The greater part of the corps during teries. The former have been carefully tended, the last year were engaged in the supervision and the occupant's name and rank put at the of the defensive works in progress throughout head of each grave as well as on the records the country, the remainder being employed on of the cemetery. At first this was done on detached duty, as commanders of departments, wooden head-boards; but Government, with a staff officers, etc. At Willett's Point, N. Y., and view to make the licad-boards more lasting, Jefferson Barracks, Mo., two principal depots has recently ordered them to be constructed of engineer supplies have been established, where of iron. Forty-one national military ceme- the most valuable material remaining over from teries have been established, and into these the war has been collected for future emerhad already been gathered, on June 30, 1866, gencies. the remains of 104,526 Union soldiers. The The new Army bill makes no change in the sites for ten additional cemeteries have been number of officers and enlisted men in the Ordselected, and the work upon them is now nance Department. The officers are one brigain course of vigorous prosecution. It is esti- dier-veneral, three colonels, four lieutenantmated that the national cemeteries will be re- colonels, ten majors, twenty captains, sixteen quired to receive the remains of 249,397 sol- first and ten second lieutenants, besides thirteen diers. The average cost of the removals and ordnance storekeepers. The operations of the reinterments already accomplished is reported department at arsenals are now limited to the at $9.75, amounting in the aggregate to $1,144,- construction of wrought-iron sea-coast gun-car791, and an additional expenditure of $1,609,- riages, and such ordnance supplies as are needed 294 will probably be needed. The alphabetical for immediate use; the preservation of serviceregisters of the dead filed in the office of the able stores left on hand at the close of the war, Medical Department contain the names of 250,- and the completion of new buildings. Fire000 white soldiers, and 20,000 colored soldiers. proof workshops have been completed at
The sanitary measures taken by the Medical Watervliet, Frankfort, and Alleghany Arsenals, Departinent in 1866 in anticipation of the cholera and powder magazines at St. Louis, Washingbecoming epidemic in the United States, in- ton, and Benicia, and others are to be comcluding a rigid military quarantine on the South- menced in the spring of 1867. All the Southern Atlantic coast, proved exceedingly timely ern arsenals have been reoccupied by the deand beneficial, and the general health of the partment, except the Harper's Ferry armory, army was excellent. The average mean strength and the arsenals in North Carolina, Florida, of the white soldiers for the year was 100,133, and Arkansas. The Chief of Ordnance is of the and the proportion of deaths from all causes to opinion that it is not advisable to rebuild the that of cases treated was one to every 52 ; the armory at Harper's Ferry or the North Caroarerage mean strength of colored troops for lina arsenal, both of which were destroyed by the year was 53,541, and among them the propor- fire, and the sale of both is recommended. The tion of cases taken sick was greater than with construction of the armory at Rock Island, Ill., the white troops, and the deaths one in 29 is to be commenced as soon as good titles to of the cases treated. This result would seem the property have been acquired. From Janto indicate a greater power of resistance to uary 1, 1861, to June 30, 1866, the Ordnance disease in white than in colored troops, though Department provided 7,892 cannon, 11,787 ar the data may not be sufficient to justify a gen- tillery carriages, 4,022,130 small-arms, 2,362,546
complete sets of accoutrements for infantry and The board is disposed to arm the cavalry with cavalry, 539,544 complete sets of cavalry-borse the magazine carbino; but as this arm is doubtequipments, 28,164 sets of horse-artillery har- less capable of further improvements, delay is ness, 1,022,176,474 cartridges for small-arms, recommended in adopting definitively any pat1,220,555,435 percussion caps, 2,862,177 rounds tern for future construction. Should new car. of fixed artillery ammunition, 14,507,682 can- bines be previously needed, it is recommended non primers and fuses, 12,875,294 pounds of ar- that the Spencer carbine be used. General Dyer, tillery projectiles, 26,440,054 pounds of gun- Chief of Ordnance, through whom the report powder, 6,395,152 pounds of nitre, and 90;416,- of the board was directed to be made, objected 295 pounds of lead. In addition to these, there to the use of the 45-inch-calibre balls, on the were immense quantities of parts provided for ground that they had not been proved superior repairing and making good articles damaged, to those of 50-inch calibre, and that the Army is lost, or destroyed in the service. The fiscal re- already furnished with a large number of the sources of the Ordnance Bureau for the year latter. He also recommended that the different amounted to $35,301,062.56, and the expendi- plans for the alteration of the Springfield mus. tures to $16,551,677.58, leaving a balance of ket should first be tried in the hands of troops. $18,749,385.18, of which $18,043,804.28 were In forwarding the report to the War Departundrawn balances in the Treasury, and $705,- ment, General Grant indorsed his first recom580.90 were to the credit of disbursing officers mendation, but not his second. The conversion in the Government depositories on June 30, 1866. of the old Springfield muskets into breech-loadThe estimated appropriation required by the ers, proposed by the board, was approved by Ordnance Office, including only such objects as the Department, and orders were at once given require early attention, is $1,593,242.
for the preparation of the necessary machinery. The experience acquired in the late war with The work proceeded so rapidly, that at the close respect to the most available pattern of small- of the year enough breech-loaders were on hand arms, applicablo for general use in the Army, to supply the cavalry and mounted and light was wholly in favor of breech-loading arms, as infantry. As an offensive arm, this altered opposed to the old muzzle-loaders; and carly musket is much better in all respects than, in 1866 a board of officers was appointed to the much-vaunted Prussian needle-gun, whose examine the following questions, and make achievements have inaugurated so remarkable recommendations thereon:
a change in modern warfare. In the Spring1. What form and calibre of breech-loading arm field armory two sets of workmen, alternating should be adopted as a model for future construction day and night, as during the war, are now emof muskets for infantry?
ployed in altering the old muskets to breech2. What form and calibre should be adopted as a model for future construction of carbines for car
During 1866, the power and endurance of the 3. What form of breech-loading arm should be 8-inch and 12-inch cast-iron rifle-cannon have adopted as a model for changes of muskets already also been subjected to practical tests, and the constructed to breech-loading muskets?
experiments will be continued. The ordnance The board met on March 10th, and, during returns for three consecutive years, including the next two months and a half, carefully tested a period of active service and ordinary repairs, over sixty different rifles and muskets, no one show an average duration of five years for carof which, it was decided, ought to be recom- alry carbines, of four years for cavalry pistols, mended for adoption by the Government. This sabres, and accoutrements, of seven years for conclusion was arrived at chiefly in view of the infantry muskets, and of six years for infantry large number of excellent muzzle-loading mus- accoutrements. kets already in store, and of the comparatively During the last five years considerable slight changes necessary to transform these into changes have been made and are still making effective brecch-loaders. The plan of alteration in the armament of the permanent defensive submitted by Colonel H. Berdan was therefore works of the country, by substituting, cannon recommended. This gives the stable brecch- of larger calibre and wrought-iron carriages for pin, secures the piece against premature dis- the lighter guns and wooden gun-carriages charge, and involves only a slight change of our formerly in use. Construction has been suspresent pattern of arms. The change of ma- pended upon some of the unfinished works, chinery necessary to make new arms on this pending the completion of experiments having plan is also so slight, that the board is of opin- in view the use of iron shields or arinor for the ion that there can be no justification of an en- protection of guns and gunners. tire change of model, and the great expense Finally, in view of any possible emergency, thereby entailed, until some further improve- the Secretary of War reports that the “stock ment shall be devised, producing more decided of clothing, equipage, quartermaster, subsistadvantages than any of the arms yet presented. ence, hospital, and ordnance stores, arms, amThey also find that the 45-inch-calibre ball has munition, and field artillery is sufficient for the given the best results as to accuracy, penetra- immediate equipment of large armies. The tion, and range, and recommend that all rifle- disbanded troops stand ready to respond to the muskets and single-loading carbines used in national call, and, with our vast means of transmilitary service, be fitted for the same cartridge. portation and rapid organizativa developed dur.