Gambar halaman

only point of amendment intended was to currency per month, about $20 silver. Sán give the permission to Congress to levy duties Carlos has about 300 Protestant persons, and on exports. This has been done heretofore, the Methodist mission has a church, school, and but the period has expired within which the parsonage. In Villa de Urquiza there are about constitution permitted it. The vote stood 22 200 Protestants, mostly German, with a school to 19. All the provinces were represented in taught by the Methodist missionary. In Corproportion to their representation in Congress. dova a Sunday-school has been established. Among other reforms aimed at is a reorganiza ARKANSAS. The gorernment of the State tion of the common-school system.

A com of Arkansas continued during the year as it mission was, in 1866, engaged in examining the had been organized in 1864, with the exception various systems in the world, with reference to of the resignation of the Lieutenant-Governor. thorough and radical reforms. It was regarded An election was held, on the first Monday of as likely that the school system of the United August, for the choice of an Auditor, Treasurer, States would be adopted.

Supreme Court Judges, and members of the The estimate for the wool-clip for the year Legislature. The total vote given for Auditor 1866 is one hundred millions of pounds. The was 34,407, which was divided among three export duty on wool, hides, bones, tallow, etc., candidates as follows: Miller, Union, 15,241 ; produces about three millions of silver dollars Fagan, Union, 12,690; Berry, Republican, 6,476. per annum. This tax is designed chiefly to pay Cunningham was chosen Treasurer; and interest and for the reduction of the public debt. Clendenin and Walker, Judges of the SuAs the amount of exports doubles every four preme Court. Twenty-five Union members years, this export duty must soon lift the na were chosen to the Senate, and seventy-nine tion out of debt.

members to the House, of whom five were ReThe government imitated the policy of that publicans. All persons were allowed to vote of the United States in issuing treasury notes, who were free white male citizens of the United bearing interest, for payment of government States, and bad attained the age of twentydues, and to be received in payment of custom one years, and had been citizens of the State house duties. They represent silver dollars, during the last previous six months, withont and are of the denominations of $5, $10, $20, taking a test oath or any other preliminary oath $50, and $100.

whatever. The Legislature had attempted to Immigration for 1865 to the Argentine Con- require a test oath to be taken by all voters in federation foots up to two thousand five hun- the State, as a prerequisite to their right to exdred and forty. This does not include those ercise the elective franchise Under this ariwho came by steamer, neither does it except thority Governor Murphy in his first proclamathose who left the country for foreign parts, tions stated that no one could be allowed to of whom there have been many. The greatest vote until he had taken the oath. But in Deprogress immigration has made is in the province cember, 1865, the Supreme Court of the State of Santa Fé, where the first colonial settle- declared the law to be unconstitutional, and all ments began ten years ago, and where now oaths were abandoned. over five hundred and fifty foreigi families are The Legislature assembled at Little Rock, on settled. In the Gran Chaco a California colony November 5th. It was the first session, in has been established, which is doing very well, which all parts of the State were represented, and already has a great many acres in grain. that had been held since the reorganization in The Argentine Government look upon this col- 1864. Its acts were confined almost entirely to ony as one of great hope and promise. local interests. It accepted the lands donated

in consequence of the foreign immigration, by Congress for agricultural colleges; located Protestant churches and schools are being an institution for the blind at Arkadelphia, established in a number of places. The most with an appropriation for its support; and prenumerous Protestant body in the country is the vious to its recess, near the close of the year, Protestant Episcopal Church. From the latest inaugurated measures for the remission of taxes report of the superintendent of the Methodist for the years from 1861 to 1865; to rebuild the mission, Rev. Dr. Goodfellow, dated October court-houses and jails burned down; to repeal 10, 1866, we gather the following intelligence: the stay law; to define the rights of persons of In the city of Buenos Ayres the Methodist con color; to provide for the support of wounded gregation has 92 members, 44 probationers; and disabled soldiers, and tho indigent children total, 136; 90 scholars in Sunday-school, and of deceased soldiers, whether in the Northern 19 officers and teachers. In Buenos Ayres cir or Southern service; to provide for the payment cuit there are 6 regular preaching-places, and 1 of debts in instalments; to bestow civil rights occasional, with 11 members and 9 probation- on mulnttoes and negroes, except the right of ers. In Rosario the Sunday school has about 20 intermarrying with whites, of voting, serving scholars, and the day school 40. The settlement onjuries, mingling in public schools with whites, of Californians on the border of the Indian terri- and doing militia duty; to regulate the labor tory would soon be visited by a missionary. Es- system; to encourage immigration, etc., etc. In peranza has a Protestant population of 500 souls, the House, on November 10th, a resolution was mostly Germans. The government has agreed offered, setting forth that President Johnson to aid the Protestaut school with $25 Bolivian was entitled to and would receive the support


and gratitude of the people of Arkansas, in which would embrace many of our best and wisest pursuing the policy exhibited in his official acts, citizens, must, of necessity, bo rejected by the peoand standing between the citizens and the un

ple of Arkansas. holy legislation of radical majorities. A motion The coinmittee say that they have particto lay on the table was lost-yeas, 17; nays, 55. ularly remarked one peculiar feature in the It was referred to the Committee on Foderal first section of the proposed amendment; that Relations.

is, the portion which declares, "nor shall any On December 8th the following resolution State deprive any person of life, liberty, or was offered:

property without due process of law.” “This That this General Assembly, and the people of the is almost identical in language with the fifth State of Arkansas, tender our gratitude to General amendment to the Constitution, and if this proJetferson Davis, for the noble and patriotic manner in which he conducted the affairs of our government object designed, what assurance have we.that a

vision already in existence will not secure the while President of the Confederacy; and that we assure him of our most earnest and 'heart-felt sympa. similar one will not be disregarded." They thy while with unexampled fortitude he endures in decline to recommend it on the further grounds Northern prisons unparalleled suffering as a martyr that it imposes new and additional obligations to liberty ; and that although we may strive to forget on the people not contemplated or intended the wrongs unjustly heaped upon him, yet his name is and ever shall be enshrined in every true South

when the general amnesty was proclaimed, on ero heart. May he outlive his persecution, to com- May 29, 1865. They say: “The people of Arfort his family, honor his country, and adorn the kansas have accepted and performed all the world!

conditions of the surrender and general amIt was referred to the Committee on Federal nesty, and with wonderful unanimity have acRelations.

cepted the results of tho war, and according to On December 10th the following was offered, all law are entitled to all their rights as guaranand referred to the same committee:

teed by the Constitution, and to be restored to Puisolved, by the General Assembly of the State of mitted in good faith, with an earnest desire to

the Union as before the war. They have subArkansie, That to calm the troubled waters of our political atmosphere, we ratify the Constitutional make the United States a common country, to Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, be cherished in our hearts and defended by our as recommended by his excellency Governor Murphy.

“We cannot tell what may be in store The views of the Legislature on various pub- for this State. She and others may be forced to lic questions were expressed in the reports of take this amendment, and even harsher terms; committees, and the debates. On December but as valuable as restoration may be, the peo10th the Committee on Federal Relations in the ple of Arkansas can never agree to purchase it Senate reported the following resolution relative at such a sacrifice of principle, dignity, and to the Constitutional Amendment proposed by self-respect as is demanded in the adoption of Congress:

this proposed amendment. We had better bear Resolned, That the General Assembly of the State

our troubles, trials, and deprivations, and even of Arkansas declines to ratify the amendment, add wrongs, in dignified silence, than commit an ing article fourteen to the Constitution of the United act of disgrace, if not annihilation, such as States, as proposed by joint resolution of Congress. would result from the adoption of this amendThe reasons urged by the committee in sup

ment by the Legislature." port of their recommendation were as follows:

No action was taken by the Legislature rela1. It is not known, nor can it be, to the State of

tive to the passage of this amendment previous Arkansas, that the proposed amendment was ever

to the recess at the close of the year. But acted upon by a Congress of such a character as is a commission, to be sent to Washington, was prorided for by the Constitution, inasmuch as nearly provided for, which was to consist of the Presiine-third of the States were refused representation dent of the Senate and three members of that in the Congress which acted upon this amendment.

2. This proposed amendment was nerer submitted body, seven members of the Ilouse, and three to the President for his sanction, as it should have citizens, not members of the Legislature, to be been, according to the very letter of that Constitution appointed by Governor Murphy. The Governor uader which Congress exists, and which it has sought doclined to appoint. The object of the comto amend.

mission was to confer with the Federal Goy3. The great and enormous power sought to be caferred on Cougress by the amendment, by giving

ernment respecting their mutual relations. This to that body authority to enforce by appropriate commission was in part induced by the assemlegislation the provisions of the first article of said bling in convention at Fort Smith of citizens amendment, would, in effect, take from the States calling themselves “Loyalists,” who addressed ail control over their local and domestic concerns, aad virtually abolish the States.

a memorial to Congress for the removal of the 4. The second section seems, to the committee, an

existing State government, by the passage of effort to force negro suffrage upon the States; and an "enabling act," authorizing them to form a #bether intended or not, it leaves the power to bring new State government. this about, whether the States consent or not; and

On November 23d the following resolution the committee are of the opinion that every State Legature should shrink from ever permitting the

was offered in the House, and passed unanipossibility of such a calamity.

mously. Subsequently it was concurred in by 5. The third section, as an act of disfranchisement the Senate:

De it resolved by the General Assembly of the State ing and effect. It then submitted the following of Arkansas, That a joint committee, to be composed propositions: of the separate Committees on Federal Relations, of the Senate and House of Representatives, is hereby 1. That the Constitution of the United States, and created, with instructions to prepare and report to

all laws made in pursuance thereof, and all treaeach House a memorial to the President and Con- ties, are the supreme law of the land, any thing in gress of the United States, setting forth the true position of the State of Arkansas, and the spirit and trary, notwithstanding.

the constitution or laws of any State to the conwishes of the people thereof, with regard to the res

2. That the people of this State have now, and altoration of the Union in all its parts; and the meas

ways have had, the exclusive right, as a free people, ures which might be most efficient in restoring a

of governing themselves, and of cxercising and enjoycondition of harmony; and the cooperation of all the ing every power, jurisdiction, and right pertaining States in the promotion of the national prosperity in to a State which was and is not delegated to the a manner consistent with the honor and dignity of United States. the citizens of the respective States.

3. That aside from the fact that the end and obThe reasons urged for the adoption of the jeet of all government, especially in the United States, resolution were stated to be a conviction that property, and that, by tacit reservation of the people, the people of the Northern States had been de- the State has, in exercising the powers of governceived by misrepresentations made to them as to

ment by the consent of the people, either in conven.

tion assembled or by ordinary legislation, no power the opinions of the people of the Southern States,

to ruin the one or destroy the other; that the Bill of and the motives wbich dictated their actions: Rights, in every constitution of the State, has de whereas justice to the people of Arkansas and clared, that no man shall be imprisoned or disseized their posterity demanded that the truths of bis- of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or in any way tory should bo known. The present Legislature deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the was the first official body convened for four years that po ce post facto laws, or law, impairing the obliwhich represented all parts of the State. Every gation of contracts, shall'ever be made in this State. shade of political opinion had an opportunity to 4. That the conventions of 1861 and 1864, being represent itself through a free election, and in both conventions of the people, were equal in power the resolution they resolved to appeal to the

and authority. That while the latter had the power

and authority to declare that the entire action of the better judgment of the American people. former was not, from the time of the adoption of

The views of the Legislature respecting the the latter, binding and obligatory, and that all the action of the State in her legislative capacity action of the State, of whatever character, under during the war, and indirectly her relations to the authority of the convention of 1861, was no longer the Union, weré expressed in connection with adoption of the constitution of 1864, saving the ex:

binding, but null and void from the time of the some questions arising out of certain land sales

cepiions therein stated; yet the convention of 1814 by her agents during the war. The question had no power to declare that acts done under said presented was, to what extent the present con- convention of 1861 and its constitution relating to institution of the State repudiates or makes null

ternal government and police regulations in the and void the action of the authorities between

State, and not relating to the powers delegated to

the national Government; never were binding and May 1, 1861, the day on which the State se- obligatory upon the people of this State, but roid ab ceded, and the adoption of the present consti- initio. This character of ex poet facto and retrotution. The Judiciary Committee made a ma

spective ordinances and legislation is beyond even jority and a minority report. The former took

the power of a convention; for if an act be done un

der a law, eren a convention cannot undo it. The the ground that the Legislature itself had ac- past cannot be recalled by the most absolute porrer. knowledged the present constitution as the su- And by maintaining that the convention of 1864 did premo organic law of the State, by assembling

do this, would be, in effect, declaring a hiatus in the in obedience to its commands. This consti

government of the State from 1861 to 1864, during tution declared the entire action of the con

which there was no civil authority whaterer; where

as, it appears not to have been so considered by said vention of 1861 to be null and void, and never convention of 1864, for they recite the object of their binding, nor any action of the State under its convening to be, among other things, to continue authority. But it provided that this declaration ourselves as a free and independent State." should not be so construed as to affect the

5. That the ordinance of secession of the con

vention of 1861, and all other actions of said conven. rights of individuals, change county boundaries,

tion and the State under its authority, in contraren. invalidate the acts of justices of the peace, con- tion of or in conflict with the Constitution, constituveyances, marriages, etc. The words "rights tional laws, and treaties of the United States and the of individuals” were too vague, indefinite, and delegated powers of the General Government were ambiguous to mean any thing specially, and

null and void and inoperative ab initio. This would

be so, aside from any declaration to that effect in the must be regarded as inoperative and void ; there- constitution of 1864. fore, with the exceptions specifically named, all 6. That all parts of the constitution are to be actions of the State done under the authority reconciled with each other and the general subject, of the convention of 1861 must be treated as

and therefore the proviso “that this ordinance shall

not be so construed as to affect the rights of indi. null and void, and this included sales of land.

riduals,” from the public history of the country at The minority report admitted the present the time of its adoption, the manifest object in view constitution to be the supreme organic law of and general purview of the ordinance, was intended the State, and asserted that the same rules of to protect the rights of individuals in all internal interpretation and construction were applica

municipal laws and police regulations of the State,

which were not void ab initio by reason of conflict ble to it as to any other constitution of the with the delegated powers and just authority of the State for the purpose of ascertaining its mean- United States, and which were rendered rule and

void from and after the adoption of said constitu- 188,110 acres of the best and most valuable tion of 1964. And as conclusive that some meaning lands in the State. The remaining sum of was attached to this proviso, and that the convena tion were desirous of preventing a more extended $1,085,822 is a total loss to the State. The enconstruction of this proviso, wbereby the State tire debt, with interest, on December 31, 1866, might become bound to individuals, ihey further was $3,575,121. No measures were adopted prorided, “that no debt or liability of the State of during the year for the liquidation of this debt. Arkansas incurred by the action of said convention It was suggested to the Legislature to issue or of the Legislature, or any department of the gorernment under the authority of either, shall twenty-year bonds, and to provide for their erer be recognized as obligatory." But to give to payment by a sinking-fund. This would put those words the extended meaning of which they an annual burden on the State of $254,000; would be susceptible in other connections, would while her present revenue was estimated at lead to the absurdity contended for by the majority $500,000. The internal resources of the State report, which the minority are of the opinion would be contrary to the manifest intent of said conven- can hardly be exaggerated. Eight rivers, all tion, as gathered from the whole instrument. navigable to a greater or less extent, and with

7. “How legitimate rights can be acquired un. numerous tributaries navigable at certain seader authority declared to be illegal and void,” can be conceived by recurring to the fundamental prin- and contribute to a fertility and diversity of

sons, flow through the State to the Mississippi, ciple that the past cannot be recalled by the most absolute powers; that all the acts of the State, rela- soil unsurpassed. In Northern Arkansas all tire to her internal municipal laws and police regu- the grains, such as wheat, oats, rye, barley, and lations, were valid, and were only rendered invalid,

corn are grown with great success, and the apsaring the exceptions named, from the adoption of said constitution of 1864. Were this not the case, if ple, the pear, the peach, the quince, and the another civil war should arise, persons entertaining grape, and all species of the melon thrive most different views might succeed, and again declare that abundantly. South of, and along the Arkansas the present constitution and all acts done under it River, which cuts the State into two nearly were, and ever had been, null and void. In’accordance with these views, the minority be. these fruits are grown equally as well; and

equal parts from northwest to southeast, all liere that all sales of lands of the United States and of the lands of persons, on account of their al- others of a more tropical nature, as the fig and legiance thereto, were at all times, and are now, by . apricot, are casily produced. Cotton is neverthe Constitution of the United States and the constí. theless the great staple of the State. The uptution of 1864, null and void. No legislation can pro- lands produce from 800 to 1,200 pounds of seed tect the supposed interests of persons in the purchase

cotton of the same; but that the State ought to be bound by

per acre.

On the river bottoms the inher action in selling lands, which, prior to, and on crease is still larger. Timber on the uplands is the 6th of May, 1961, belonged to her, and that suita. abundant and consists of black, white, red, and ble legislation could and ought to be made, to pro. post oaks, hickory, yellow pine, dogwood, and tect the interests of persons interested therein.

maple, while on the margins of the little streams In the Senate, the minority report was sub- are the walnut, beech, elm, and yam. Coal stituted for the majority and adopted-yeas 16, has already been found and surveyed in twelve nars 6.

counties, and in those farthest from the great The election of a Senator to Congress for the coal-basin east of the Mississippi. In other long term, and another for a short term, oc- minerals the State is very rich. casioned by the resignation of William M. Fish- The Governor, in his message to the Legislalack, commenced in each House under the turo, in November, speaks of a proscriptive recent act of Congress on November 20th. party spirit, which had shown itself in portions Neither Ilouse was able to agree upon a Sen- of the State so violent as to threaten an appeal ator, and both met in joint contention on the to arms. No facts were stated, and the press 21th, when John T. Jones was elected for the urged the Legislature to call upon him for more short term. No choice was made for the long specific information, declaring an utter ignoterm. A joint convention was again held on rance of the facts upon which his remarks were the 26th, without success; but on the 27th, based. That body, soon after its organization, Indrew Hunter was chosen, who had been for directed a select committee to consider so the last twenty-five years an itinerant minister much of the message as referred " to the deof the Methodist Church.

velopment of a proscriptive party spirit," and The recommendation of the Governor relative to extend the field of investigation so as to to public schools was promptly responded to by inquire in what manner the freedmen were the Legislature. A bill was introduced provid- treated in the State. The only disturbance dag for the support of these schools by levying known at the time of the elections occurred in a special tax of one-fifth of one per cent. on all Washington County. There an armed party tatable property belonging to white citizens, of about one hundred men interfered and broke ad admitting to the benefit of the schools all up certain of the political appointments of their shite children between the ages of six and eigh- opponents. Between the friends of the measten years. Special officers were to be ap- ures of Congress who were desirous of inauguprinted to adıninister the system.

rating a Territorial Government in the State, The present debt of the State was created and who appear to be few in number, and the atirely on account of the banks, and on Jan- more active of their opponents who sustain the cary 1, 18:50, amounted to $3,182,968. Of this President, a warm political feeling may have sim $2,097,145 is secured by a mortgage upon existed. The commanding officer at Fort Smith, General Edwards, under date of October 7th, This force was the residue of the great army writes: “Union men are just as safe in this of 1,034,064 inen in the national service on May State as anywhere else. We have not our 1, 1865. The work of disbanding the volunteer proportional part of lawlessness in comparison troops remaining in the service was actively with other States. There are but few instances continued during 1866, and at the close of the of violence being committed on political con- year but 11,043 men, white and colored, of this siderations, and where these have occurred the once famous and popular arm were left. The wrongs have been committed as much by one following table, showing the number of volun. party as the other.” Active efforts were made teers in the Army at different periods of the to induce capitalists and laborers to become year, illustrates the process of reduction : citizens of the State, and assurances were given January 9.

.123,356 that persons of all shades of political opinions January 20.

.115,342 were as safe in person and property within the February 15.

81,612 March 10.

66,177 State as they could be anywhere. Measures were

May 1..

47,252 taken to improve and extend the various rail

June 30.

23,394 roads in operation, as conducive to public pros- November 1

11,043 perity; it is believed that in a fewyears the State

Thus, in eighteen months froin the cessation will be traversed by them in every direction. The public sentiment of the State had become and transported to their bones. Seven-cighths

of hostilities, 1,023,021 men were disbanded favorably changed with regard to the freedmen; of this force were discharged previous to Janand measures for their education and general uary 1, 1866, and the whole number could improvement were advocated in the most in- easily have been disposed of within a year of fluential quarters. The passage of laws securing to all the equal protection of person and deemed necessary to retain a considerable force

the termination of the war, had it not been property, was a proposition universally ap- of volunteers in the service pending the reproved." Few, however, could at present be organization of the regular army. So soon as found who would consent to make them full the latter shall be placed upon a permanent citizens of the State, and as such, entitled to an . footing, it is not likely that a single volunteer equality of all rights. It was apprehended that soldier will be found in the Army. the embarrassments arising in the State from a scarcity of labor would tend to increase in sub- Congress, two important bills were introduced,

During the first session of the Thirty-ninth sequent years, in consequence of the rapid dis- regulating the military peace establishment of appearance of the negro.

the United States, one of which originated in ARMINIAN CHURCHES. (See EASTERN the Senate, and the other in the House of CHURCHES.)

Representatives. The former, known as SenARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. By ator Wilson's bill, provided for five regiments a communication from the War Department, in of artillery, six of cavalry, and thirty-seven of response to a resolution adopted by the House infantry; the latter, which was drawn np by of Representatives, it was shown that on Janu- Mr. Schenck, of the House of Representaary 9, 1866, the Army, both regular and volun- tives, differed from the former principally in teer, comprised 152,611 officers and men, organ- making the infantry force comprise fifty regiized and distributed as follows:

ments, of which ten were to be formed from the Veteran Reserve Corps. It also aimed at ap

pointing regimental adjutants, quartermasters, Aggr'te.

and commissaries, and of filling original vacan

cies in the lower grades of officers, from among Troops, volunteer service (white).

2,264 55,326 57,590

those who had been officers or soldiers of the Troops, volunteer service

volunteers; favored promotion by seniority in (colored)

2,393 63,373 65,766 several departments of the Army; and was conTroops, regular service.. 1,124 23,463 20,587 sidered to do injustice to officers of the reguGeneral staff and retired of

lar service. The Senate bill passed the body in ficers, regular 1. General and staff officers,

which it originated early in the session, but volunteer service.... 1,018

1,018 made no further progress, the House adhering 1st battalion Veteran Re

tenaciously to its own bill. As it was feared serve Corps, not attached

that between the rival projects no bill whatto companies...

609 2d battalion Veteran Re

ever would be passed, which under existing cirserve Corps..

12 448

cumstances would have proved detrimental 10 Signal Corps..

74 the interests of the country, Gen. Grant was

induced to send the following communication Total.... 8,057 144,668 152,725

to the Secretary of War, recommending the Deduct officers of the regu

Senate bill, wliich, on May 17th, was laid before lar army in volunteer ser

Congress by the President: vice..


WASHINGTON, D. C., May 16, 1606. } Grand total Army of the

Hon. E, M. Stanton, Secretary of War : U. S., Jan. 9, 1866..

7,943 144,669 | 152,611

Sir: In view of the long delay, in the lower House










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